Bluetooth WPAN. Korea Electronics Technical Institute

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1 Bluetooth WPAN Korea Electronics Technical Institute

2 What is WPAN?

3 WPAN Load MAP(1) Data Rate EHW-WPAN HR-WPAN 10 1 WPAN (BT ver. 2) WPAN (BT ver.1), ö Virtual Space Year

4 WPAN Load MAP(2) 2GHz~6GHz

5 WPAN TG1 : Bluetooth Concept Internet Bluetooth Network Ý

6 I` /a` c I` /a` c I` /a` c I` /a` c Simplicity I` / ` I` / ` I` / ` I` / ` Bluetooth General Purpose replace cables short-range radio link

7 Bluetooth SIG Members New Contracts ❽ Adopter/Early Adopter = Early Adopter Early Adopter Contract ❽ Early Adopter in working group = Associate Early Adopter Contract, Associate Amendment Open IP license to Bluetooth wireless technology ❽ Original Foundation Specifications ❽ New technology in and around the 12 specification working groups Only need to sign 1 contract to use any Bluetooth wireless technology (the new one)

8 Bluetooth SIG Ð Ð þ Ð

9 Bluetooth Applications TCP/IP HID RFCOMM Data Control Setup & Management of Baseband Connections: Piconet management Link configuration Security Functions Link Information Audio L2CAP Link Manager Baseband RF LMP

10 Bluetooth Network 10 Piconet 10 Scatternet How to jump efficiently between piconets? Delay sensitive applications?

11 Connection Parameters GHz, GHz, ISM ISM band band (or (or 23) 23) channels channels Carrier Carrier spacing spacing 1 1 MHz MHz Peak Peak TX TX power power dbm dbm GFSK GFSK modulation modulation master f(2k) f(2k+1) f(2k+2) t TDD TDD Frequency Frequency hopping hopping hops/s hops/s (625 (625 µs µs intervals) intervals) 1 1 Mbit/s Mbit/s gross gross data data rate rate slave 625 µs t Voice Voice Link Link Synchronous Synchronous Forward Forward error error correction correction (FEC) (FEC) CVSD CVSD voice voice encoding encoding 64kbit/s 64kbit/s Data Data Link Link Asynchronous Asynchronous Fast Fast acknowledge acknowledge Max. Max. data data rates rates kbit/s kbit/s (symmetric) (symmetric) / / kbit/s kbit/s (asymmetric) (asymmetric)

12 Mixed Link Example MASTER SCO ACL ACL SCO ACL SCO SCO ACL SLAVE 1 SLAVE 2 SLAVE 3 10 SCO: synchronous connectionoriented link ❽ Point to point between master and a single slave uses reserved time slots can be considered as a circuit switched connection 10 ACL : asynchronous connectionless link ❽ Point-to-multipoint between master and all slaves uses remaining time slots packet switched connection

13 Packets (1) 10 Packet Format D ` X c MX ]`X D 5/ FD 5/ FD 5 D Mc X^Y] _ / `c cxz] c DJVD O a ]` : DONK : NK : :9:9 :66 9:9: 966 c0 c1... c33 a0 a1... a23 99::9:/ Z ::99:9/ Z : :9:9 9:9: p0 p1... p33 p 34 p35... p57 p58 p59... p 63 MK/ b _ MXcZ / YZ / c b _ / `aaz_ / _ c`_` 2/aX \ ; ; ; ; : ; ; IDM _6 Z_ O M DM KDM ]X /` / Z DJV D O IH; ; MX / X_/ ^` O : ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ x ~ ~ ~ x c0 c x 0 x x24 x E / ` `c MX ]`X / X c/ Z_ ] 6 ]` /ax \ 2 ]` /ax \ 2 MX ]`X /Y` p34 p35... p57 p58 p59... p63 ax ZX] MK/ b _ IV ; IL : I K O : MX ]`X / X c/ ^ ] Z6 ]` /ax \ 2 ]` /ax \ 2 a 0 a1... a23 99::9:/ Z ::99:9/ Z X /EXc\ c/ b _ IV ; IL : I K < _ Z_ O : IDM

