ITP 101 Introduction to Information Technology. Hardware Input / Output

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1 ITP 101 Introduction to Information Technology Hardware Input / Output

2 Overview Hardware Motherboards Processors Memory Secondary Cards Ports Input/Output Traditional vs. Specialized 2

3 Computers and Information Computers are digital binary 8 bits in a byte How do 1s and 0s represent the alphabet? ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange Binary code for microprocessors Uses one byte for representing a single letter Example: = = A Was originally only 7 bits, but was extended to 8 to support foreign languages 3

4 Hardware Traditionally, when we talk about computer hardware, we typically talk about hardware for desktop systems Desktops can be fully customizable Exception: Apple Pre-built computers cost at least $200 more than do-ityourself (DIY) systems Laptops/tablets can be customized up to a certain point Handhelds must be configured by the manufacturer 4

5 Computer Hardware

6 Computer Hardware

7 Inside the Case ( System Unit )

8 Power Supply Inside the Case DVD Drive CPU (w/ fan) Hard Drive RAM (memory) Motherboard

9 Motherboard External Connectors CPU Expansion Slots RAM Internal Connectors

10 Motherboard Nerve Center Holds all of the computer components Central Processing Unit (CPU) The Brain Random Access Memory (RAM) temporary / quick access memory On-board Components video, sound, Ethernet, USB, drive connectors Expansion Slots

11 Motherboard Motherboard companies Tier 1 ASUS, Gigabyte, MSI, ECS Tier 2 Abit, Biostar, Chaintech, Epox, Shuttle, Soyo Tier 3 Anything else Cost $50 - $350 You get what you pay for 12

12 Central Processing Unit (CPU) Intel Core 2 Quad Processor (front) Intel Core 2 Quad Processor (back)

13 Central Processing Unit (CPU) Single chip that performs computations extremely quickly Two parts Control Unit Specifies how to perform instructions sent by the CPU Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) actually performs the math 32-bit and 64-bit CPUs Difference in how much data it can process at once A 32-bit processor has a ceiling of 232, whereas a 64-bit processor has a ceiling of 264 Doesn t seem important to us, but to programmers it is very important All modern CPUs are 64-bit Market is dominated by Intel and AMD Smaller manufacturers: VIA, Motorola, Sony, IBM, TI, and others 14

14 How Many Cores? Dual-core, Quad-core Processors with more than one core can process two different instructions at the same time It is like having more than one CPU on the same chip! Problem: It is harder for the programmer to design the program to take advantage of multiple-cores on a CPU 15

15 Intel Core 2 Quad (X-Ray)

16 Intel Core 2 Quad (X-Ray)

17 Cores and Threads 2 threads per core Example: Making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich Peanut butter thread Jelly thread Assembly thread 18

18 Memory Primary Memory Fast access (nanoseconds) Cache On the CPU 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 MB, depending on the CPU Holds data between the CPU and RAM RAM Random-access memory Workspace area for your computer Volatile Data does not get saved when power is shut off Most modern day systems have at least 1 GB The more the better Secondary Memory Hard disks Slow access (milliseconds) Humongous! Laptops 80 GB+ Desktops up to 1.5 TB! 19

19 More Memory ROM Read-only memory On the motherboard Contains instructions for powering on the system, like POST CMOS Complementary metal oxide semiconductor Contains the information for the motherboard about your system, like what type of CPU, how much memory, what type of hard disks, etc. Typically called setup on desktops Typically accessed by hitting the DEL key Or sometimes F2, F6, ESC, ALT 20

20 Secondary Cards Everything else Graphics cards Dominated by ATI/AMD and NVIDIA Sound Cards Creative and everyone else Communications Network Interface Cards (NICs) Modems All these cards connect to a slot on the motherboard, which connects to a bus line Line that connects the CPU to devices Modern day busses PCI sound cards, RAID, SCSI PCI express video cards USB and Firewire external peripherals SCSI and SATA hard disks 21

21 Power Supply Unit (PSU) Converts power from the wall to something that the components can use If your computer doesn t work, the power supply may have died Rated Watts 22

22 Traditional Input Devices Mouse First mouse was made in 1964 by Douglas Engelbart Block of wood, a couple of gear wheels, and a shiny, candy-like red light/button Made a 3 button one in 1968 Apple's Lisa computer in 1983 had a one button mouse Microsoft introduced a two button mouse in 1983 Wireless Wheel Optical mouse 23

23 Traditional Input Devices Keyboard QWERTY patented in 1874!!! Christopher Sholes Created to make typing slower on a typewriter Typists were trained to use it Economics kept it in place Longest work with left hand stewardesses 24

24 Dvorak Simplified Keyboard Dvorak Simplified Keyboard (DSK) Patented by August Dvorak and Dr. William Dealey in 1936 Designed to minimize movement and making typing easier Most commonly typed keys under the fingers (home row) Uses about 63% of the finger motion required by QWERTY More ergonomic Fastest typist in the world uses Dvorak Row Qwerty Dvorak Top 52% 22% Home 32% 70% Bottom 16% 8% 25

25 Alternative Input Devices Stylus popular for graphic designers and palm users Touch screens public terminals and Apple products Light pens CAD and other engineering applications Joystick games 26

26 Biometric Input Verify identity with personal characteristics Fingerprint Face Recognition Hand Geometry Voice Verification Signature Eye Scan (Iris or Retina) Uses Access highly secure files or areas

27 Biometric Input Fingerprint Scanner Hand Geometry Scanner Iris Scanner Facial Recognition

28 Output Devices Monitors Projectors Speakers

29 Output Devices Ink-Jet Printer Prints by heating liquid ink Cost Printer - $50 - $500 Ink - $20-40 Laser Printer Similar to copy machine Uses powdered ink called toner to print Cost Printer - $100 to $25,000 Toner (ink) - $100

30 Other Printers Multifunction Printers Thermal Printers Dot-Matrix Printer Plotters (Large Format Printers)

31 Careers Computer Technicians Geek squad or Genius bar ~$20/hr Network designers Better computer techs Specialize in large enterprise networks Need certifications (CCNA) ITP 375 Enterprise Network Design ITP 457 Network Security ~$75,000/yr 32

32 Computer Specifications Windows computers windows-desktop-computers-for-everyoccasion/ Apple's imac Apple's MacBook Pro (laptops) 33