5.7 WRAN: IEEE (1)

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1 5.7 WRAN: IEEE (1) Wireless Regional Area Network long range up to 100 km Standard published in 2011 Enabling Rural Broadband Wireless Access Using Cognitive Radio Technology in TV Whitespaces Use of VHF/UHF TV bands between 54 and 862 MHz TV channels can have delays of up to 60 microseconds No use of MIMO (large size of antennas) Time Division Duplexing Expected peak data rate per channel: approx. 22 Mbit/s MAC layer: constant-length 160ms frames, divided into 10ms subframes to serve individual stations WG documents -1-

2 WRAN: IEEE (2) Cognitive radio Scan all frequency channels Identify transmission opportunities Check against a policy database if and which transmission parameters (e.g. frequency channel, transmit power, channel bandwidth) should be changed Self-coexistence Geolocation: enhance GPS accuracy No additional hardware required, just special evaluation of signals Security sublayer Non-cognitive: secure the data Cognitive: secure the spectrum access Sources: IEEE /0106r0 IEEE /0073r03-2-

3 Chapter 6 Bluetooth (IEEE ) 6.1 Overview on standards series 6.2 Idea 6.3 History 6.4 Characteristics Klicken Sie, umanddas Format 6.5 Architecture Protocol Stack des 6.6 Physical layer Untertitel-Masters zu 6.7 Data link layer bearbeiten. 6.8 Security 6.9 Bluetooth versions

4 6.1 WPAN: IEEE overview (1) : WPANs PHY and MAC of Bluetooth (computers, mobile phones, peripherals) : Coexistence Coexistence of Wireless Personal Area Networks (802.15) and Wireless Local Area Networks (802.11), quantify the mutual interference : High-Rate WPANs Standard for high-rate (20Mbit/s or greater) WPANs, while still lowpower/low-cost Data Rates: 11, 22, 33, 44, 55 Mbit/s Quality of Service isochronous protocol Ad hoc peer-to-peer networking Security Designed to meet the demanding requirements of portable consumer imaging and multimedia applications -4-

5 WPAN: IEEE overview (2) c: Ultra High-Rate (> 1 Gbit/s) on millimeter waves (60 GHz) : Low-rate WPANs MAC and PHY of ZigBee Low rate, low power Sensor networks, automation -5-

6 6.2 Bluetooth: Idea Universal radio interface for ad-hoc wireless connectivity Interconnecting computer and peripherals, handheld devices, PDAs, cell phones replacement of IrDA Embedded in other devices, goal: 5 /device (USB dongle: around 10 ) Short range (10 m), low power consumption, license-free 2.45 GHz ISM Voice and data transmission, approx. 1 Mbit/s gross data rate One of the first modules (Ericsson) -6-

7 6.3 Bluetooth: History History 1994: Ericsson (Mattison/Haartsen), MC-link project Renaming of the project: Bluetooth according to Harald Blåtand Gormsen [son of Gorm], King of Denmark in the 10th century 1998: foundation of Bluetooth SIG, (was: ) 1999: erection of a rune stone at Ercisson/Lund ;-) 2001: first consumer products for mass market, spec. version 1.1 released Special Interest Group Original founding members: Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia, Toshiba Added promoters: 3Com, Agere (was: Lucent), Microsoft, Motorola > 2500 members Common specification and certification of products -7-

8 History and hi-tech 1999: Ericsson mobile communications AB reste denna sten till minne av Harald Blåtand, som fick ge sitt namn åt en ny teknologi för trådlös, mobil kommunikation. -8-

9 and the real rune stone Located in Jelling, Denmark, erected by King Harald Blåtand in memory of his parents. The stone has three sides one side showing a picture of Christ. Inscription: Harald king executes these sepulchral monuments after Gorm, his father and Thyra, his mother. The Harald who won the whole of Denmark and Norway and turned the Danes to Christianity. Btw: Blåtand means of dark complexion (not having a blue tooth ) -9- This could be the original colors of the stone. Inscription: auk tani karthi kristna (and made the Danes Christians)

10 6.4 Characteristics 2.4 GHz ISM band, 79 (23) RF channels, 1 MHz carrier spacing Channel 0: 2402 MHz channel 78: 2480 MHz G-FSK modulation, mw transmit power FHSS and TDD Frequency hopping with 1600 hops/s Hopping sequence in a pseudo random fashion, determined by a master Time division duplex for send/receive separation Voice link SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) FEC (forward error correction), no retransmission, 64 kbit/s duplex, pointto-point, circuit switched Data link ACL (Asynchronous Connection Less) Asynchronous, fast acknowledge, point-to-multipoint, up to kbit/s symmetric or 723.2/57.6 kbit/s asymmetric, packet switched Topology Overlapping piconets (stars) forming a scatternet

