# ISOGEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF PLANE STRESS STRUCTURE CHUM ZHI XIAN

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1 ISOGEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF PLANE STRESS STRUCTURE CHUM ZHI XIAN A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Engineering (Civil-Structure) Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia JUNE 2015

2 iii Specially dedicated to my beloved parents, brother, sister, lecturers, and friends.

3 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to express gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Mohd. Ridza bin Mohd. Haniffah and co-supervisor, Dr. Airil Yasreen Mohd. Yassin for their patience, guidance and support as well as time that have been contributed throughout this research study. Also, special thanks to Dr. Ahmad Razin bin Zainal MD. Taib who has worked out this project together. I am also thankful to Al Akhbar Mohd. Nor and Mohd. Zhafri Jamil. Without their helping hand, I would not be able to achieve this far. Last but not least, I would like to express my appreciation to my friends and family that have given me direct and indirect support in this project.

4 v ABSTRACT Differential equations are derived to describe the physical phenomena in engineering system. In this project, differential equations of simple rectangular plane stress problem were first derived and solved using Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) and Finite Element Method (FEM). The root idea of IGA is to use a single basis to represent the geometry and the analysis fields in order to overcome the bottleneck in Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). The aim is to investigate the performance of IGA as compared to FEM. It is realized that the main difference between the two numerical techniques adopted is the formulation of shape functions. Therefore, emphasis is put on the formulation of IGA using Non- Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) as the basis function where the results obtained are compared against finite element formulation which uses polynomial functions for the shape functions. Besides that, the results by both formulations are verified against exact solution and commercial software. Although only the shape function differs, IGA uses a global shape function over the domain while FEM uses the same local shape functions over the elements in the domain. Performance study on IGA was also carried out. It has been found that the convergence of IGA is comparable to conventional FEM and the error is small against the exact solution. Despite more time is needed to compute the shape functions in IGA, there are various refinement mechanisms in IGA where knot insertion shows the best performance in this study. In short, IGA is worthwhile to be used as an analysis tool to initiate the communication between computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE).

5 vi ABSTRAK Persamaan terbitan diperolehi untuk menggambarkan fenomena fizikal dalam sistem kejuruteraan. Dalam kajian ini, persamaan terbitan bagi masalah tegasan dalam satah yang mempunyai bentuk segiempat diperolehi terlebih dahulu dan kemudiannya diselesaikan dengan menggunakan Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) dan Kaedah Unsur Terhingga (FEM). Tujuannya adalah untuk menyiasat prestasi IGA berbanding dengan FEM. Perbezaan utama antara kedua-dua kaedah berangka ini adalah pada penggubalan fungsi bentuk (shape functions). Oleh itu, penekanan diletakkan dalam penggubalan IGA yang menggunakan Non-Uniform Rational B- splines (NURBS) sebagai fungsi asas (basis function) di mana hasil yang diperolehi akan dibandingkan dengan FEM yang menggunakan polinomial sebagai fungsi bentuknya. Selain itu, hasil kajian daripada kedua-dua formulasi ini telah dibandingkan dan disahkan dengan penyelesaian analitikal dan penggunaan perisian komersial. Walaupun hanya fungsi bentuk yang berbeza, IGA menggunakan fungsi bentuk yang global merangkumi keseluruhan domain manakala FEM menggunakan fungsi bentuk yang spesifik kepada satu elemen dan ianya adalah sama untuk keseluruhan elemen di dalam domain. Berdasarkan kepada kajian prestasi IGA, didapati bahawa penumpuan (convergence) IGA adalah setanding dengan FEM dengan ralat yang kecil berbanding dengan penyelesaian analitikal. Walaupun lebih banyak masa diperlukan untuk mengira fungsi bentuk IGA, terdapat pelbagai mekanisme untuk memperhalusi prestasi IGA dimana knot insertion menunjukkan prestasi yang terbaik dalam kajian ini. Sebagai rumusan, IGA boleh digunakan sebagai alat analisis bagi memulakan komunikasi di antara reka bentuk bantuan komputer (CAD) dan kejuruteraan bantuan komputer (CAE).

### ISOGEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF PLANE STRESS STRUCTURE CHUM ZHI XIAN

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