# Boolean Logic CS.352.F12

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1 Boolean Logic CS.352.F12

2 Boolean Algebra

3 Boolean Algebra Mathematical system used to manipulate logic equations. Boolean: deals with binary values (True/False, yes/no, on/off, 1/0) Algebra: set of operations to manipulate values and evaluate expressions

4 Boolean Functions A Boolean function is a function that operates on binary inputs and returns binary outputs. Play a central role in the specification, construction, and optimization of hardware architectures.

5 Truth Table Representation A Truth Table is the enumeration of all the possible outputs of a Boolean function given all possible input values. x y z f(x, y, z)

6 Board: Construct Truth Tables Boolean Expression A Boolean expression the application of Boolean operators over set of variables. 1. And: x * y is 1 exactly when both x and y are 1 2. Or: x + y is 1 exactly when either x or y or both are 1 3. Not: x' is 1 exactly when x is 0

7 Exercise 1: Boolean Expression -> Truth Tables Construct truth tables for the following boolean expressions: 1. f(x, y) = x' + y 2. f(x, y, z) = (x * y) + (y * z')

8 Exercise 1: Boolean Expression -> Truth Tables 1. f(x, y) = x' + y x y f(x, y)

9 Exercise 1: Boolean Expression -> Truth Tables 2. f(x, y, z) = (x * y) + (y * z') x y z f(x, y, z)

10 Canonical Representation Every Boolean function can be expressed using at least one Boolean expression called the canonical representation: For each row in truth table where output is 1, construct a term by And-ing together the variables of that row, and then Or all of these terms to form a Sum of Products. Every Boolean function, no matter how complex, can be expressed using three Boolean operators only: And, Or, and Not.

11 Exercise 2: Truth Table -> Canonical Representation Construct the canonical representation from the following truth table: x y z f(x, y, z)

12 Exercise 2: Truth Table -> Canonical Representation f(x, y, z) = x'yz' + xy'z' + xyz' x y z f(x, y, z)

13

14 Minimization While there is only one truth table representation for every Boolean function, there may exist multiple boolean expressions. For economic reasons, we usually want to minimize or reduce the number of logical operators used in our boolean expression.

15 Minimization: Algebraic Laws Identity A * 1 = A A + 0 = A Annulment A + 1 = 1 A * 0 = 0 Complement A + A' = 1 A * A' = 0 Indempotent A + A = A A * A = A

16 Minimization: More Algebraic Laws Associative Law A * B * C = (A * B) * C = A * (B * C) A + B + C = (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) Commutative Law A * B * C = B * A * C =... A + B + C = B + A + C =... Distributive Law A * (B + C) = (A * B) + (A * C) A + (B * C) = (A + B) * (A + C) DeMorgan's Law (A * B)' = A' + B' (A + B)' = A' * B'

17 Exercise 3: Minimize with Algebraic Laws Simplify the following Boolean function: f(x, y, z) = x'yz' + xy'z' + xyz'

18 Exercise 3: Minimize with Algebraic Laws f(x, y, z) = x'yz' + xy'z' + xyz' factor = z'(x'y + xy' + xy) factor = z'(x'y + x(y' + y)) complement = z'(x'y + x(1)) identity = z'(x'y + x) distribute = z'((x' + x) * (y + x)) complement = z'((1) * (y + x)) identity = z'(y + x)

19 Board: Simplify Expression Minimization: Karnaugh Maps Logic graph where all logic domains are continuous, making logic relationships easy to identify.

20 Board: Simplify Expression Minimization: Karnaugh Maps (4 inputs)

21 Logic Gate

22 Logic Gate A gate is a physical device that implements a Boolean function. - Inputs and outputs of a Boolean Function = Input and output pins of gate. - Today, most gates are implemented as transistors etched in silicon (chips).

23 Primitive Gates A primitive gate is a device that implements an elementary logical operation. And Or Not These devices can be implemented by a variety of technologies but their behavior is governed by the abstract notions of Boolean algebra.

24 Board: Draw Composite Gate Composite Gates We can chain together various primitive gates to form larger and more complex composite gates. Multi-way Example: And(a, b, c) = a * b *c = (a * b) * c

25 Exercise 4: boolean function -> gates Implement the following boolean functions as composite gates: 1. Nand(a, b) = (a*b)' 2. Xor(a, b) = a*b' + a'*b 3. And(a, b, c, d) = a*b*c*d

26 Exercise 4: boolean function -> gates Draw composite gates on the board.

27 Interface vs Implementation Each logic gate has a unique interface, but may have multiple implementations. Interface: the input and output pins exposed to the outside world and the specified behavior. Implementation: the manner in which the specified behavior is accomplished.

28 Interface vs Implementation: Propagation Delay There is always a delay in a change in the input of a gate to the corresponding change in the output of the gate. Example: Serial And vs Parallel And Board: draw composite gates

29 Board: Write Truth table & Boolean Expression Multiplexers A multiplexer is a three-input gate that uses one of the inputs, called the "selection bit", to select and output one of the other two inputs, called "data bits".

30 Board: Write Truth table Demultiplexer Opposite of a multiplexer; it takes a single input and channels it to one of two possible outputs according to a selector bit.

31 Decoder A combinational circuit that converts binary information from n input lines to a maximum of 2 N unique output lines.

32 Exercise 5: multiplexer Implement a 4-to-1 multiplexor.

33 Exercise 5: multiplexer 1. Use 2-to-4 decoder and 4 And gates and an Or gate 2. Use 4 And3 gates and an Or gate 3. Use 3 2-to-1 multiplexers

34 Board: Sketch Multi-bit And Multi-bit Gates Computer hardware normally operates on multi-bit arrays called buses. Building a multi-bit gate is easy: construct arrays of n elementary gates.

35 HDL

36 HDL Today's hardware designers use Hardware Description Languages to plan and optimize their chip architectures. - Simulate the hardware. - Test the hardware. - Model resource usage.

37 VHDL -- import std_logic from the IEEE library library IEEE; use IEEE.std_logic_1164.all; -- this is the entity entity ANDGATE is port ( I1 : in std_logic; I2 : in std_logic; O : out std_logic); end entity ANDGATE; -- this is the architecture architecture RTL of ANDGATE is begin O <= I1 and I2; end architecture RTL;

38 Verilog // And gate module AND2(A, B, C); input A; input B; output C; assign C = A & B; endmodule

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