Boolean Algebra. BME208 Logic Circuits Yalçın İŞLER


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1 Boolean Algebra BME28 Logic Circuits Yalçın İŞLER
2 5 Boolean Algebra /2 A set of elements B There exist at least two elements x, y B s. t. x y Binary operators: + and closure w.r.t. both + and additive identity? multiplicative identity? commutative w.r.t. both + and Associative w.r.t. both + and Distributive law: is distributive over +? + is distributive over? We do not have both in ordinary algebra
3 Boolean Algebra 2/2 Complement x B, there exist an element x B a. x + x = (multiplicative identity) and b. x x = (additive identity) Not available in ordinary algebra Differences btw ordinary and Boolean algebra Ordinary algebra with real numbers Boolean algebra with elements of set B Complement Distributive law Do not substitute laws from one to another where they are not applicable 6
4 TwoValued Boolean Algebra /3 To define a Boolean algebra The set B Rules for two binary operations The elements of B and rules should conform to our axioms Twovalued Boolean algebra B = {, } x y x y x y x + y x x 7
5 TwoValued Boolean Algebra 2/3 Check the axioms Two distinct elements, Closure, associative, commutative, identity elements Complement x + x = and x x = Distributive law x y z 8 y z x+(y z) x + y x + z (x + y) (x + z)
6 TwoValued Boolean Algebra 3/3 Twovalued Boolean algebra is actually equivalent to the binary logic defined heuristically before Operations: AND + OR Complement NOT Binary logic is application of Boolean algebra to the gatetype circuits Twovalued Boolean algebra is developed in a formal mathematical manner This formalism is necessary to develop theorems and properties of Boolean algebra 9
7 Duality Principle An important principle every algebraic expression deducible from the axioms of Boolean algebra remains valid if the operators and identity elements are interchanged Example: x + x = x x + x = (x+x) (identity element) = (x+x)(x+x ) (complement) = x+xx (+ over ) = x (complement) duality principle x + x = x x x = x
8 Duality Principle & Theorems Theorem a: x + = x + = (x + ) = (x + x )(x + ) = x + x =x + x = Theorem b: (using duality) x. =
9 Absorption Theorem a. x + xy = x =x.+xy =x(+y) =x 2
10 Involution & DeMorgan s Theorems Involution Theorem: (x ) = x x + x = and x x = Complement of x is x Complement is unique DeMorgan s Theorem: a. (x + y) = x y b. From duality? (x.y) =x +y 3
11 Truth Tables for DeMorgan s Theorem (x + y) = x y x y x+y (x+y) x y (x y) 4 x y x y x + y
12 Operator Precedence. Parentheses 2. NOT 3. AND 4. OR Example: (x + y) x y x + x y 5
13 Boolean Functions Consists of binary variables (normal or complement form) the constants, and logic operation symbols, + and Example: F (x, y, z) = x + y z F 2 (x, y, z) = x y z + x y z + xy x y z F F 2 6
14 Logic Circuit Diagram of F F (x, y, z) = x + y z x y z y x + y z y z Gate Implementation of F = x + y z 7
15 Logic Circuit Diagram of F 2 F 2 = x y z + x y z + xy x y z F 2 Algebraic manipulation F 2 = x y z + x y z + xy = x z(y +y) + xy 8
16 Alternative Implementation of F 2 F 2 = x z + xy x y z F 2 F 2 = x y z + x y z + xy x y z F 2 9
17 Example
18 Example
19 Example
20 OTHER LOGIC OPERATORS  AND, OR, NOT are logic operators Boolean functions with two variables three of the 6 possible twovariable Boolean functions x y F F F 2 F 3 F 4 F 5 F 6 F 7 23 x y F 8 F 9 F F F 2 F 3 F 4 F 5
21 OTHER LOGIC OPERATORS  2 Some of the Boolean functions with two variables Constant functions: F = and F 5 = AND function: F = xy OR function: F 7 = x + y XOR function: F 6 = x y + xy = x y (x or y, but not both) XNOR (Equivalence) function: F 9 = xy + x y = (x y) (x equals y) NOR function: F 8 = (x + y) = (x y) (NotOR) NAND function: F 4 = (x y) = (x y) (NotAND) 24
