By Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

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1 Department of Information Networks The University of Babylon LECTURE NOTES ON Evolving Technology of Laptops By Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali College of Information Technology, University of Babylon, Iraq Notes of Lecture 5

2 Introduction of Laptops Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali Notes of Lecture 5

3 1. Describe laptops and other portable devices

4 A. Identify some common uses of laptops

5 B. Identify some common uses of PDAs and smartphones

6 2. Identify and describe the components of a laptop Describe the components found on the outside of the laptop Laptop and desktop computers use the same types of ports so that peripherals can be interchangeable. These ports are specifically designed for connecting peripherals, providing network connectivity, and providing audio access. Ports, connections, and drives are located on the front, back, and sides of the laptop due to the compact design. Laptops contain PC Card or ExpressCard slots to add functionality such as more memory, a modem, or a network connection. Laptops require a port for external power. Laptops can operate using either a battery or an AC power adapter. This port can be used to power the computer or to charge the battery. Status indicators, ports, slots, connectors, bays, jacks, vents, and a keyhole are on the exterior of the laptop.

7 Describe the components found on the outside of the laptop Figure 1 shows three LEDs on the top of the laptop. : Bluetooth Battery Standby NOTE: LED displays vary among laptops. Technicians should consult the laptop manual for a list of specific status displays. Figure 2 shows three components on the back of the laptop. : Parallel port AC power connector Battery bay A laptop operates using either a battery or an AC power adapter. Laptop batteries are manufactured in various shapes and sizes. They use different types of chemicals and metals to store power. Refer to Figure 3 to compare rechargeable batteries. The left side of the laptop has ten components: Security keyhole USB S-video connector Modem RJ-11 Ethernet RJ-45 Network LEDs Stereo headphone jack Microphone jack Ventilation PC combo expansion slot The front of the laptop shown has the components listed here: Ventilation Speakers Infrared port Laptop latch Figure 1 Figure 2 The right side of the laptop contains four components: VGA port Drive bay status indicator Optical drive activity indicator Optical drive The bottom of the laptop has the components listed here: Docking station connector Battery latches (two areas) RAM access panel Hard drive access panel

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9 Describe the components found on the inside of the laptop Laptops use input devices to add functionality to the laptop. Installing input devices might require downloading drivers from the manufacturer's website. There are a variety of input devices: Stylus or digitizer Tablet Barcode reader Scanner Light pen Web camera PC game device Some input devices might need to be configured or optimized for speed, sensitivity, scrolling, or the number of taps needed. To gain access to these configuration utilities for input devices, use the following path: Start > Control Panel > Mouse Not all devices can be configured through the Control Panel. When you install the software for some devices, programs might be installed in the All Programs section of the Start menu. These programs are used to configure more advanced settings. Some input devices are built into the laptop. Typically, the laptop is closed when not in use. By opening the lid of the laptop, you can access a variety of input devices, LEDs, and a display screen. Click the five highlighted areas in Figure 1 for more information about the input devices: Keyboard Input devices Fingerprint reader Volume controls Power button Refer to Figure 1. Do you know which of these devices perform the following functions? Move the pointer. Turn up the volume. Log on to the laptop. Type a document. Turn on the laptop. Switch to the external monitor.

10 Describe the components found on the inside of the laptop At the bottom of the screen is a row of LEDs that shows the status of specific functions in Figure for more information on these LEDs: Wireless Bluetooth Num Lock Caps Lock Hard drive activity Power on Battery status Hibernate/Standby NOTE: Indicators vary by laptop. A laptop monitor is a built-in LCD. It is similar to a desktop LCD monitor, except that the resolution, brightness, and contrast settings can be adjusted using software or button controls. The laptop monitor cannot be adjusted for height and distance because it is integrated into the lid of the case. A desktop monitor can be added to a laptop. An Fn key on the laptop keyboard toggles between the laptop display and the desktop monitor. The purpose of the Fn key is to activate a second function on a dual-purpose key. The feature that is accessed by pressing and holding the Fn key is printed on another key in a smaller font or different color. There are several functions that can be accessed: Volume setting Display brightness Sleep states Wireless functionality Check battery status The Fn key must not be confused with function keys F1 through F12. These keys are typically located in a horizontal row across the top of the keyboard. Their function depends on the operating system and application that is running when they are pressed. Each key can be made to perform up to seven separate operations. The key can be pressed alone or with one or more combinations of the Shift, Control, and Alt keys. On many laptops, a small pin on the laptop cover contacts a switch when the case is closed, called an LCD cutoff switch. The LCD cutoff switch tells the CPU to conserve power by extinguishing the backlight and turning off the LCD. If this switch breaks or is dirty, the LCD remains dark while the laptop is open. Carefully clean this switch to restore normal operation.

