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1 Microsoft Excel 2010 Advanced 3-4 0

2 Absolute references There may be times when you do not want a cell reference to change when copying or filling cells. You can use an absolute reference to keep a row and/or column constant in the formula. An absolute reference is designated in the formula by the addition of a dollar sign (\$). It can precede the column reference, the row reference, or both. In the below example, we want to calculate the sales tax for a list of products with varying prices. We'll use an absolute reference for the sales tax (\$B\$1) because we do not want it to change as we are copying the formula down the column of varying prices. 1. Select the first cell where you want to enter the formula (C4, for example). 2. Type an equals sign, and then click the cell that contains the first value you want in the formula (B4, for example). 3. Type the first mathematical operator (the multiplication sign, for example). 4. Type the dollar sign (\$), then enter the column letter of the cell you are making an absolute reference to (B, for example). 1

3 5. Type the dollar sign (\$), then enter the row number of the same cell you are making an absolute reference to (1, for example). 6. Press Enter to calculate the formula. Sparklines Sparklines are miniature charts that fit into a single cell. Because they're so compact, you can place a large number of them in your worksheets. For example, you could place one sparkline on each row to show trends within that row. In this lesson, you will learn how to insert sparklines and change their type and appearance. Types of sparklines: There are three types of sparklines: Line, Column, and Win/Loss. Line and Column work the same as line and column charts. Win/Loss is similar to Column, except it only shows whether each value is positive or negative instead of how high or low the values are. All three types can display markers at important points such as the highest and lowest points to make them easier to read 2

4 Why use sparklines? Sparklines are basically charts, so why would you want to use sparklines instead of charts? Sparklines have certain advantages that make them more convenient in many cases. Let's say you have 1,000 rows of data. If you place a sparkline on each row, it will be right next to its source data, making it easy to see the relationships between the numbers and the sparkline. If you used a traditional chart, it would need to have 1,000 data series in order to represent all of the rows, and you would probably need to do a lot scrolling to find relevant data in the worksheet. Sparklines are ideal for situations where you want to make the data clearer and more eye catching, and where you don't need all of the features of a full chart. On the other hand, charts are ideal for situations where you want to represent the data in greater detail, and they are often better for comparing different data series. To create sparklines: 1. Select the cells you will need for the first sparkline. In this example, we are creating a sparkline for Kathy Albertson, so we'll select her sales data.. 2. Click the Insert tab. 3. In the Sparklines group, select Line. A dialog box will appear. 4. Make sure the insertion point is next to Location Range 5. Click the cell where you want the sparkline to be. In this example, we'll select the cell to the right of the selected cells. 3

5 6. Click OK. The sparkline will appear in the document 7. Click and drag the fill handle downward. 8. Sparklines will be created for the remaining rows 4

6 Conditional Formatting Let's say you have a spreadsheet with thousands of rows of data. It would be extremely difficult to see patterns and trends just from examining the raw data. Excel gives us several tools that will make this task easier. One of these tools is called conditional formatting. With conditional formatting, you can apply formatting to one or more cells based on the value of the cell. You can highlight interesting or unusual cell values, and visualize the data using formatting such as colors, icons, and data bars. Conditional formatting applies one or more rules to any cells you want. An example of a rule might be If the value is greater than 5000, color the cell yellow. By applying this rule to the cells in a worksheet, you'll be able to see at a glance which cells are more than There are also rules that can mark the top 10 items, all cells that are below the average, cells that are within a certain date range, and many more. To create a conditional formatting rule: 1. Select the cells you want to add formatting to. 2. In the Home tab, click the Conditional Formatting command. A drop-down menu will appear. 3. Select Highlight Cells Rules or Top/Bottom Rules. We'll choose Highlight Cells Rules for this example. A menu will appear with several rules. 4. Select the desired rule (Greater Than, for example) 5. From the dialog box, enter a value in the space provided, if applicable. In this example, we want to format cells that are greater than \$5000, so we'll enter 5000 as our value. If you want, you can enter a cell reference instead of a number. 6. Select a formatting style from the drop-down menu. 5

