Lecture Objectives. Lecture and Bluetooth technology. Agenda. IEEE b. Characteristics. Center Frequencies

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1 Lecture Objectives Wireless Networks and obile ystems Lecture and Bluetooth technology Discuss the operation of IEEE and Bluetooth WLANs/WANs ummarize standardization efforts and recommendations by IEEE group Discuss interference issues between IEEE and BT and some suggested interference mitigation/ coexistence techniques b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 2 Agenda IEEE b Characteristics Channel layout (U) Bluetooth Characteristics iconets and scatternets Comparison with IEEE Coexistence between BT and IEEE b Types of coexistence Examples of coexistence mechanisms IEEE b Characteristics Channel assignment b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 3 Characteristics Center Frequencies Higher-speed physical layer extension of in the 2.4 GHz band ame AC functions Offers data rates of 11, 5.5, 2 and 1 bps In practice, maximum achievable user data rate around 6-7 bps D 1 and 2 bps use 11-bit Barker sequence and DBK and DQK, respectively (as in ) Higher data rates use 8-chip complementary code keying (CCK) Channel Freq. (Hz) U / Can Eur. Japan Channel Freq U / Can Eur. Japan b, Bluetooth and Coexistence b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 6 1

2 Channel Layout Wi-Fi channel 1 U.. and Canada channel 6 channel 11 Wireless fidelity The Wi-Fi Alliance certifies interoperability of based products Non-profit organization founded in 1999 Over 200 members f [Hz] Hz b, Bluetooth and Coexistence b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 8 Introduction to edium Access Arbitration Carrier ense ultiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CA/CA) tation that desires to transmit senses the medium If busy, backoff for a random period of time after the medium becomes idle If idle, transmit after a mandatory minimum interframe spacing No explicit collision detection, but if frame is not ACK d, station assumes a collision has occurred and retransmits Optionally, can reserve the channel through the exchange of RT/CT frames ore on that in a later lecture Bluetooth Characteristics iconets and scatternets Comparison with b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 9 Characteristics Operates in the 2.4 GHz range, using FH hort range Up to 10 m Asynchronous (data) and synchronous (voice) service available Around 700 kbps No need for infra-structure (ad hoc) Low power consumption iconets Nodes can assume the role of master or slave One or more slaves can connect to a master, forming a piconet The master sets the hopping pattern for the piconet, and all slaves must synchronize to that pattern aximum of 7 slaves controlled by a master (3-bit addresses used) Other operational states arked: device does not participate in the piconet, but is known to the master and can be quickly reactivated tandby: device does not participate in the piconet b, Bluetooth and Coexistence b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 12 2

3 Operational tates Forming a iconet (1) Operational tates aster lave A piconet B B Initially, devices know only about themselves No synchronization Everyone monitors in mode All devices have the capability of serving as master or slave arked* tandby* * Low power states B O J D E F I A K H C B G L N Q b, Bluetooth and Coexistence b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 14 Forming a iconet (2) Inquiry Unit establishing the piconet automatically becomes the master It sends an to discover what other devices are out there Addressing Active devices are assigned a 3-bit active member address () arked devices are assigned an 8-bit parked member address (A) tandby devices do not need an address O D J 10 meters F E H A I K G C B Note that a device can be Undiscoverable L N Q b, Bluetooth and Coexistence b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 16 detach ark A tates disconnected connecting active low power b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 17 Connecting to a iconet Device in listens periodically If a device wants to establish a piconet, it sends an, broadcast over all wake-up carriers It will become the master of the piconet If was successful, device enters mode Devices in may respond to the with its device address It will become a slave to that master b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 18 ark A 3