11 6.5 Architecture: Piconet Collection of devices connected in an ad-hoc fashion One unit acts as master and the others as slaves for the lifetime of the piconet Master determines hopping pattern, slaves have to synchronize Each piconet has a unique hopping pattern Participation in a piconet = synchronization to hopping sequence Each piconet has one master and up to 7 simultaneous slaves (> 200 could be parked) P S S M P SB S P M=Master S=Slave SB P=Parked SB=Standby

12 Architecture: Forming a piconet All devices in a piconet hop together Master gives slaves its clock and device ID Hopping pattern: determined by device ID (48 bit, unique worldwide) Phase in hopping pattern determined by clock Addressing Active Member Address (AMA, 3 bit) Parked Member Address (PMA, 8 bit) SB SB S 5 S SB 9 2 SB SB 5 5 M 5 SB 9 P 5 SB 2 SB 5 8 SB SB 11 Parked: No AMA, but still synchronised to master P 5 5 P S SB 11

13 Archiceture: Scatternet Linking of multiple co-located piconets through the sharing of common master or slave devices Devices can be slave in one piconet and master of another Communication between piconets Devices jumping back and forth between the piconets P S S S M SB M=Master S=Slave P=Parked SB=Standby P P M Piconets (each with a capacity of < 1 Mbit/s) S P SB S

14 Protocol Stack (1) audio apps. NW apps. vcal/vcard TCP/UDP OBEX AT modem commands IP BNEP Audio telephony apps. TCS BIN mgmnt. apps. SDP Control PPP RFCOMM (serial line interface) Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) Link Manager Host Controller Interface Baseband Radio AT: attention sequence OBEX: object exchange TCS BIN: telephony control protocol specification binary BNEP: Bluetooth network encapsulation protocol SDP: service discovery protocol RFCOMM: radio frequency comm.

15 Protocol Stack (2) Planned simple, realised with >2000 pages of specifications Core specification and profile specification Core specification: Radio interface Baseband Link Manager Protocol (LMP) Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol L2CAP Service Discovery protocol, SDP

16 6.6 Physical Layer - Radio Interface 10 page standardisation, specifying carrier frequency and transmit power Constraints for BT Radio Interface Optimised for low power consumption, size, weight and low price World-wide usage Multimedia communication at least data&voice Characteristics: ISM Band, GFSK modulation with FH/TDD 79 (some countries: 23) carriers with 1 MHz spacing 625 µs slots power classes: Max. 100 mw, min. 1 mw, m range Max. 2.5 mw, typ. 1mW, min mw, 10 m distance (most devices are of class 2) max. 1 mw

17 Baseband Controls frequency hopping Medium Access Control Definition of physical links and packet formats Each device connected to a piconet follows FH sequence As soon as Master sends data on fk, slave can answer on fk

18 Frequency selection during data transmission 625 µs fk M fk+1 fk+2 S M fk+3 S fk+4 M fk+ 5 S fk+6 M t fk fk+3 M S fk+4 M fk+5 S fk+6 M t fk fk+1 M S fk+6 M t

19 BT Packet in Baseband Piconet/channel definition Low-level packet definition Access code Channel, device access, e.g., derived from master Packet header 1/3-FEC, active member address (broadcast + 7 slaves), link type, alternating bit ARQ/SEQ, checksum 68(72) access code 4 preamble 64 sync. (4) (trailer) packet header 3 AM address type bits payload 1 flow 1 ARQN 1 8 SEQN HEC bits

20 Link types: SCO Synchronous Connection Oriented Between 1 Master 1 Slave 1 Master can maintain 3 SCO to same Slave or 2 SCO to 2 Slaves (1 each) 1 Slave can maintain 3 SCO to same Master or 2 SCO to 2 Masters (1 each) SCO link maintained by Master using reserved time slots at regular intervals; always two consecutive slots reserved (1UL, 1DL) 3 different packets types can be sent via SCO links Max data rate 64 kbit/s per SCO link Error Correction: no, FEC 2/3, 1/3 SCO packets are not retransmitted

21 SCO payload types payload (30) HV1 audio (10) HV2 FEC (20) audio (20) HV3 DV FEC (10) audio (30) audio (10) header (1) payload (0-9) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) (bytes)

22 Links: ACL Asynchronous Connection-less ACL primarily used for data Point-to-multipoint link: between master and all slaves of picocell In slots not reserved for SCO, master can establish an ACL link on a per-slot basis to any slave Slave is only allowed to transmit if polled in slot before Only one single ACL link can exist between a master and a slave 1, 3 or 5 slot packets Error protection 2/3 is possible ARQ, packet retransmission is applied to ensure data integrity

