Chapter Two. Lesson A. Objectives. Exploring the UNIX File System and File Security. Understanding Files and Directories

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1 Chapter Two Exploring the UNIX File System and File Security Lesson A Understanding Files and Directories 2 Objectives Discuss and explain the UNIX file system Define a UNIX file system partition Use the mount command to mount a file system 3 1

2 Objectives (cont.) Discuss relative and absolute path addressing Diagram the UNIX file system hierarchy Navigate the file system 4 Understanding the UNIX File System A file is the basic component for data storage UNIX considers everything it interacts with a file A file system is UNIX s way of organizing files on mass storage (disk) devices A physical file system is a section of the hard disk that has been formatted to hold files The file system is organized in a hierarchical structure similar to an inverted tree 5 6 2

3 Understanding the Standard Tree Structure The structure starts at the root level Root is the name of the file at this basic level and it is denoted by the slash character (/) A directory is a file that can contain other files and directories A subdirectory is a directory within a directory The subdirectory is considered the child of the parent directory 7 Using UNIX Partitions The section of the disk that holds a file system is called a partition When installing UNIX, one of the first tasks is deciding how to partition a storage device, or hard disk Hard disks may have many partitions UNIX partitions are given names LINUX uses hda1 and hda2 8 Using UNIX Partitions Storage devices are called peripheral devices Peripheral devices connect to the computer through electronic interfaces IDE - Integrated Drive Electronics SCSI - Small Computer System Interface 9 3

4 10 Exploring the Root File System UNIX must mount a file system before any programs can access files on it To mount a file system is to connect it to the directory tree structure The root file system is mounted by the kernel when the system starts 11 Exploring the Root File System The root directory contains sub-directories that contain files: /bin contains binaries, or executables needed to start the system and perform system tasks /boot contains files needed by the bootstrap loader as well as kernel images /dev contains system device reference files 12 4

5 13 Exploring the Root File System Root subdirectories continued: /etc contains configuration files that the system uses when the computer starts /lib contains kernel modules, security information, and the shared library images /mnt contains mount points for temporary mounts by the system administrator /proc is a virtual file system allocated in memory only 14 Exploring the Root File System Root subdirectories continued: /root is the home directory of the root user, or the system administrator /sbin contains essential network programs used only by the system administrator /tmp is a temporary place to store data during processing cycles /var contains subdirectories which have sizes that often change, such as error logs 15 5

6 Using the Mount Command Users can access mounted file systems which they have permission to access Additional file systems can be mounted at any time using the mount command To ensure system security, only the root user uses the mount command 16 Understanding Paths and Pathnames To specify a file or directory, use its pathname, which follows the branches of the file system to the desired file A forward slash (/) separates each directory name The UNIX command prompt may indicate your location within the file system Use the UNIX pwd command to display the current path name

7 Navigating the File System To navigate the UNIX directory structure, use the cd (change directory) command UNIX refers to a path as either: Absolute - begins at the root level and lists all subdirectories to the destination file Relative - begins at your current working directory and proceeds from there 19 Listing Directory Contents The ls (list) command displays a directory s contents, including files and subdirectories 20 Listing Directory Contents The system normally uses hidden files to keep configuration information and for other purposes 21 7

8 Lesson B Working with Files, Directories, and Security 22 Objectives Create new directories to store files Copy files from one directory to another Set file permissions for other user access to directory and files 23 Managing Directories and Files mkdir (make directory) command Create a new directory rmdir (make directory) command Delete an empty directory cp (copy) command Copy files from one director to another rm (remove) command Delete files 24 8

9 Setting File Permissions 25 Setting File Permissions r w x r - x r - x File Permissions Owner has read Owner has write Owner has execute Group has read Group does not have write Group has execute Others have read Others do not have write Others have execute 26 Setting File Permissions for Security chmod command To set file permissions Settings are read (r), write (w), execute (x) The three types of users are owners, groups, and others Setting permissions to directories Use the execute (x) to grant access 27 9

10 Chapter Summary In UNIX, a file is the basic component for data storage and UNIX considers everything a file A file system is the UNIX system s way of organizing files on mass storage devices and each file is referenced using a correct and unique pathname The standard tree structure starts with the root (/) directory The section of the mass storage device (or disk) that holds a file system is a partition 28 Chapter Summary A path serves as as a map to access any file on the system You may customize your command prompt to display the current working directory name, the current date and time, and several other items The ls command displays the names of files and directories contained in a directory Wildcard characters (i.e. *,?) can be used in a command such as ls and take the place of other characters in a file name 29 Chapter Summary Use the mkdir command to create a new directory, as long as you own the parent Use the chmod command to set permissions such as read (r), write (w), execute (x) for files that you own Use the cp command to copy a source file to a destination file and directory 30 10

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