7 7. The formatting will be applied to the selected cells. To use preset conditional formatting: 1. Select the cells you want to add formatting to. 2. In the Home tab, click the Conditional Formatting command. A drop-down menu will appear. 3. Select Data Bars, Color Scales, or Icon Sets. Then select the desired preset. 4. The conditional formatting will be applied to the selected cells. a. Data bars are horizontal bars added to each cell, much like a bar graph 6

8 b. Color scales change the color of each cell based on its value c. Icon sets add a specific icon to each cell based on its value To remove conditional formatting rules: 1. Select the cells that have conditional formatting. 2. In the Home tab, click the Conditional Formatting command. A drop-down menu will appear. 3. Select Clear Rules. 4. A menu will appear. You can choose to clear rules from the Selected Cells, Entire Sheet, This Table, or This PivotTable. In this example, we'll clear rules from the entire sheet. 7

9 PivotTable PivotTable reports or PivotTables make the data in your worksheets much more manageable by summarizing the data and allowing you to manipulate it in different ways. PivotTables can be an indispensable tool when used with large and complex spreadsheets, but they can be used with smaller spreadsheets as well. When you have a lot of data, it can sometimes be difficult to analyze it all. A PivotTable summarizes the data, making it easier to manage. Best of all, you can quickly and easily change the PivotTable to see the data in a different way, making it an extremely powerful tool. Using a PivotTable to answer questions The example below contains sales statistics for a fictional company. There is a row for each order, and it includes the order amount, name of the salesperson that made the sale, month, sales region, and customer account number. Company Sales Statistics Let's say we wanted to answer the question What is the amount sold by each salesperson? This could be time consuming because each salesperson appears on multiple rows, and we would need to add all of the order amounts for each salesperson. Of course, we could use the Subtotal feature to add them, but we would still have a lot of data to sift through. 8

10 Luckily, a PivotTable can instantly do all of the math for us and summarize the data in a way that's not only easy to read but also easy to manipulate. When we're done, the PivotTable will look something like this: A finished PivotTable As you can see, the PivotTable is much easier to read. It only takes a few steps to create one, and once you create it you'll be able to take advantage of its powerful features. Using a PivotTable: 1. Select the table or cells including column headers containing the data you want to use. 2. From the Insert tab, click the PivotTable command. 9

11 3. The Create PivotTable dialog box will appear. Make sure the settings are correct, then click OK. 4. A blank PivotTable will appear on the left, and the Field List will appear on the right. To add fields to the PivotTable: You'll need to decide which fields to add to the PivotTable. Each field is a column header from the source data. It may be helpful to recall the question you are trying to 10

12 answer. In this example, we want to know the total amount sold by each salesperson, so we'll need the Order Amount and Salesperson fields. 1. In the Field List, place a check mark next to each field you want to add. 2. The selected fields will be added to one of the four areas below the Field List. In this example, the Salesperson field is added to the Row Labels area, and the Order Amount is added to the Values area. If a field is not in the desired area, you can drag it to a different one. 3. The PivotTable now shows the amount sold by each salesperson. Just like with normal spreadsheet data, you can sort the data in a PivotTable using the Sort & Filter command on the Home tab. You can also apply any type of formatting you want. For example, you may want to change the number format to Currency. However, be aware that some types of formatting may disappear when you modify the PivotTable. If you change any of the data in your source worksheet, the PivotTable will not update automatically. To manually update it, select the PivotTable and then go to Options-Refresh. 11

13 Pivoting data One of the best things about a PivotTable is that it lets you pivot the data in order to look at it in a different way. This allows you to answer multiple questions and even experiment with the data to learn new things about it. In our example, we used the PivotTable to answer the question What is the total amount sold by each salesperson? Now we'd like to answer a new question, What is the total amount sold in each month? We can do this by changing the row labels. To change row labels: 1. Drag any existing fields out of the Row Labels area, and they will disappear. 2. Drag a new field from the PivotTable Field List into the Row Labels area. In this example, we'll use the Month field. 12

14 3. The PivotTable will adjust to show the new data. In this example, it now shows us the total Order Amount for each month. To add column labels: So far, our PivotTable has only shown one column of data at a time. To show multiple columns, we'll need to add column labels. 1. Drag a field from the PivotTable Field List into the Column Labels area. In this example, we'll use the Region field. 2. The PivotTable will now have multiple columns. In this example, there is a column for each region. 13