14 Packets (2) 10 Access Code ❽ CAC (Channel, 72bits) used during connection state : identify the piconet ❽ DAC (Device, 68bits) used during page procedures 0 c1...c33 ❽ IAC (Inquiry, 68bits) used during inquiry procedures 0 p1... p33 GIAC (General) / DIAC (Dedicated) c a0 a1...a23 99::9:/ Z ::99:9/ Z p p34 p35... p57 p p MK b _ CAC (master s LAP) DAC (slave s LAP) DIAC/GIAC (reserved) Preamble (4) Constructor Of sync word 0101 /1010 Sync Word (64bits) ~ ~... c~ ~ ~... ~ x ~ ~ 24 x... c0 c1 33 x0 x1 23 x 25 p34 p35... p57 p p59 a 0 a1...a23 IDM ::9:/ Z /X; ::99:9/ Z /X; E / ` `c ax ZX] MK/ b _ X /EXc\ c/ b _ Trailer (4) 0101 /1010

15 Packets (3) 10 Header ❽ unnumbered ARQN is used ❽ used for flow control over the ACL link ❽ depends on ACL/SCO link type ❽ reveals how many slots the packet will occupy ❽ each slave is assigned a 3-bit address (7 slaves in the piconet) ❽ 000 : for broadcasting packets ❽ 8 bits generated by the polynomial ❽ generator polynomial (D 8 + D 7 + D 5 + D 2 + D+ 1) ❽ inverted for each new transmitted packet ❽ discarded for the same SEQN later packet ❽ slaves give up their AM_ADDR when disconnected or parked

16 Packet Summary 10 Link Control Packets / ACL Packets / SCO Packets

17 Error Correction Schemes (1) 10 3 error correction schemes ❽ 1/3 rate FEC 3-times repetition used for the entire header voice field in the HV1 packet ❽ 2/3 rate FEC (15,10) shortened Hamming code generator polynomial D 5 + D 4 + D (=65 8 ) capacity correct all single errors detect all double errors in each codeword

18 Error Correction Schemes (2) ❽ ARQ (Acknowledgements and Sequence Numbers) M S

19 Bluetooth Functional Architecture data HOST control data Link Manager control Bluetooth Baseband Interface LINK Controller CLK system Control registers Flow controls Security algorithms Link controls ACL buffers SCO buffers control I Packet Header HEC W 1/3 FEC Payload CRC E FEC AC generator Packet I FH control SCO port SCO buffers ACL buffers control I Packet Header HEC check W 1/3 FEC Payload E FEC Packet Radio control I RADIO Module CRC check AC correlator Timing recovery

20 10 Bluetooth Clock ❽ CLKN (native clock) Clocks (1) resolution is µs (=3.2kHz) driven by crystal oscillator in states with high activity LPO(low power oscillator) in standby, hold, park state (Slot) (Page/Inquiry scan : X=CLKN ) (Frame)

21 ❽ CLKE (estimated clock) Clocks (2) a paging unit makes of the native clock of the recipient ❽ CLK (master's CLKN) determines the timing and frequency hopping in the piconet

22 FH Sequence (1) For physical Link Setup ❽ Require same FH sequence Structure of Selection Box UAP/LAP Clock State Selection Box ❽ k MHz, k=0,, 78

23 FH Sequence (2) Inquiry(32hop)/ Inquiry Scan(32hop) Tx/Rx Rx/Tx Page(32hop)/ Page Scan(32hop) Tx/Rx Rx/Tx Connection(79hop) Tx/Rx Segment1 (32hop) 16 Segment2 (32hop)

24 Gaussian FSK 10 GFSK Modulation Data GLPF FM modulation Radio Channel Hard limiter FM Discriminator Detection BT=0.4 BT=0.5 BT=0.6 2 Magnitude, db Frequency (0.05 MHz)

25 10 Inquiry procedure Link Setup ❽ The unit collects the FHS packet of others 10 Page procedure ❽ The master sends its FHS packet to the slave 10 Connection ❽ Data or LMP packets are exchanged ❽ All units use the master s address and CLK ❽ Active/Hold/Sniff/Park mode

26 Link Setup Procedures Unconnected state Master Standby Slave Standby Inquiry Connecting state Page Inquiry scan Inquiry response Page scan Active state Low power state Master response Connection Park/Sniff/Hold Slave response Connection Park/Sniff/Hold

27 Inquiry Procedure (1) 10 Collects the FHS packet of others ❽ FHS packet contains CoD/address/CLK of the unit ; ; ; ; : ; ; MXcZ / YZ IDM _6 Z_ O M DM KDM ]X /` / Z DJV D O IH MX / X_/ ; 6: ^` Inquiring Unit Other units

28 Inquiry Procedure (2) 10 Inquiring unit ❽ FH sequence generator Use only 32 Tx/Rx hop Tx/Rx 0 10 Rx/Tx Other units ❽ FH sequence generator Listen only 1 hop ❽ Packet generator Preamble A GIAC Sync word E758B E72 ❽ Receiver ❽ Receiver FHS ❽ Packet generator IAC HEADER FHS PAYLOAD ❽ Buffer Save FHS packet 72bits 54bits 144bits

