3.1. Introduction to WLAN IEEE

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1 3.1. Introduction to WLAN IEEE WCOM, WLAN, 1 References [1] J. Schiller, Mobile Communications, 2nd Ed., Pearson, [2] Martin Sauter, "From GSM to LTE", chapter 6, Wiley, [3] wiki to WLAN: [4] wiki, [5] List of WLAN channels: [6] OFDM Overview:

2 Wireless LAN IEEE WCOM, WLAN, ODIN-W1 from ublox Host-based multiradio module series with Wi-Fi a/b/g/n (and Bluetooth v4.0 Dual Mode) CC3200 from Texas Instruments SimpleLink Wi-Fi and Internetof-Things-Solution, a Single-Chip Wireless MCU e.g. integrated into a coffee machine

3 Introduction WCOM, WLAN, 3 IEEE standard is the most famous WLAN standard belongs to the 802.x LAN standards specifies PHY and MAC layer adapted to special requirements of wireless LANs standardization is ongoing, some examples b: 1999, 2.4 GHz, 22 MHz, 11 Mbps a: 1999, 5 GHz, 20 MHz, 54 Mbps, OFDM g: 2003, 2.4 GHz, 20 MHz, 54 Mbps, OFDM n: 2009, 2.4/5 GHz, 20/40 MHz, 600 Mbps, OFDM, MIMO ac: 2013, 5 GHz, 80/160 MHz, >1 Gbps, OFDM, MIMO ad: 2016, 60 GHz, 1760 MHz, <7 Gbps, OFDM, MIMO ah: 2016, 868/900 MHz, 1-16 MHz, >0.65 Mbps, longer distance, IoT p: vehicle2vehicle and vehicle2roadside

4 System Architecture [2], chapter WCOM, WLAN, 4 STA1 station 1 AP and some STAs in the same radio coverage form a BSS. AP periodically broadcasts the SSID in beacon frames. Radio range is m. Access Point BSS1 basic service set ESS extended service set Distribution System BSS2 Portal 802.X LAN Internet The Distribution System connects several BSS to form a single network (ESS) with extended coverage.

5 System Architecture [2], chapter WCOM, WLAN, 5 Conditions for problem-free intra-ess roaming the APs must belong to the same IP-subnet size of an ESS is limited (e.g. to the size of a building) all AP have the same BSS-ID (SSID) APs transmit on different frequencies the APs of an ESS should come from the same supplier IEEE has not specified the distribution system yet (cf. IEEE f), but specified distribution system services. overlapping radio coverage of the APs AP AP AP AP frequency gap of at least 5x5 = 25 MHz! channel 6 channel 11 channel 1 channel 6

6 System Architecture [2], chapter WCOM, WLAN, 6 independent BSS STAs have to agree on some parameters: SSID, channel, key, IP addresses ad-hoc mode is not used often because of «complex» configuration no routing no relay! STA5 can communicate directly with STA4, but not with STA3

7 Protocol Architecture WCOM, WLAN, 7 IEEE fits seamlessly into other 802.x standards for wired LANs [1], Figure 7.5, p. 210 bridge Application should not notice anything WLAN behaves like a «slow» wired LAN

8 IEEE Standards [2], chapter 6.2 WCOM, WLAN, 8 5 / (6-600 Mbps) MIMO, OFDM OFDM OFDM CCK DPSK/DQPSK DSSS

9 Management Operations [2], chapter 6.4 WCOM, WLAN, 9 Scanning and Beacon Frames AP periodically broadcasts (e.g. every 100 ms) beacon frames with SSID, capability information, supported data rates, STAs perform passive scanning or active scanning with probe requests Authentication and Association or Shared Key Authentication with challenge-response-procedure open or WEP protected or better, WPA / WPA2 protected

10 Management Operations [2], chapter 6.4 WCOM, WLAN, 10 Reassociation and Roaming in an ESS STA can change AP (mobility or better radio reception)

11 Management Operations [2], chapter 6.4 WCOM, WLAN, 11 Power Saving (PS) Mode AP stores frames and broadcasts Traffic Indication Map (TIM) STAs listen periodically (e.g. every 300 ms) to TIM in beacon frames and sends PS-Poll frames to get data frames

12 MAC Coordination Functions WCOM, WLAN, 12 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) mandatory, for asynchronous data service packet exchange on best effort (no delay bounds can be given) based on a version of CSMA/CA SIFS PIFS DIFS short interframe space (highest priority for ACK, CTS, ) PCF interframe space (medium priority) DCF interframe space (lowest priority for asynchronous data) Point Coordination Function (PCF) optional, for time-bounded services, contention free polling method

13 MAC - CSMA WCOM, WLAN, 13 Carrier Sense Multiple Access = 20 us

14 MAC CSMA [2], chapter WCOM, WLAN, 14 Carrier Sense Multiple Access on the air interface (physical carrier sensing, via RSSI) RSSI: Received Signal Strength Indicator on the MAC-layer (virtual carrier sensing, via NAV-timer) NAV: Network Allocation Vector (virtual reservation scheme) Collision Avoidance (CA) with random backoff-procedure b and g first Tx attempt: random slot <= CWmin = 31 slots further Tx attempts: random slot <= 63, 127, CWmax CWmax = 1023 slots (20 ms), then the frame is discarded n CWmin = 15 slots (0.3 ms)