15 Using report filters Sometimes you may want focus on a portion of the data and filter out everything else. In our example, we'll focus on certain salespeople to see how they affect the total sales. To add a report filter: 1. Drag a field from the Field List into the Report Filter area. In this example, we'll use the Salesperson field. 2. The report filter appears above the PivotTable. Click the drop-down arrow on the right side of the filter to view the list of items. 3. Select the item you want to view. If you want to select more than one item, place a check mark next to Select Multiple Items, then click OK. In the example below, we are selecting four salespeople. 4. Click OK. The PivotTable will adjust to reflect the changes. 14

16 Slicers Slicers were introduced in Excel 2010 to make filtering data easier and more interactive. They're basically just report filters, but they're more interactive and faster to use because they let you quickly select items and instantly see the result. If you filter your PivotTables a lot, you might want to use slicers instead of report filters. To add a slicer: 1. Select any cell in your PivotTable. The Options tab will appear on the Ribbon. 2. From the Options tab, click the Insert Slicer command. A dialog box will appear. 3. Select the desired field. In this example, we'll select Salesperson. Then click OK. 15

17 4. The slicer will appear next to the PivotTable. Each item selected will be highlighted in blue. In the example below, the slicer contains a list of the different salespeople, and four of them are currently selected. Using the slicer: Just like with report filters, only the selected items are used in the PivotTable. When you select or deselect items, the PivotTable will instantly reflect the changes. Try selecting different items to see how they affect the PivotTable. To select a single item, click it. To select multiple items, hold down the Control (Ctrl) key on your keyboard, then click each item you want. You can also select multiple items by clicking and dragging the mouse. This is useful if the desired items are adjacent to one another, or if you want to select all of the items. To deselect an item, hold down the Control (Ctrl) key on your keyboard, then click the item. 16

18 Using a PivotChart A PivotChart is like a regular chart, except it displays data from a PivotTable. As with a regular chart, you'll be able to select a chart type, layout, and style to best represent the data. In this example, we'll use a PivotChart so we can visualize the trends in each sales region. To create a PivotChart: 1. Select any cell in your PivotTable. The Options tab will appear on the Ribbon. 2. From the Options tab, click the PivotChart command. 3. From the dialog box, select the desired chart type (3-D Clustered Column, for example), then click OK. 4. The PivotChart will appear in the worksheet. If you want, you can move it by clicking and dragging. If you make any changes to the PivotTable, the PivotChart will adjust automatically. 17

20 2. From the Data tab, click the What-If Analysis command, then select Goal Seek from the drop-down menu. 3. A dialog box will appear with three fields: o o o Set cell: This is the cell that will contain the desired result. In our example, cell B7 is already selected. To value: This is the desired result. In our example, we'll enter 70 because we need to earn at least that to pass the class. By changing cell: This is the cell where Goal Seek will place its answer. In our example, we'll select cell B6 because we want to determine the grade we need to earn on the final assignment. 4. When you're done, click OK. 19

21 5. The dialog box will tell you if Goal Seek was able to find a solution. Click OK. 6. The result will appear in the specified cell. In our example, Goal Seek calculated that we will need to score at least a 90 on the final assignment to earn a passing grade. To use Goal Seek (Example 2): Let's say you need a loan to buy a new car. You already know you want a loan amount of \$20,000, a 60-month term the length of time it takes to pay off the loan and a payment of no more than \$400 per month. However, you're not sure yet what the interest rate will be. In the image below, you can see that Interest Rate is left blank and Payment is \$ This is because the payment is being calculated by a specialized function called the PMT (Payment) function, and \$ is what the monthly payment would be if there were no interest (\$20,000 divided by 60 monthly payments). 20

22 If we typed different values into the empty Interest Rate cell, we could eventually find the value that causes Payment to be \$400, and that would be the highest interest rate that we could afford. However, Goal Seek can do this automatically by starting with the result and working backward. To insert the PMT function: 1. Select the cell where you want the function to be. 2. From the Formula tab, select the Financial command. 3. A drop-down menu will appear showing all financial-related functions. Scroll down and select the PMTfunction. 21

