Choosing a Micro for an Embedded System Application

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1 Choosing a Micro for an Embedded System Application Dr. Manuel Jiménez DSP Slides: Luis Francisco UPRM - Spring 2010

2 Outline MCU Vs. CPU Vs. DSP Selection Factors Embedded Peripherals Sample Architectures Selection Guides Development Tools Hardware Software

3 Introduction Choosing the right MCU: A Difficult Task Wide Selection of Vendors Large Number of Alternatives CPU Architecture/Programming Embedded peripherals Cost Power Packages Try a Search in the DigiKey on-line Catalog More than 16,000 entries for Microcontroller

4 MCU, MPU, or DSP? Let your application dictate the needs & requirements for the system CPU MCU MCU MPU MPU DSP DSP Embedded Embedded Systems Systems Application Application Requirements Microprocessor Microprocessor Selection Selection Process Process Application Application Processor Processor

5 Classic Microprocessor-based Systems (MPU) Chip/Board Chip/Board Chip/Board Chip/Board Program Memory Data Memory I/O Chip/Board Address Bus MPU Data Bus Glue Logic Control Bus Inter chip level

6 Microcontroller-based Systems (MCU) Single Chip Device Program Memory Data Memory I/O External I/O Lines Address MPU Bus MPU Data Bus Glue Logic Control Bus Intra chip level

7 Embedded Microprocessors Systems Single Chip Device Chip/Board Program Memory Data Memory I/O I/O Lines I/O Peripherals Chip/Board MPU Address Bus Data Bus Control Bus External Bus Peripherals & Memory Intra chip level Inter chip level

8 Embedded DSP / DSC Systems I/O Lines Single Chip Device Chip/Board Program Memory Data Memory DSP Operation s module RAM/ High speed peripherals controllers Analog I/O I/O Lines I/O Peripherals Chip/Board Address Bus MPU Data Bus Control Bus Intra chip level External Bus Peripherals & Memory Inter chip level

9 Critical Indicators System Specs Memory Large DSP Domain MCU Domain Small Processing Speed Fast Yes DSP Math DSP Math I/O Type Slow No Peripheral Required Bus Type MPU Domain DSC Domain

10 Typical MCU Structure

11 Core CPU Architecture Word Width Data resolution Computing power Register Structure How many? Register types Accumulator-based Vs. Register File Vs. Load/Store Stack type and depth Assembly Language Structure CISC Vs. RISC Bus Architecture Harvard Vs. Stanford (Von Neuman) Internal Vs. External

12 Digital Signal Processor Architecture Characteristics MPU designed to perform Digital Signal Processing math operations Multiply and accumulate (MAC) Digital Filters: IIR & IIF FFT MAC instructions in a single cycle Multiple access to memory in a single instruction cycle MAC operations with fixed-point or floatingpoint

13 Embedded DSP vs. DSC DSP High speed processing High speed external peripherals Lots of external memory Image & Video processing, powerful DSP algorithms DSC Low speed processing I/O type peripherals Applications: Consumer electronics applications, motors controls, power electronics controllers, etc.

14 Architectural Considerations for Embedded DSP / DSC (1/2) Speed MAC operations Buses Sampling Internal Modules for DSP Math operations FFT Filters Arithmetical Format and length Fixed-point Floating-point

15 Architectural Considerations for Embedded DSP / DSC (2/2) On-Chip Memory Code Internal RAM Sampling Controllers external RAM On-Chip Peripherals Buses

16 Programmability Programmability Prefer FLASH devices Many erase/reprogram cycles On-board reprogrammable Other types: EEPROM EPROM OTP External Memory FLASH/EEPROM RAM EPROM

17 On-chip MCU Peripherals (1/2) I/O ports Number of I/Os Individually or byte programmable Driving capability Timers Number of Timers Counting bits Prescaler(s) Operating modes: Event/timer Watchdog

18 On-chip MCU Peripherals (2/2) UARTs/USARTs Clocking sources Baud rate generation Data Converters Resolution (No. of bits) Analog Channels Conversion Method Speed Referencing Other PWM Comparators I 2 C, CAN, USB, etc. JTAG, BlueTooth,

19 Other Considerations Physical Packaging Important for prototyping PLCC, QFP, BGA, DIP Supply voltage Compatibility with add-on components Memory Program memory Data memory Application requirements Word width Power Down Modes Power Consumption Sleep/wake-up time

20 Embedded MPU Examples

21 Embedded DSP Example

22 Product Selection Guides Allow choosing specific members within a family

23 Product Selection Guides

24 Hardware Development Tools Availability of Development Kits Most Kits sold for $50 or less Ask for samples or student discount Minimum HW Contents Development Board JTAG debugger or Emulator Power supply Spare chips Cables

25 Software Development Tools Allow for Software Development Programming Debugging Downloading Testing Minimum Support Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Emulator Assembler C-Compiler (Demo)

26 Resources s/doc/app_note/an1057.pdf ch01/c0301cg1.htm

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