11 Describe the components found on the laptop docking station A base station is a device that attaches to AC power and to desktop peripherals. When you plug the laptop into the base station, you have convenient access to power and the attached peripherals. There are two types of base stations: docking stations and port replicators. Docking stations and port replicators are used for the same purpose. Port replicators are usually smaller than docking stations and do not have speakers or PCI slots. Docking stations and port replicators use a variety of connection types: Manufacturer- and model-specific USB or FireWire PC-Card or ExpressCard Figures 1 to 3 illustrate a docking station. components on the top of the docking station: Power button Eject button Docking connector Some docking stations include the following drive bays and ports to provide additional functionality: Parallel USB Ethernet Video Audio The back of the docking station contains ports and connectors used to attach to desktop peripherals such as a mouse, a monitor, or a printer. A vent is also necessary to expel hot air from the docking station.: Note :Secure the laptop to the docking station with a key lock. on the right side of the docking station. Exhaust vent AC power connector PC Card or ExpressCard slot VGA port DVI port Line In connector Headphone connector USB port Mouse port Keyboard port External-diskette-drive connector Parallel port Serial port Modem port Ethernet port

12 Compare and contrast desktop and laptop components Most of the functions that a desktop can perform can also be performed by a laptop. However, these two kinds of computers are built very differently and the parts are not interchangeable. As an example, a plane and a helicopter can each travel to the same destination, but they cannot be repaired with the same spare parts. This is also true for laptops and desktops. Few components can be shared between desktops and laptops. Desktop components tend to be standardized. They usually meet universal form factors. Desktops made by different manufacturers can often use the same components. A DVD/CD-RW drive is an example of a desktop component that has a standard form factor. Laptop components are much more specialized than desktop components. This difference is because laptop manufacturers focus on refining components to make them more efficient and compact. As a result, manufacturers design laptop components to follow their own specific form factors. Laptop components are proprietary. You might not be able to use components made by one laptop manufacturer to repair a laptop made by another manufacturer. NOTE: Technicians might have to obtain certification for each laptop manufacturer that they support. After completing this section, you will meet these objectives: Compare and contrast desktop and laptop motherboards. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop processors. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop power management. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop expansion capabilities

13 A. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop motherboards Desktop motherboards have standard form factors. The standard size and shape allow motherboards from different manufacturers to be interchangeable. Laptop motherboards vary by manufacturer and are proprietary. When you repair a laptop, it is strongly recommended that you obtain a replacement motherboard from the manufacturer of the laptop. Figure 1 shows a desktop motherboard and a laptop motherboard. Laptop motherboards and desktop motherboards are designed differently. Components designed for a laptop generally cannot be used in a desktop. Figure 2 shows a few examples of the design differences. Laptops, some printers, and routers have space restrictions; therefore, they use Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Modules (SODIMMs), as shown in Figure 3. Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3: SODIMMs

14 B. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop processors The CPU is the brain of the computer. The CPU interprets and processes instructions that are used to manipulate data. Laptop processors are designed to use less power and create less heat than desktop processors. As a result, laptop processors do not require cooling devices that are as large as those found in desktops. Laptop processors also use CPU throttling to modify the clock speed as needed to reduce power consumption and heat. This results in a slight decrease in performance. It also increases the lifespan of some components. These specially designed processors allow laptops to operate for a longer period of time when using a battery power source. The Table below shows laptop processor specifications. NOTE: Technicians should refer to the laptop manual for processors that can be used as replacement processors and for processor replacement instructions.