23 4. A dialog box will appear. 5. Enter the desired values and/or cell references into the different fields. In this example, we're only using Rate, Nper (the number of payments), and Pv (the loan amount). 6. Click OK. The result will appear in the selected cell. Note that this is not our final result because we still don't know what the interest rate will be. To use Goal Seek to find the interest rate: Now that we've added the PMT function, we can use Goal Seek to find the interest rate we'll need. 1. From the Data tab, click the What-If Analysis command. 2. Select Goal Seek. 22

24 3. A dialog box will appear containing three fields: o o o Set cell: This is the cell that will contain the desired result (in this case, the monthly payment). In this example, we will set it to B5 (it doesn't matter whether it's an absolute or relative reference). To value: This is the desired result. We'll set it to Because we're making a payment that will be subtracted from our loan amount, we have to enter the payment as a negative number. By changing cell: This is the cell where Goal Seek will place its answer (in this case, the interest rate). We'll set it to B4. 4. When you're done, click OK. The dialog box will tell you whether Goal Seek was able to find a solution. In this example, the solution is 7.42%, and it has been placed in cell B4. This tells us that a 7.42% interest rate will give us a \$400-per-month payment on a \$20,000 loan that is paid off over five years, or 60 months. Other types of what-if analysis For more advanced projects, you may want to consider the other types of what-if analysis: scenarios and data tables. Rather than start from the desired result and working backward like with Goal Seek, you can use these options to test multiple values and see how the results change. 23

25 Scenarios let you substitute values for multiple cells (up to 32) at the same time. You can create as many scenarios as you want and then compare them without changing the values manually. In the example below, each scenario contains a term and an interest rate. When each scenario is selected, it will replace the values in the spreadsheet with its own values, and the result will be recalculated. For more information on scenarios, check out this article from Microsoft. Data tables allow you to take one or two variables in a formula and replace them with as many different values as you want, then view the results in a table. This option is especially powerful because it shows multiple results at the same time, unlike scenarios or Goal Seek. In the example below, we can view 24 possible results for a car loan. 24

26 Excel Practice Exercises Advanced Exercise 1: CREATING SIMPLE FORMULAS 1. Open an existing Excel 2010 workbook. If you want, you can use this example. 2. Create a formula that uses an absolute reference. If you are using the example, calculate the sales tax in E4:E20. Use cell C23 as your absolute reference to the price of sales tax. 3. Create a formula that uses a relative reference. If you are using the example, create a formula that adds the price of each item in column D and the sales tax for each item in column E, then multiplies the result by the quantity of each item in column F. Enter your results in the totals column (column G). Hint: You'll need to think about the order of operations for this to work correctly. Exercise 1: Sparklines 1. Open an existing Excel 2010 workbook. If you want, you can use this example. 2. Create a sparkline on the first row of data. If you are using the example, create a sparkline for the first salesperson. 3. Use the fill handle to create sparklines for the remaining rows. 4. Change the sparkline type. 5. Create markers for the High Point and Low Point. Exercise 3: Conditional Formatting 1. Open an existing Excel 2010 workbook. If you want, you can use this example. 2. Apply conditional formatting to a range of cells with numerical values. If you are using the example, apply formatting to all of the sales data. 3. Apply a second conditional formatting rule to the same set of cells. 4. Explore the Conditional Formatting Rules Manager dialog box. 5. Clear all conditional formatting rules from the worksheet. Exercise 4: PivotTable 1. Open an existing Excel 2010 workbook. If you want, you can use this example. 2. Create a PivotTable using the data in the workbook. 3. Experiment with different row labels and column labels. 4. Filter the report with a slicer. 5. Create a PivotChart. 25

27 If you are using the example, use the PivotTable to answer the question, Which salesperson sold the lowest amount in January? Hint: First decide which fields you need in order to answer the question. Exercise 5: What-If analysis 1. Open an existing Excel 2010 workbook. If you want, you can use this example. 2. Use Goal Seek to determine an unknown value. If you're using the example, go to the History Class worksheet and use Goal Seek to determine what grade you would need on Test 3 to earn a final grade average of Insert the PMT function into the worksheet. If you are using the example, go to the Car Loan worksheet and insert the function into cell B5. 4. Use Goal Seek to find the interest rate you'll need in order to have a monthly payment of \$400. What interest rate would you need if you could only afford a \$380 monthly payment? 26

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