# Page Replacement. 3/9/07 CSE 30341: Operating Systems Principles

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1 Page Replacement page 1

2 Page Replacement Algorithms Want lowest page-fault rate Evaluate algorithm by running it on a particular string of memory references (reference string) and computing the number of page faults on that string In all our examples, the reference string is 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 page 2

3 Graph of Page Faults Versus The Number of Frames page 3

4 First-In-First-Out (FIFO) Algorithm Reference string: 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 3 frames (3 pages can be in memory at a time per process) page faults 4 frames page faults FIFO Replacement Belady s Anomaly more frames more page faults page 4

5 FIFO Page Replacement page 5

6 FIFO Illustrating Belady s Anomaly page 6

7 Optimal Algorithm Replace page that will not be used for longest period of time 4 frames example 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4, page faults How do you know this? Used for measuring how well your algorithm performs page 7

8 Optimal Page Replacement page 8

9 Least Recently Used (LRU) Algorithm Reference string: 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4, Counter implementation Every page entry has a counter; every time page is referenced through this entry, copy the clock into the counter When a page needs to be changed, look at the counters to determine which are to change page 9

10 LRU Algorithm (Cont.) Stack implementation keep a stack of page numbers in a double link form: Page referenced: move it to the top requires 6 pointers to be changed Unlike counter based approach, does not search for replacement page 10

11 Use Of A Stack to Record The Most Recent Page References page 11

12 LRU Approximation Algorithms Reference bit With each page associate a bit, initially = 0 When page is referenced bit set to 1 Replace the one which is 0 (if one exists). We do not know the order, however. Additional reference bits Hardware sets bit, OS periodically shifts bit Second chance Need reference bit Clock replacement FIFO algorithm; if page to be replaced (in clock order) has reference bit = 1 then: set reference bit 0 leave page in memory replace next page (in clock order), subject to same rules page 12

13 Second-Chance (clock) Page-Replacement Algorithm Enhanced second-chance (reference & modified bit) page 13

14 Counting Algorithms Keep a counter of the number of references that have been made to each page LFU Algorithm: replaces page with smallest count. One problem is that pages that were active a long time back may survive. Can use a policy that shifts the counter periodically. MFU Algorithm: based on the argument that the page with the smallest count was probably just brought in and has yet to be used page 14

15 Page buffering algorithms Maintain a pool of free-frames If page needs to be written to disk, allocate a page from free pool, and once the write completes return that page to the free pool List of modified files and when idle, write contents to disk and reset modified bit Move pages to free-list, but if process needs that page again, move it from free to active list page 15

16 Allocation of Frames How should the OS distribute the frames among the various processes? Each process needs minimum number of pages - at least the minimum number of pages required for a single assembly instruction to complete Example: IBM pages to handle SS MOVE instruction: instruction is 6 bytes, might span 2 pages 2 pages to handle from 2 pages to handle to Two major allocation schemes fixed allocation priority allocation page 16

17 Fixed Allocation Equal allocation For example, if there are 100 frames and 5 processes, give each process 20 frames. s S = " s a i i = size of process i m = total number of = allocation for p i p Proportional allocation Allocate according to the size of process m s s a a i = 64 = 10 = 127 i frames si =! m S 10 = " 64! = " 64! page 17

18 Priority Allocation Use a proportional allocation scheme using priorities rather than size If process P i generates a page fault, select for replacement one of its frames select for replacement a frame from a process with lower priority number page 18

19 Global vs. Local Allocation Global replacement process selects a replacement frame from the set of all frames; one process can take a frame from another It is possible for processes to suffer page faults through no fault of theirs However, improves system throughput Local replacement each process selects from only its own set of allocated frames May not use free space in the system page 19

20 Thrashing If a process does not have enough pages, the page-fault rate is very high. This leads to: low CPU utilization operating system thinks that it needs to increase the degree of multiprogramming because of low cpu utilization another process added to the system Thrashing a process is busy swapping pages in and out page 20

21 Thrashing (Cont.) page 21

22 Demand Paging and Thrashing Why does demand paging work? Locality model Process migrates from one locality to another Localities may overlap E.g. for ( ) { } computations; for (.. ) { } computations; Why does thrashing occur? Σ size of locality > total memory size page 22

23 Working-Set Model Δ working-set window a fixed number of page references Example: 10,000 instruction WSS i (working set of Process P i ) = total number of pages referenced in the most recent Δ (varies in time) if Δ too small will not encompass entire locality if Δ too large will encompass several localities if Δ = will encompass entire program D = Σ WSS i total demand frames if D > m Thrashing Policy if D > m, then suspend one of the processes page 23

24 Working-set model page 24

25 Keeping Track of the Working Set Approximate with interval timer + a reference bit Example: Δ = 10,000 Timer interrupts after every 5000 time units Keep in memory 2 bits for each page Whenever a timer interrupts copy and sets the values of all reference bits to 0 If one of the bits in memory = 1 page in working set Why is this not completely accurate? Improvement = 10 bits and interrupt every 1000 time units page 25

26 Page-Fault Frequency Scheme Establish acceptable page-fault rate If actual rate too low, process loses frame If actual rate too high, process gains frame page 26

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