29 10 Inquiry Overview Inquiry Procedure (3) Tx (sending IAC) Rx (waiting FHS) Inquiry A A A A A A B B B B B B B A A Z_b Zc Z_b Zc ;7 Inquiry Scan Z_b Zc / X_ Z_b Zc / X_ X_ X_ ;7 9 :9; 2 cz_ /9 97 ;U:9 ; µ 2 c c_ / `/ / DK EP/`c/ LKK FLK

30 Page Procedure (1) 10 The master sends its FHS packet to the slave slave1 slave2 slave3 Master Slave

31 Page Procedure (2) 10 Hop sequence generator ❽ use only 32 Tx/Rx hop Slave s U/LAP Slave s CLK Page Selection Box 7 Tx/Rx Hop 10 Packet generator ❽ ID packet DAC : made by Slave s LAP

32 Page Procedure (3)

33 Connection (1) 10 Hop sequence generator ❽ Use all 79 hops Master s U/LAP Master s CLK Connection Selection Box 7 Tx/Rx Hop Packet generator ACCESS CODE HEADER PAYLOAD 72bits 54bits 0~2745bits

34 Connection (2) MASTER SCO ACL ACL SCO ACL SCO SCO ACL SLAVE 1 SLAVE 2 SLAVE 3

35 10 Sniff mode Power-Save mode(1) ❽ the duty cycle of the slave can be reduced ❽ slave has to listen T sniff : ; N sniff attempt D sniff ❽ if LMP_sniff(D sniff =0, T sniff =18, N sniff attempt =8, N sniff_timeout =4) Packet 1~4 are acked, but packet 5 must remain unacked

36 10 Hold mode Power-Save mode(2) ❽ slave remains on the time duration initialized with the holdto(2 bytes) when timer is expired, the slave will wake up, synchronize to the traffic

37 10 Park mode ❽ used when no need to participate on the piconet, but still remain synchronized ❽ gives up AM_ADDR connect more than 7slaves messages sent by broadcast packets(am_addr=000) receives two new addresses PM_ADDR(8-bit) : unique» used in the master-initiated unpark procedure AR_ADDR(8-bit) : not necessarily unique» used in the slave-initiated unpark procedure ❽ periodically wakes up Power-Save mode(3) re-synchronize with the channel check for broadcast messages

38 ❽ master-activated unparking Power-Save mode(4) in the beacon slots by BD_ADDR or PM_ADDR

39 ❽ Slave-activated unparking Power-Save mode(5) in the access windows by sending master s DAC corresponds to its AR_ADDR access window polling random access others

40 10 Power management ❽ microscopic level Power management handling the packet TX side NULL packet is used» when only LC information needs to be exchanged RX side TYPE indicates how many slots a packet may occupy Returns to sleep» no valid access code/hec fail/fec fail/crc fail ❽ macroscopic level using certain operation mode power consumption sniff > hold > park

41 10 Functional Partitioning Implementation(1) Link Manager SRAM SRAM CPU CPU BASEBAND BASEBAND RADIO RADIO Flash Flash Host Interface Link Controller

42 Implementation(2)

43 Implementation(3)

44 Bluetooth Silicon Products(1)

45 Bluetooth Silicon Products(2)

46 Bluetooth Application Products(1)

47 Bluetooth Application Products(2)

48 Bluetooth Application Products(3)

49 Bluetooth Application Products(4)

50 Service Model(1)

51 Service Model(2)

52 Bluetooth Ver. 2 Z /EX_ Z /J` Improvements in ver. 1 Backwards compatible with ver. 1(L2CAP) Support for data rates of at least 7~12 Mb/s Enabling co-existence with ver. 1 piconets and WLANs Low cost target ($10) Specification: 4Q2001 Products : 2001

53 Market(1) Bluetooth Average Silicon Implementation Cost

54 Market(2)

55 WPAN TG3 : HIPERPAN GHz ANSIBLE Application space Max data rate (Mbps) x 1 0,1 0,01 2.4GHz HIPERLAN/ b Bluetooth HSCD 5GHz HIPERLAN/ a HomeRF GPRS EDGE 4 years PAN/LAN Convergence 3GPP GHz HIPERPAN Ubiquitous TV Infotainment Virtual Homes Video Streaming Video data rate Still Imaging High Speed Internet Audio Streaming Text Messaging product date Voice Local Area WLAN Nomadic Wide Area Cellular Vehicular PAN

