Introduction To Computer Hardware. Hafijur Rahman

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1 Introduction To Computer Hardware Lecture 2 Hafijur Rahman

2 What is a Computer? A computer is an electronic device, which can input, process, and output data. input processing output A computer is a machine that stores data, interact with devices, and execute programs (provides computing capabilities to its users). A computer is an electronic device that stores, retrieves, and processes data, and can be programmed with instructions. A computer is composed of hardware and software, and can exist in a variety of sizes and configuration.

3 Major Components of a Computer System A computer system consists of two main parts: hardware and software. Hardware is the electronic and mechanical parts of a computer system. Software is the data and the computer programs of a computer system.

4 Computer Hardware Computer hardware is divided into three major Components: 1. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 2. Computer memory 3. Input/Output (I/O) devices Basic hardware components

5 Computer Hardware Main Components of Computer o o o o o o o o CPU Central Processing Unit also called The Chip, a CPU, a processor, or a microprocessor RAM Random Access Memory only Memory Main Board / Motherboard Hard Disk and/or other Storage Devices Power Supply Input/ Output devices Peripheral devices The first Four, plus the bus speed, are essential to the understanding of the performance of the computer.

6 Processing Unit

7 CPU The CPU is the "brain" of the computer system. It does the fundamental computing within the system It directly or indirectly controls all the other components The CPU has a limited storage capacity. It relies on memory to hold data and programs and to save results. The performance indicator of the processor is the frequency of operations(hz). There are various types of processors, by different manufactures. Intel AMD

8 CPU fan on top of processor CPU speeds range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second).

9 Multi-core systems Multi-Core systems (ie Intel Core Duo) connect two CPUs together to the same die on the motherboard. A dual-core processor with two cores at 2GHz may perform very nearly as fast as a single core of 4GHz Intel core i7 Six cores

10 Processing: CPU Cache A temporary storage area for frequently/recently accessed data A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. When the processor needs to read from or write to a location in main memory, it first checks whether a copy of that data is in the cache. If so, the processor immediately reads from or writes to the cache, which is much faster than reading from or writing to main memory. Measured in megabytes (MB) or kilobytes (KB), such as 512 KB

11 Processing: CPU Front Side Bus The connecting path between the processor and other key components such as the memory controller hub. Bus speeds are measured in GHz or MHz. QPI Intel Quick Path Interface Replaces FSB

12 Computer Memory The main function of computer memory is to store software. Computer memory is divided into primary memory and secondary memory. Primary memory is divided into random access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM): RAM holds the programs and data that the processor is actively working with. ROM contains software that is used in Input/Output operations. It also contains software that loads the Operating System in Primary Memory. The CPU can read and write to RAM but it can only read from ROM. RAM isvolatile while ROM is not. Secondary memory is used for long-term storage of programs and data. Examples of secondary memory devices are: hard disks, floppy disks and CD ROMs.

13 Primary Memory UNIT SYMBOL POWER OF 2 Byte 0 2 Kilobyte KB 10 2 Megabyte MB 20 Gigabyte GB 30 Terabyte TB Number of bytes 1 1,024 1,048,576 1,073,741,824 1,099,511,627,776

14 Primary Memory RAM Modules Waiting room for computer s CPU. Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data. Measured in type, size, speed, Size: 1.0 GB + Speed: 600 MHz + Amount of RAM installed will determine. Which software applications will run (efficiently)? How many software applications can be open simultaneously (multitasking ability)?

15 Primary Memory RAM Modules

16 Processing:RAM Types DDR SDRAM (double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM) takes all the features of ordinary SDRAM and increases the frequency bandwidth to improve system performance and speed. DDR2 SDRAM (double-data-rate two synchronous dynamic random access memory) Its primary benefit is the ability to operate the external data bus twice as fast as DDR SDRAM. DDR3 SDRAM (double-data-rate three synchronous dynamic random access memory) much faster than DDR2 RAM.

17 Mainboard / Motherboard

18 Mainboard / Motherboard Switching Mode Power Supply (SMPS)

19 Primary and Secondary Memory Comparison Primary memory Fast Expensive Low capacity Connects directly to the processor Secondary memory Slow Cheap Large capacity Not connected directly to the processor

20 Storage Devices FDD : Floppy disk HDD : Hard disk CD-ROM / CD-RW : Compact disk DVD : Digital Video disk USB Flash disk / pen drive

21 Hard disk This is a Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years, depending on the device. Typically permanently installed. o Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data There are three architectures of disks IDE, PATA, an old system SATA, used in most modern systems o When a computer can use IDE, you see two forty-pin connectors on the motherboard. These are the primary and the secondary IDE channnels. They are usually labelled. To each channel, you can attach two disks. One is called the master. The other is called the slave.

22 Storage Capacities Hard disk Compact disk Digital Video disk Floppy disk USB Flash Disk 80 GB to 2 TB 700 MB 4.7 GB 1.44 MB 1 GB to 128 GB

23 Facts about HDD Data rate Interface types Motor speed Formatting Partitioning Defragmentation MB/sec SATA, IDE rpm FAT, addressing Multiple OS Space utilization

24 Sectors - Tracks - Cylinders

25 Internal Construction of a HDD

26 Internal Construction of a HDD

27 HDD : Platters and Heads

28 Power and Signal Cables

29 Optical Disk Drives Optical storage devices store data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span. DVD CD DRIVE

30 I/O (Input/Output)Devices Input devices are used to enter programs and data into a computer. Examples: keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, webcam, digital pen, bar code reader, etc. Output devices are where program output is shown or is sent. Examples: monitor, printer, and speaker. An I/O device is directly connected to the System, but through a device controller.

31 Input/Output devices

32 Output devices

33 Peripheral Devices

34 Peripheral Devices

35 Processing: Expansion slots and cards An expansion card is a circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a motherboard to add additional functionality for video, audio, or other uses: AGP Slot (for video cards) PCI Slots (misc devices and ports) PCMCIA (for laptops)

36 Processing:Video Cards Generates and outputs images to a display Old Standard = 32 Megabytes New = 256 MB 1GB+ Dedicated Graphics card most powerful Integrated graphics solution uses portions of RAM for graphics

37 Sound card The most important part of sound system of computer is sound card. It is a circuit board that converts sound from analog to digital form and vice versa. It has both input and output function. Fig : How a computer uses a speaker to create sound.

38 THANKS

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