SIEMENS UserAdmin Workshop TELEPERM XP Version 4 Chapter 1

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1 1 UNIX USER-ENVIRONMENT User-environment Basic commands SCO Unix specific commands HP Unix specific commands FILE SYSTEM File system maintenance File system security types START UP / SHUT DOWN THE COMPUTER Start up the HP-UX (ES680) computer Shut down the HP-UX (ES680) computer Start up the SCO-UX (OM) computer Shut down the SCO-UX (OM) computer File Transfer Communication testing - Ping Printer tasks ATD TD HG1

2 1 UNIX 1.1 User-environment Commands construction: UNIX commands comprise of name, options, and arguments. The symbol to separate them normally is a blank space. Options begin with a minus sign (-) and can be combined in any way all together. At the UNIX line command options must be placed after the command name. For example: ls -al /bin Command: ls Option: (-) a, l Argument: /bin Specials symbols in Shell: There are other signs in the Shell that have a special meaning. Some of them will be later explained. *? $ ^ replaces any combination of signs and in any order. replaces any sign individually. ending of a line beginning of a line Other special signs \,[, ] If we don t want the special signs become in the signs they replace, we have to specified it. This is done, either via a backlash (\) before the sign, or writing the expression within high commas. For example: ls test* ls test\* ls test* ; Semicolon: separates commands within a chain. For example: cd /tmp;ls -al Pipe: Continuos commands processing. The result of previous commands is processed by the following commands in the sequence.. For example: ps -ef grep gmf Exit control: For example: > exit diversion ls > /tmp/listing.txt (the list generated will be saved in the file listing.txt at the directory /tmp). ls >> /tmp/listing.txt (the list generated will be added to the contents of the file listing.txt at the directory /tmp). 1-2

3 1.1.1 User-environment Command env su [user] su - [user] hostname id chown [owner] [file] chgrp [group] [file] chmod [access] [file] rlogin [hostname] rlogin [hostname] -l [login] /etc/lanscan who am i Shows the environment variables Switch user (with the previous user environment) Switch to new user but with the new user environment System name of the machine shows the current user with the groups he belongs to Change owner (assignment of a new owner to files, links or directories) Change group (assignment of a new group to files, links or directories) Change access mode (right access to files, links, or directories, for the user, group, and other users) Remote login host (produce a remote-process in another machine) Shows the status information of the net for hardware diagnostics. Shows bus problems with interconnected systems (only HP-UX) Shows our user name, terminal type, and login time Basic commands pwd cd [directory] cd ls ls -a ls -t ls -d cat [datei1datei2 datei3] pg more [option] [file] touch [file] tail [file] tail -f grep [pattern] [file] tee cp [file1] [file2] cp -r [path1] [path2] mv [file1] [file2] rm [file] rm -r [path] mkdir [path] rmdir [path] compress [file] find [path] -name [file] -print date date [mmddhhmm] ps [option] ps -e ps -l ps -f Shows the working path Change of directory Change to the home directory Shows the contents of the current working directory also hidden files (point files ) ordered by time shows directory name, not the contents Shows the contents of the files Paginate the display on the terminal. Pressing return the next page will be shown Shows the contents of a file in the screen page per page Create a new file Shows the 10 last lines of a file Shows the new added lines to the file; it ends pressing key del Seeks a pattern inside a file Copy the result of another command to a file, or to the screen Copy file1 into file2 Copy path1 into path2 with all their subdirectories Change the name of file1 to file2 Deletes the file Deletes the path and the contents Creates a new path Deletes the path when it is empty Compress a file. The source file will be renamed to [Filename].Z Seeks a file in the specified path Shows current date and time of the system Change date and time (month, day, hour, minutes) Shows current process information (ID-Nr. and Name) Shows all the processes Creates a long list Creates a complete list 1-3

4 tar cvf [file].tar [path1] [path2]... tar xvf [file].tar tar tvf [file] Creates a file with the content of the paths Extracts files from the previous archive (with absolute path) Shows the contents of an archive SCO Unix specific commands tar cv [file1] [file2] tar xv tar tv tar tvf /dev/rstp0 tar cvf /dev/rstp0 [file1] [file2]... tar xvf /dev/rstp0 Stores files to diskette Extracts files from the previous archive (diskette) with absolute path Shows the contents of the diskette Shows the content of the DAT tape The files will be stored in the DAT tape Copy the files from DAT tape to the HD HP Unix specific commands tar cv [file1] [file2]... tar xv tar tv Stores files to DAT tape Extracts files from the DAT tape (with absolute path) Shows the contents of the DAT tape 1-4

5 1.2 File system The system administration files carry out the interchange of information, to improve the necessity of time during the interchange operations. HP-UX Buffer Cache Dateisystem The cache buffer will be written on the disc, when it is full the system files are dismounted or the sync command has been started 1-5