15 MAC - CSMA WCOM, WLAN, 15 Packet data transmission without RTS/CTS Source DIFS Data SIFS Destination ACK Other NAV DIFS CW defer access backoff after defer DIFS DCF Interframe Space SIFS Short Interframe Space NAV Network Allocation Vector CW Contention Window

16 MAC - CSMA WCOM, WLAN, 16 Packet data transmission with RTS/CTS (optional) CA for long packets avoiding the hidden terminal problem DIFS SIFS Source RTS SIFS Data SIFS Destination CTS ACK DIFS Other NAV (RTS) NAV (CTS) CW NAV (Data) defer access backoff started RTS CTS Request To Send Clear To Send

17 MAC HCF (IEEE e) [2], chapter 6.8 WCOM, WLAN, 17 Hybrid Coordination Function (HCF) DCF (QoS) extension in IEEE e WiFi Multi-Media (WMM specification) different CWmin and CWmax for 4 different QoS-classes

18 MAC frames WCOM, WLAN, 18 IP frames do not usually exceed 1500 bytes [1] user data, management or control frame Interpretation of 48 bit MAC addresses SA: Source Address, DA: Destination Address

19 IEEE b Frame Structure WCOM, WLAN, 19 IEEE b PHY packet formats, please cf. [1], Figure 7.22, p. 232

20 only ETSI/Japan PHY Operating Channels for WCOM, WLAN, 20 P max = 100 mw (20 dbm) ETSI for b/g at least 5 channels spacing bandwidth b (bandwidth g = MHz)

21 PHY Operating Channels for WCOM, WLAN, 21 [5] US (FCC) US (FCC) channels channels US (FCC)

22 PHY Operating Channels for WCOM, WLAN, 22 EU / USA EU USA [4] ETSI / EU DFS: Dynamic Frequency Selection, TPC: Transmitter Power Control

23 PHY b WCOM, WLAN, 23 ** * * *** * symbol spread with 11 Chip Barker Code (DSSS) ** header always with 1 Mbps *** 11 Mbit/s can only be achieved over short distances of a few meters

24 PHY b WCOM, WLAN, 24 Energy Spread Sequence by spreading with 11 Mchip/s (robustness) b channel bandwidth 22 MHz

25 PHY g WCOM, WLAN, 25 Extended-Rate PHY (ERP) OFDM with 52 subchannels (4 pilot channels and 48 data channels) symbol rate = 250 ksps (symbol period = 4us) total bandwidth MHz (same channel use as b) Data Rates = 48 channel 6 bit / channel 3/4 (conv. code rate) / 4 us (symbol time)

26 PHY g WCOM, WLAN, a and g have the same PHY-parameters = f s = (52+1) khz Symbol Interval Time T SYM = 4 µs (= T GI + T FFT ) Guard Interval T GI = 0.8 µs FFT Period T FFT = 3.2 µs (= 1 / khz) [6]

27 PHY g WCOM, WLAN, 27 Backward compatible with b protection measures CTS before packet transmission to set NAV-timer of b terminal PHY header with 1 Mbps 40% performance loss G-only option to avoid b/g interworking overhead Speed Comparison g (optimal condition): 20 Mbps (terminal-terminal 10 Mbps) b (optimal condition): 5 Mb/s (terminal-terminal 2.5 Mbps) a PHY almost identical with g, but allocated in 5 GHz band but no backward compatibility required (higher throughput)

28 PHY n WCOM, WLAN, 28 High Throughput (HT) PHY 40 MHz channels frame aggregation 400 ns instead of 800 ns OFDM guard interval 5/6 FEC (convolutional coding) MIMO OFDM-Parameters

29 PHY n WCOM, WLAN, 29 Frame Aggregation 1 ACK for many packets 2x2 MIMO

30 PHY n WCOM, WLAN, 30 Data Rate Comparison

31 Interesting WiFi- / IoT-solution WCOM, WLAN, 31 Station- or Access-Point-mode b/g/n WLAN / Internet wireless access via browser

32 Interesting WiFi- / IoT-solution WCOM, WLAN, 32 some more CC3200- (RF-) Parameters Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Chip TX Power: DSSS, OFDM RX Sensitivity: DSSS, OFDM Application Throughput: UDP: 16 Mbps, TCP: 13 Mbps RX-current (MCU Active): OFDM TX-current (MCU Active): OFDM, Maximum Power 0.5-mm Pitch, 64-Pin, 9-mm 9-mm QFN Ambient Temperature Range: 40 C to 85 C

33 Some Scanners, Protocol Analyzers, WCOM, WLAN, 33 inssider wireshark Matlab WLAN System Toolbox to simulate, analyze, and test the PHY of WLAN

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