23 ACL Payload types payload (0-343) header (1/2) DM1 header (1) DH1 header (1) DM3 header (2) DH3 header (2) DM5 header (2) DH5 header (2) AUX1 header (1) payload (0-339) payload (0-17) 2/3 FEC payload (0-27) payload (0-121) CRC (2) CRC (2) CRC (2) 2/3 FEC payload (0-183) payload (0-224) payload (0-339) (bytes) CRC (2) CRC (2) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) CRC (2) payload (0-29)

24 Baseband data rates ACL 1 slot 3 slots 5 slots SCO Type Payload User Header Payload [byte] [byte] FEC CRC Symmetric Asymmetric max. Rate max. Rate [kbit/s] [kbit/s] Forward Reverse DM /3 yes DH no yes DM /3 yes DH no yes DM /3 yes DH no yes AUX no no HV1 na 10 1/3 no 64.0 HV2 na 20 2/3 no 64.0 HV3 na 30 no no 64.0 DV 1D 10+(0-9) D 2/3 D yes D D Data Medium/High rate, High-quality Voice, Data and Voice

25 Baseband link types Polling-based TDD packet transmission 625µs slots, master polls slaves SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) Voice Periodic single slot packet assignment, 64 kbit/s full-duplex, point-to-point ACL (Asynchronous ConnectionLess) Data Variable packet size (1,3,5 slots), asymmetric bandwidth, point-to-multipoint Master Slave 1 Slave 2 SCO f0 ACL SCO f6 f4 f1 ACL f8 f7 SCO ACL f14 f12 f9 SCO ACL f18 f20 f13 f19 f17 f f21

26 Robustness Slow frequency hopping with hopping patterns determined by a master Protection from interference on certain frequencies Separation from other piconets (FH-CDMA) Retransmission ACL only, very fast Error in payload (not header!) Forward Error Correction SCO and ACL MASTER SLAVE 1 A NAK C B C D SLAVE 2 F H E G ACK G

27 Link Manager Protocol (1) Link Manager Protocol (LMP) extends functionality of BB but higher layers can also access BB directly (see protocol stack) Authentication, Pairing, Encryption Authentication in BB, but generation of random numbers and signed answers in LMP Pairing required to establish trust between two devices never connected to each other before Result of pairing is link key LMP sets encryption mode Synchronisation Precise synchronisation required Clock is adjusted after reception of each data packet Negotiation of Capabilities Multi-slot, encryption, SCO, voice etc

28 Link Manager Protocol (2) Negotiation of QoS Polling interval, error correction, number of time slots for answers Power Control BT device can measure received power and can advise sender to increase or decrease power Link control LMP controls activities of link, e.g. can initiate new SCO or signal link abort Change of State and transmission mode Master/Slave, connect/disconnect, park, standby etc

29 Baseband States of a Bluetooth Device standby detach unconnected inquiry page transmit AMA park PMA hold AMA Standby: do nothing Inquire: search for other devices Page: connect to a specific device Connected: participate in a piconet connecting connected AMA active sniff AMA low power Park: release AMA, get PMA Sniff: listen periodically, not each slot Hold: stop ACL, SCO still possible, possibly participate in another piconet

30 Example: Power consumption/csr BlueCore2 Typical Average Current Consumption (1) VDD=1.8V Temperature = 20 C Mode SCO connection HV3 (1s interval Sniff Mode) (Slave) SCO connection HV3 (1s interval Sniff Mode) (Master) SCO connection HV1 (Slave) SCO connection HV1 (Master) ACL data transfer 115.2kbps UART (Master) ACL data transfer 720kbps USB (Slave) ACL data transfer 720kbps USB (Master) ACL connection, Sniff Mode 40ms interval, 38.4kbps UART ACL connection, Sniff Mode 1.28s interval, 38.4kbps UART Parked Slave, 1.28s beacon interval, 38.4kbps UART Standby Mode (Connected to host, no RF activity) Deep Sleep Mode(2) Notes: (1) Current consumption is the sum of both BC212015A and the flash. (2) Current consumption is for the BC212015A device only. More: ma 26.0 ma 53.0 ma 53.0 ma 15.5 ma 53.0 ma 53.0 ma 4.0 ma 0.5 ma 0.6 ma 47.0 µa 20.0 µa

31 Example: Bluetooth/USB adapter (2002: 70 US$)

32 6.7 L2CAP - Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol Simple data link protocol on top of baseband Provides logical channels with QoS support between BT devices Connectionless: unidirectional, typically for broadcast from master to slaves Connection oriented: each channel is bidirectional, supports QoS in both directions. QoS acc. to RFC 1363: defines average data rate, peak data rate, max burst size, max. delay and max jitter Signaling: signaling messages between two L2CAP instances Each channel can have unique Channel Identifier (CID) Signaling channels always CID 1 Connectionless channels always CID2 Connection-oriented channels >

33 L2CAP packet formats Connectionless PDU 2 2 length CID= payload PSM Connection-oriented PDU 2 2 length CID bytes payload Signalling command PDU 2 2 length CID=1 bytes bytes One or more commands 1 code 1 ID length 0 data