6 1.2.1 File system maintenance Assignment of memory used and free, inodes used and free in the file system: HP-UX bdf -i du -s /<path> Inodes free and used, memory (Kbytes) free and used, in percentage. Memory assigned to a user SCO-UX df -v df -i /etc/dfspace Memory used and free in blocks 1Block=512Byte Inodes free and used Shows the filesystem storing zone in Mbyte HP-UX / SCO-UX find / -size print find / -atime +90 -print Files found with more than 0.5 Mbytes ( in blocks, 512 bytes per block) Files found without any modification since 90 days Dump-Files: When a process is aborted, sometimes the systems produces files with the contents in memory of that processes. These files could occupy many space on the disc, and so, periodically they must be examined and deleted. find / -name core -print File system security types Physical access: Protect the PC hardware against robbery Access to power supply and distribution box only to authorised personnel Include a UPS for the hardware Limit access to the installation of CD-ROMs, backup medium (DAT-tape, etc). Organization measure: Jobs distribution Administrative password kept in codified way (but always available for A4 TD TD1 ZN-Khe for support) Access to the system information and documentation only for authorized personnel. User training: Logoff to leave the computer Close windows, in case of leaving the computer not in the correct way Changing of the password Not use a simple and guessing password 1-6

7 Working as root: Keeping the root-login and password in codified way Changing of the root-password Work as root only when absolutely necessary. File system access rights Protection against commercialize without any right. Protection of the whole system software against no authorized users Protection of some programs against other users UNIX-Protection model Monitoring of UNIX-rights: The command ls -al shows UNIX-rights. Files rights meaning: r (read)-right, w (write)-right, x (execute)-right, s (set user mode on execution) Execution for the owner of the files (set somewhere the x-rights) Directories rights meaning: r It is possible to see the directory contents w Delete and create new files x Selection and input in the directory. Change the UNIX rights: Only the objects owner is able to change the objects rights, except with the root-login. Commands to changing the UNIX-rights: chmod (options) changing the access right for the object chgrp (options) changing the group access for the object chown (options) changing the access only for the owner For example: -rwxr-xr-x 1 dunit2 txpes 128 Sep 8 18:04 STARTMENU ID Owner group others link owner group Size Date Name - rwx r-x r-x 1 dnunit2 txpes 128 Sep 8 18:04 STARTMENU ID: d= Directory; l=link r: Read right; Bit-value 4 w: Write right; Bit-value 2 x: Execute right Bit-value 1. Right for seek directories For example: The rights for not allowing others execute o modify our objects will be Command: chmod 744 STARTMENU 1-7

8 1.3 Start up / shut down the computer Start up the HP-UX (ES680) computer After switching on the computer: System autotest (hardware) Automatic search of the boot program. Device (disk, LAN, other devices) Automatic file system check (fsk) Call of the boot program (/hp-ux) INIT is in /etc/inittab, looks over rc-files and starts initdefault -Runlevel-Program VUE (Runlevel 3) - Login-mask appears Shut down the HP-UX (ES680) computer Causes to shut down the computer: Backup of the boot table Checking File systems Installation new configuration Hardware shut down Advertisement: to execute the shut down commands in the ES680 it is necessary to logoff and login as root login: root password: roots1 Kommando: /etc/shutdown -h -y 0 Optionen: -h System stop. The system can be later either stopped or started again -y Shut down without any question, silently 0 Without waiting time. 1-8 ATD TD HG1

9 1.3.3 Start up the SCO-UX (OM) computer Auto system check (hardware) Automatic search of boot program. Device (disk) Automatic file system check (fsk) Call the SCO boot program Login mask appears Shut down the SCO-UX (OM) computer Causes for init 0: Backup of the boot table Checking the file system Installation new configuration Hardware shut down Advertisement: to execute the init 0 command stop first the OM-Processes with Om.Stop Console 2 (ALT F2) login: txpom Om.Stop Console 9 (ALT F9) login: root init 0 password: /1txpom password: roots1 When the message **Safe to Power off** appears, the PC can be switched off. 1-9

10 1.3.5 File Transfer Transference of files between a local host and a remote host and in the other way around. Ftp command ftp [hostname] help cd lcd dir delete get [file] mget [files] put [file] mput [files] bye Starting the file transfer protocol for a remote host Helping function change remote directory change local directory list remote directory delete remote file or directory Transference of a file from the remote to the local host Transference of files from the remote to the local host Transference of a file from the local to the remote host Transference of files from the local to the remote host Ending the file transfer protocol for a remote host Communication testing - Ping Proving the communication with another host. Command ping [hostname] Send package to network hosts ping [hostaddress] Make ping in the address (Example ) Printer tasks Command lp -d<printer> <file> lpstat -t lpstat -d Print the file with a certain printer Shows the whole current printer status Shows the default printers 1-10

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