4 age and Connect tates After receiving a response from devices, the master can connect to each device individually An is assigned laves synchronize to the hopping sequence established by the master In active state, master and slaves listen, transmit and receive A disconnect procedure allows devices to return to mode b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 19 ark A state Low ower tates laves listen to the piconet at a reduced rate aster designates certain slots to transmit to slaves in sniff state state lave stops ACL transmission, but can exchange CO packets ark state lave releases its till FH synchronized and wakes up periodically to listen to beacon b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 20 ark A catternets (1) catternets (2) iconets with overlapping coverage use different hopping sequences Collisions may occur when multiple piconets use the same carrier frequency at the same time Devices can participate in multiple piconets simultaneously, creating a scatternet A device can only be the master of one piconet at a time A device may serve as master in one piconet and slave in another A device may serve as slave in multiple piconets O D J F E I H A K G C B L N Q b, Bluetooth and Coexistence b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 22 rotocol stack Comparison with a/b Characteristic Bluetooth IEEE b IEEE a pectrum 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz 5 GHz ource: Bluetooth rotocol Architecture v.1, white paper available at ax Rate Frequency selection edium access Typical transmit power 725 kbps FH aster centralized 100 mw 11 bps D CA/CA 0.05/0.25/1W 54 bps OFD CA/CA 1/2.5/100 mw b, Bluetooth and Coexistence b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 24 4

5 IEEE Overview of WAN efforts underway at IEEE IEEE Working Group Goal: development of consensus standards for ANs and short distance wireless networks ublishes standards and recommended practices Deals with issues of coexistence and interoperability with other wireless and wireline technologies URL: Task Group 1: WAN/Bluetooth Task Group 2: Coexistence Task Group 3: WAN High Rate Task Group 4: WAN Low Rate b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 26 IEEE Task Groups IEEE Developed a standard based on, and compatible with Bluetooth 1.1 Licensed technology from Bluetooth IG, Inc. IEEE Considering coexistence mechanism proposals IEEE Chartered to develop a high data rate (200 bps) WAN standard Application: low cost, low power imaging and multimedia IEEE Investigates a low data rate WAN solution with very low complexity to allow multimonth to multi-year battery life Application: sensors, interactive toys, remote controls, badges Coexistence between Bluetooth and IEEE Types of coexistence Example of coexistence mechanisms b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 27 Overlapping Frequency Bands Who interferes with whom? ource: Tim Godfrey, and Bluetooth Coexistence Techniques, National Wireless Engineering Conference, 2002 Bluetooth interferes with b b frames collide with Bluetooth packets (longer frames have a higher probability of collision) Retransmissions increase delay Impact can be severe, depending on the distance from the node equipped with b to the access point and to the Bluetooth nodes b also interferes with Bluetooth High power b transmitter can saturate the Bluetooth receiver Can also cause increased errors if the bands are overlapping Impact can be severe, depending on the power of the b nodes and the distance to them b, Bluetooth and Coexistence b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 30 5

6 Types of Coexistence echanisms Collaborative Requires exchange of information among IEEE b and Bluetooth devices Best when both WAN and WLAN devices embedded in the same piece of equipment (e.g., a notebook with Bluetooth and cards) Examples: deterministic frequency nulling, TDA of BT and Non-collaborative Can be adopted by b or Bluetooth devices without explicit collaboration Examples: adaptive frequency hopping, power control Adaptive Frequency Hopping Bluetooth radio can detect some frequencies as undesirable (due to interference) and not use them in a hopping sequence AFH in the process of standardization by the Bluetooth IG To be incorporated in Bluetooth 1.2 Clearly, not effective if the entire band is subject to interference from Non-collaborative b, Bluetooth and Coexistence b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 32 TDA Approach Designate separate intervals for BT and Can be based on beacon interval Clients and access points would need to be modified to incorporate this type of approach Also, can be wasteful, since interference problem is localized, but this solution would be applied to the entire B Collaborative ower control Other Approaches and/or BT devices limit their transmit powers to the lowest power needed to achieve the desired rate Fragmentation ay attempt to reduce collision probability by reducing the size of frames cheduling BT devices schedule packet transmissions during hops that are outside the band of frequencies currently used by the WLAN and avoid transmitting while in-band BT BT time b, Bluetooth and Coexistence b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 34 ummary IEEE b achieves transmission rates of up to 11 bps in the 2.4 GHz I band using D Bluetooth also operates in the 2.4 GHz I band, using FH aster/slave architecture, where piconets are formed between one master and up to 7 slaves Coexistence is an issue, to prevent BT nodes from acting (maybe unwittingly) as a rogue node in an IEEE WLAN Adaptive frequency hopping is the leading proposal to enable coexistence b, Bluetooth and Coexistence 35 6

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