34 L2CAP Further Functions Protocol multiplexing RFCOMM, SDP, telephony control Segmentation & reassembly Needs to align packet size to base band capability Up to 64kbyte user data, 16 bit CRC used from baseband QoS flow specification per channel Follows RFC 1363, specifies delay, jitter, bursts, bandwidth Group abstraction Create/close group, add/remove member

35 Security (1) Need for security: Personal Area Network (PAN) contains personal information Authentication and encryption on MAC layer part of BT from the beginning Major mechanism: Challenge-response for authentication Encryption of data Session keys For each connection no, one or two way authentication can be requested Algorithms use public ID of device, secret private key and internal random number; for each transaction a new random number is generated in BT chip All algorithms on single BT chip, limited complexity

36 Security (2) Pairing: Devices never communicated with each other need to establish trust User types in secret key (PIN) with length up to 16 byte. Often only 4 digits or even fixed to 0000 Based on PIN, device address and random numbers several keys are calculated: link key for authentication of the connection (typically stored in persistent memory) authentication: challenge/response based on link key and random number encryption: based on link key, parameters from authentication and randmon number encryption key is generated (max. 128 bit); can be new for each transmission ciphering: based on encryption key, device ID and time a payload key is generated for ciphering

37 Security (3) PIN (1-16 byte) User input (initialization) Pairing PIN (1-16 byte) E2 Authentication key generation (possibly permanent storage) E2 link key (128 bit) Authentication link key (128 bit) E3 Encryption key generation (temporary storage) E3 encryption key (128 bit) Encryption encryption key (128 bit) Keystream generator Keystream generator Ciphering payload key payload key Cipher data Data Data

38 SDP Service Discovery Protocol Inquiry/response protocol for discovering services Searching for and browsing services in radio proximity Adapted to the highly dynamic environment Defines discovery only, not the usage of services Caching of discovered services Gradual discovery All devices offering services need SDP services, others need SDP client only Service record format Information about services provided by attributes Attributes are composed of an 16 bit ID (name) and a value values may be derived from 128 bit Universally Unique Identifiers (UUID)

39 Additional protocols to support legacy protocols/apps. RFCOMM Emulation of a serial port (supports a large base of legacy applications) Allows multiple ports over a single physical channel Telephony Control Protocol Specification (TCS) Call control (setup, release) Group management OBEX Exchange of objects, IrDA replacement WAP Interacting with applications on cellular phones

40 Profiles Applications Represent default solutions for a certain usage model Vertical slice through the protocol stack Basis for interoperability Generic Access Profile Service Discovery Application Profile Cordless Telephony Profile Intercom Profile Serial Port Profile Additional Profiles Headset Profile Advanced Audio Distribution Dial-up Networking Profile PAN Fax Profile Audio Video Remote Control LAN Access Profile Basic Printing Generic Object Exchange Profile Basic Imaging Extended Service Discovery Object Push Profile Generic Audio Video Distribution File Transfer Profile Hands Free Synchronization Profile Hardcopy Cable Replacement Protocols Profiles

41 Bluetooth Versions versions: Bluetooth Bluetooth 1.0 and 1.0B Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had numerous problems Bluetooth 1.1 Fix of many 1.0B specifications errors Added non-encrypted channels. Bluetooth 1.2 backwards compatible with 1.1 major enhancements: Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH), which improves resistance to radio interference by avoiding using crowded frequencies in the hopping sequence Higher transmission speeds in practice extended Synchronous Connections (esco), which improves voice quality of audio links by allowing retransmissions of corrupted packets. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) Host Controller Interface (HCI) support for 3-wire UART HCI access to timing information for Bluetooth applications

42 Bluetooth versions: 2.0 Bluetooth 2.0 backwards compatible with 1.x. Main enhancement: Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) with 2.1 Mbit/s (net), 3Mbit/s gross π/4-dqpsk for 2 MBit/s 8-DPSK for gross 3 MBit/s Lower power consumption through reduced duty cycle. Simplification of multi-link scenarios due to more available bandwidth. Further improved BER (Bit Error Rate) performance. Less time for pairing Support of AV profile

43 Bluetooth versions: 2.1 Bluetooth 2.1 Better filtering when enquiring devices: search for devices which support particular features Backwards compatible with 1.x Enhanced encryption key change without interrupting connection Improved pairing usability and security Less power consumption in sniffing mode extend battery lifetime up to factor

44 Bluetooth versions: 3.0+ Bluetooth 3.0 High speed alternate channel using WLAN MAC/PHY if large amounts of data have to be transmitted transparent for higher protocol layers Send low latency data without using L2CAP Closed-loop power control Bluetooth 4.0 Low energy operation Single-mode and double-mode devices AES encryption

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