15 C. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop power management Power management controls the flow of electricity to the components of a computer. Desktops are usually set up in a location where they remain plugged into a power source. Desktop power management distributes electricity from the source to the components of the desktop. There is also a small battery in the desktop that provides electricity to maintain the internal clock and BIOS settings when the desktop is powered off. Laptops are small and portable. This portability feature is achieved by combining the small size and weight of a laptop with the ability to operate from a battery. Unlike a desktop computer power supply, laptops can accept only DC power. AC adapters convert unregulated AC power to the regulated DC power required to run the laptop and charge the laptop battery. When the laptop is plugged in, laptop power management sends electricity from the AC power source to the laptop components. The laptop power management also recharges the battery. When the laptop is unplugged, laptop power management takes electricity from the battery and sends it to the laptop components. There are two methods of power management: Advanced Power Management (APM) Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) APM is an earlier version of power management. With APM, the BIOS was used to control the settings for power management. ACPI has replaced APM. ACPI offers additional power management features. With ACPI, the operating system controls power management.

16 D. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop expansion capabilities Expansion capabilities add functionality to a computer. Many expansion devices can be used with both laptops and desktops: External drives Modems Network cards Wireless adapters Printers Other peripherals Expansion devices are attached to laptops and desktops differently. A desktop attaches these devices with serial, parallel, USB, and FireWire ports. A laptop attaches these devices with the same ports and PC Cards. The standardized use of USB and FireWire ports makes it possible to connect many types of external components to laptops, docking stations, port replicators, and desktops. The USB and FireWire standards make it possible to connect and remove external components without the need to power off the system. USB and FireWire ports are used to connect a range of external components: Printers Scanners Floppy disk drives Mice Cameras Keyboards Hard drives Flash drives Optical drives MP3 players Laptops and desktops have similar expansion capabilities. It is the difference in form factor between the computers that determines which type of expansion device is used. Desktops have internal bays that support 5.25" and 3.5" drives. Additionally, there is space to install other permanent expansion drives. Laptops have limited space; therefore, the expansion bays on laptops are designed to allow different types of drives to fit into the same bay. Drives are hot-swappable and are inserted or removed as needed. Figure 1 shows a comparison of desktop and laptop expansion components. Expansion devices used for data storage use three types of storage methods: Magnetic Flash Optical

17 D. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop expansion capabilities

18 D. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop expansion capabilities Traditional hard drives are magnetic. Magnetic hard drives have drive motors designed to spin magnetic platters and the drive heads. A flash drive uses a special type of memory that requires no power to maintain the data. Flash memory chips manage all storage on a Solid State Drive (SSD), which results in faster access to data, higher reliability, and reduced power usage. SSDs do not have moving parts. Because there are no drive motors and moving parts, the SSD uses far less energy than the magnetic hard drive. The optical drive is a storage device that uses lasers to read data on the optical medium. Optical drives have moving parts like hard drives. They have drive motors designed to spin a platter and move a drive head. There are three types of optical drives: CD DVD Blu-ray Disc (BD) CD, DVD, and BD media can be pre-recorded (read-only), recordable (write once), or re-recordable (read and write multiple times). CDs have a data storage capacity of approximately 700 MB. DVDs have a data storage capacity of approximately 8.5 GB on one side of the disc. BDs have a storage capacity of 25 GB on a single-layer disc, and 50 GB on a duallayer disc. Laptops use the PC Card slot to add functionality. The PC Card slot uses an open standard interface to connect to peripheral devices using the CardBus standard. Here are some examples of devices that connect using PC Cards: Memory Modems Hard drives Network cards PC Cards follow the PCMCIA standard. They come in three types: Type I, Type II, and Type III. Each type of PC Card is different in size and can attach to different devices. A newer type of PC Card is called the PC ExpressCard. Figure 2 shows a comparison of PC Cards and PC ExpressCards. The PC ExpressCard comes in 34mm and 54mm widths. Figure 3 shows an example of a PC Card and PC ExpressCards. Suppose that you need to purchase a wireless NIC for a laptop. Which type of PC Card would you select?

19 D. Compare and contrast desktop and laptop expansion capabilities

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