Essential Bluetooth It s everywhere you want to be

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1 IEEE OEB Wireless Seminar Fremont, CA - 12/07/02 Essential Bluetooth It s everywhere you want to be Noel Baisa Technical Marketing Manager Device Connectivity Division Noel.Baisa is used under license by National Semiconductor

2 Agenda Applications of Bluetooth Technology How does Bluetooth work? Cost of Implementation Risks of Implementation Benefits of Bluetooth

3 Applications of Bluetooth Technology

4 Bluetooth Applications Internet and bridge Ad Hoc network via access point Home networking Hidden computing Wireless wallet Laptop and PDA to cell phone Headset Digital camera

5 Embedded Bluetooth Bluetooth Handsfree Modules Point of Sale Access Points Security Systems Fitness Equipment Instrument Panels Radio/Navigation User Interface

6 Bluetooth Systems ANSI C source ANSI C source Higher Integration Lower Power & BOM Application Application Profiles (ANSI C) Host Protocol Stack (ANSI C) Lower Integration Higher Power & BOM Standalone Fully Embedded Product Binary VHDL Host Control Firmware (ANSI C) Baseband (VHDL/Verilog) Binary VHDL HCI-based Hosted Product Embedded Bluetooth Hosted Bluetooth

7 Bluetooth Host Customer / 3rd Party Bluetooth System Bluetooth System Solutions User Interface SDP APPLICATION ACCESS PROTOCOLS Control L2CAP HOST CONTROLLER INTERFACE Host Interface HOST CONTROLLER LINK MANAGER BASEBAND CONTROLLER RADIO Analogue Audio VOICE CODEC LMX5250 LMX9814 LMX5100 Hosted (HCI-Based) Bluetooth CP3BT10/13 CP3BT Embedded Bluetooth Processor Embedded Bluetooth Module

8 Telematics System Diagram Standalone Handsfree System WAN PAN TR Sw Radio Radio Link CP3BT Embedded Stack CAN / BT Bridge User Interface CAN UART Interfaces to Bluetooth enabled phone DSP provides full-duplex handsfree operation CAN and UART interfaces provides data interface to entertainment & navigation systems Balun Codec Connectivity Processor DSP

9 Bluetooth Access Point BBclk Data LMX5251 Data Sync CE Reset CP3BT G P I O Address Control G P I O Wireless or Landline Radio S.CLK S.Data S.LEN Modem State Machine implemented in internal processor Baseband DSL LAN V.90 etc. Controller Allows connections to virtually any wireless or landline modem controller

10 Bluetooth Headset Headset Profile, Application & Interface BBclk LMX5251 Data Sync CE Reset CP3BT CVSD or µ/a-law SCK SFS STD SRD C O D E C Preamp Boomer Amp S.CLK S.Data S.LEN Radio Baseband GPIO Vol/Mute Keys

11 How does Bluetooth work?

12 Piconet Master

13 Scatternet Piconet 2 Master Piconet 1 Slave Master /Slave Master Piconet 3

14 Bluetooth in Perspective Bluetooth is: A short range, low power communications scheme A cable replacement A Personal Bubble An ad hoc network Bluetooth is NOT: A full fledged LAN A direct competitor to Landl ine Universal Data/Voice Access Points Personal Ad-hoc Networks Cable Replacement Image source: Intel

15 Bluetooth Frequency Range 2.4 GHz ISM Band United States & Europe Range: MHz Channels: 79 Channel Width: 1 MHz Japan, France & Spain Range: MHz (Japan) MHz (France) MHz (Spain) Channels: 23 Channel Width: 1 MHz

16 Bluetooth is: Overview of Bluetooth Short-range radio technology Class 1 (100 m) +20dBm max to 0 dbm w/ power control Class 2 ( 30 m) + 4 dbm to -6 dbm Class 3 ( 10 m) 0 dbm max Connections without cables Laptops, Cell phones, PDA s, Printers, etc Royalty-free IEEE Standard through (PAN)

17 Bluetooth Data Links kbps Symmetric kbps Master 721 kbps 57.6 kbps Slave Asymmetric - or kbps 721 kbps

18 2.4 GHz ISM Band

19 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) Transmitted signal is spread over a wide range of frequencies (ISM GHz) Transmission hops 8 to 30 times per second Freq. f7 f6 f5 f4 f3 f2 f1 AU 1 AU 2 AU 3 AU 4 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 Time

20 Technology Comparison Specification Strength Weakness Bluetooth 2.4 GHz FHSS, 723 kbit/s meter range Interoperability. Global standard. Volume gives potentially low cost. Immature standard and industry. DECT / DPRS 1.9 GHz, 552 kbit/s meter range Mature technology and silicon. Voice/data inter-working. No world-wide acceptance. HomeRF 2.4 GHz, 1.6 (10) Mbit/s meter range Potentially low cost. Voice/data inter-working. Only few silicon platforms. Weak support in the industry. IEEE b 2.4GHz DSSS, 11 Mbit/s meter range Good data rates. Gets more and more acceptance. High cost. Sensitive to interference. No voice support. IEEE a HyperLan2 5 GHz, 54 Mbit/s, meter range High data rates. Voice / video. High cost, high power consumption. Immature silicon.