56 HIPERPAN(1) 10 WPAN&WLAN shall meet! ❽ foreseen convergence in bit rate requirement between next generation of WPANs (high data rate) and WLANs! WPAN: IEEE HRSG (20Mbps), Bluetooth SIG2 (2-10Mbps) >20Mbps WLAN: IEEE802.11a, ETSI BRAN HIPERLAN/2, ARIB MMAC: 6-54Mbps Beyond Satellite Wide Area Neighborhood In-Building Personal Global Macro Micro Pico Femto

57 HIPERPAN(2)

58 Motorola & Radiata HIPERPAN(3) 1) From coexistence to compatibility : grant interoperability with 5GHz Worldwide harmonized WLAN standard - IEEE802.11a, ETSI BRAN HIPERPAN/2, ARIB MMAC 2) Worldwide operation : provide access to 5GHz band as spectrum for WPAN 3) OFDM preferred modulation for local area broadband (large bandwidth transmissions in presence of multipath)

59 HIPERPAN(4)

60 HIPERPAN(5) Parameters for Proposed system

61 HIPERPAN(6) BroadCom 10 5 MHz Frequency Hopping (FH) transmission system operating in the unlicensed radio spectrum (2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands) 10 Multi-mode adaptive Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (8-PSK, 16/32/64 QAM) with Trellis Coding supporting 8-20 Mbit/sec 10 Adjustable transmit power 1, 10, 100 mw for range and robustness 10 Minimum Mean Squared Error Decision Feedback Equalization (MMSE-DFE) receiver to combat delay spread 10 Variable length coded frame size (suitable due to TCM) 10 Will support existing devices in dual mode 10 PHY layer design based on extensive field test results (up to 17 m indoor coverage, 1 and 10 mw transmit levels) conducted by UCLA Electrical Engineering Department

62 HIPERPAN(7) 8-State Multi-Mode TCM Encoder b 4 64-QAM b 3 b 2 b 1 b o 2,3,4,5 bits/symbol C 32-QAM 16-QAM 8-PSK Encoder 2-D Output to Pulse Shaping Filter T + T + T 8/16/32/64 QAM TCM Mode Selection

63 HIPERPAN(8) Coding Gains for 8-State QAM TCM Number of States Gain of 8-PSK vs. uncoded 4- QAM Gain of 16- QAM vs. uncoded 8-PSK Gain of 32- QAM vs. uncoded 16- QAM Gain of 64- QAM vs. uncoded 32- QAM db 5.33 db 3.98 db State TCM Coding Gain Multi-Mo de QAM TCM Data Rate Re quire d S NR -2-3 Uncoded 16-QAM 64-QAM TCM 20 Mbit/sec ~ 19.5 db BER Trellis Coded 32-QAM (8-S tate) 32-QAM TCM 16 Mbit/sec ~ 16.5 db 16-QAM TCM 12 Mbit/sec ~ 13.5 db SNR (Es/No) 8-PSK TCM 8 Mbit/sec ~ 10.5 db

64 HIPERPAN(9) Evaluation Matrix and Summary Criteria Description Size and Form Factor Under study Minimum MAC/PHY Throughput 8 Mbit/sec raw data rate (PHY layer) Frequency Band 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz unlicensed bands Number of Simultaneously Operating Full Throughput PANs Under study Signal Acquisition Method Preamble Based Range 10 m (0 dbm), 100 m (20 dbm) Sensitivity -76 dbm

65 XtremeSpectrum, Inc. HIPERPAN(10) UWB Concept Coded short duration pulses spread the signal energy over frequency and time Can overlay existing FCC frequency assignments Spread is so broad, little energy gets in a narrowband Short range WPAN systems can operate below the detection threshold of conventional receivers Low probability of intercept (LPI) Bi- Phase not spikey in time or frequency domains

66 HIPERPAN(11) Personal Area Networks (PAN) are a Natural Application for UWB Radios PAN Radios High data rates allow multimedia Low power enables handhelds No line of sight or orientation problems Software scaleable data rate Mbps Data driven PAN world view Purpose of radios is to connect devices nearby to each other and the net Wired & wireless LANs are enhanced by high data rate wire replacement Computers, peripherals, VCR, video camera, DVD, MP3, Requires low cost Mbps New radios must be found UWB PAN radios are ideal for a data driven future Products will be embedded radio modems with significant performance advantages Support wireless 100BaseT, Firewire (1394), USB, Personal Area

67 HIPERPAN Applications

68 PAN

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