21 Wireless Technologies

22 PANs, LANs and Bluetooth

23 Data Rate vs. Range

24 Payload Format SCO Packet (HV1, HV2, HV3) Access Code Packet Header Voice Data ACL Packet (DM1, DH1, DM3, DH3, DM5, DH5) / (0 339 bytes) 16 Packet Payload Access Code Data CRC Header Header L_CH Length L_CH Length 4 Undefined FLOW FLOW L_CH 01 Continuation of L2CAP message 10 Start of L2CAP message or no fragmentation 11 Link Manager Protocol (LMP) message

25 Fully Embedded Bluetooth User Interface Voice Intercom Headset Cordless Group Call Telephony Control Protocol vcard vcal vnote OBEX vmessage Dial-up Networking RFCOMM (Serial Port) Fax Service Discovery Protocol L2CAP Host Control Interface Link Manager Link Controller Baseband RF Silicon Bluetooth Stack Applications

26 Cost of Implementation

27 Wireless Technology Tradeoffs Long Range DECT/DPRS Fantastic Performance but Costs a Fortune Great Range & Cost but Too Slow a High Rate Great Rate & Cost but May as Well Use a Wire! HomeRF b Low Cost

28 USB Dongle Example T/R LNA PA (Optional) BPF BPF Τ Bluetooth Radio Radio LPF VCO LPF Rx Tx Bluetooth Link Link Controller LMC Controller LMC & HCI HCI Firmware Bluetooth Link Link Manager HCI

29 Embedding Bluetooth Applications Voice Intercom Headset Cordless Group Call Telephony Control Protocol vcard User Interface vcal vnote OBEX vmessage Dial-up Networking RFCOMM (Serial Port) Fax Service Discovery Protocol Far more than just Bluetooth Functions Bluetooth Stack Silicon L2CAP Link Manager Link Controller Baseband RF Integrates application functions utilizing microcontroller core and onchip µc peripherals Bluetooth functionality through defined API Little Bluetooth expertise necessary Eliminates separate host / system controller Reduces Cost

30 Bluetooth Success LMX5250 CR16 LMX5250 CP3BTxx Bluetooth Solution Bluetooth Product National Semiconductor Module Partners ODM/EMS Partners OEM Customers Embedded Stack & Profiles CP3BTyy Hosted Stack & Profiles F/W & Profile Partners Product Application Success in the Bluetooth chain has different meanings based on your viewpoint Consumers Guarantee Ease of use for Transparent Functionality OEMs Provide End to End Solution through Bundling of Products ODMs Create New Products from Qualified Reference Designs Stack Providers Supply Memory Efficient, Well-documented Qualified Stack, Profiles and Examples

31 Risk of Implementation

32 Frequency Parameters Bluetooth HomeRF Upbanded DECT Band GHz GHz GHz Channel Spacing MHz MHz MHz Accuracy ± 75 khz ± 120 khz ± 50 khz Lock time (est) 220 µsec 134 µsec 30 µsec Modulation Deviation 2.4 GHz ISM FHSS Frequency & Modulation Specifications ( usec w/1 Blind slot) Drift ± 40 khz/ 5 slots NA ± 40kHz/msec Type GFSK 2-FSK (4-FSK) GFSK Min ± 140 khz ± 85 khz ± 135 khz Max ± 175 khz ± khz ± 190 khz ± 200 khz nom. (± 250 khz nom) Burst Bit Rate 1 Mbits/s 1 Mbit/s 2Mbit/s 1.152Mbits/s (1.0Mbits/s) Accuracy +/- 20ppm +/- 50 ppm +/- 9 ppm N/A

33 2.4 GHz ISM Band Traffic 2.4 GHz (ISM band) is an unregulated band The ISM band carries a lot of traffic: WDCT, HomeRF, IEEE802.11b, Microwave ovens, other communication systems, etc. 5GHz Band 6GHz 5GHz 4GHz 3GHz 2.4GHz ISM Band DECT 2GHz Frequency GSM 1GHz Time

34 BT Interference Challenge FHSS based standards Bluetooth 2.4GHz HomeRF DSSS based standards IEEE b Frequency Time Microwave ovens

35 Benefits

36 Benefits of Interoperability Laptop WWAN Home PC Laptop WebPAD Internet Cordless Base Stations Handsets WLAN Cell STB Personal Gateway DSL Modem Peripherals Headset Keyboard WPAN PDA Handheld Digicam Web Cam PDA AV/TV Cell PDA

37 Appendix

38 Acronyms ACL CRC CVSD FEC HCI LC LM L2CAP PCM RFCOMM SCO SDP UART USB Asynchronous Connection-Less (link) Cyclic Redundancy Check Continuous Variable Slope Delta modulation Forward Error Correction Host Controller Interface Link Controller Link Manager Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol Pulse Code Modulation Protocol used for serial port emulation Synchronous Connection-Oriented (link) Service Discovery Protocol Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter Universal Serial Bus

39 39

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