22 Logic Gate Symbols NOT TRANSFER AND XOR OR XNOR NAND NOR 25
23 Universal Gates NAND and NOR gates are universal We know any Boolean function can be written in terms of three logic operations: AND, OR, NOT In return, NAND gate can implement these three logic gates by itself So can NOR gate x y (xy) x y (x y ) 26
24 NAND Gate x x y x y 27
25 NOR Gate x x y x y 28
26 A function: F = x y + xy Designs with NAND gates Example /2 x y 29
27 Example 2/2 F 2 = x y + xy x y 3
28 Multiple Input Gates AND and OR operations: They are both commutative and associative No problem with extending the number of inputs NAND and NOR operations: they are both commutative but not associative Extending the number of inputs is not obvious Example: NAND gates ((xy) z) (x(yz) ) ((xy) z) = xy + z (x(yz) ) = x + yz 3
29 Nonassociativity of NOR operation z 32
30 Multiple Input Universal Gates To overcome this difficulty, we define multipleinput NAND and NOR gates in slightly different manner Three input NAND gate: (x y z) x y z (x y z) Three input NOR gate:(x + y + z) x y z (x + y + z) 33
31 Multiple Input Universal Gates x y z (x + y + z) x y z (xyz) 3input NOR gate 3input NAND gate A B C D E F = Cascaded NAND gates 34
32 XOR and XNOR Gates XOR and XNOR operations are both commutative and associative. No problem manufacturing multiple input XOR and XNOR gates However, they are more costly from hardware point of view. Therefore, we usually have 2input XOR and XNOR gates x y x y z z 35
33 36 3input XOR Gates
34 38 Complement of a Function F is complement of F We can obtain F, by interchanging of s and s in the truth table F z F y x F = F =
35 Generalizing DeMorgan s Theorem We can also utilize DeMorgan s Theorem (x + y) = x y (A + B + C) = (A+B) C = A B C We can generalize DeMorgan s Theorem.(x + x x N ) = x x 2 x N 2. (x x 2 x N ) = x + x x N 39
36 Example: Complement of a Function Example: F = x yz + x y z F = (x yz + x y z) = (x yz ) (x y z) = (x + y + z)(x + y + z ) F 2 = x(y z + yz) F 2 = (x(y z + yz)) = x +(y z + yz) = x + (y + z) (y + z ) Easy Way to Complement: take the dual of the function and complement each literal 4
37 Minterms 4 Canonical & Standard Forms A product term: all variables appear (either in its normal, x, or its complement form, x ) How many different terms we can get with x and y? x y m x y m xy m 2 xy m 3 m, m, m 2, m 3 (minterms or AND terms, standard product) n variables can be combined to form 2 n minterms
38 Canonical & Standard Forms Maxterms (OR terms, standard sums) M = x + y M = x + y M 2 = x + y M 3 = x + y n variables can be combined to form 2 n maxterms m = M m = M m 2 = M 2 m 3 = M 3 42
39 Example xyz m i M i F m =x y z M =x+y+z m =x y z M =x+y+z m 2 =x yz M 2 =x+y +z m 3 =x yz M 3 =x+y +z m 4 =xy z M 4 =x +y+z m 5 =xy z M 5 =x +y+z m 6 =xyz M 6 =x +y +z m 7 =xyz M 7 =x +y +z F(x, y, z) = x y z + x yz + xyz F(x, y, z) = (x+y+z)(x+y +z )(x +y+z)(x +y+z )(x +y +z ) 43
40 Formal Expression with Minterms xyz m i M i F m =x y z M =x+y+z F(,,) m =x y z M =x+y+z F(,,) m 2 =x yz M 2 =x+y +z F(,,) m 3 =x yz M 3 =x+y +z F(,,) m 4 =xy z M 4 =x +y+z F(,,) m 5 =xy z M 5 =x +y+z F(,,) m 6 =xyz M 6 =x +y +z F(,,) m 7 =xyz M 7 =x +y +z F(,,) F(x, y, z) = F(,,)m + F(,,)m + F(,,)m 2 + F(,,)m 3 + F(,,)m 4 + F(,,)m 5 + F(,,)m 6 + F(,,)m 7 45
41 Formal Expression with Maxterms xyz m i M i F m =x y z M =x+y+z F(,,) m =x y z M =x+y+z F(,,) m 2 =x yz M 2 =x+y +z F(,,) m 3 =x yz M 3 =x+y +z F(,,) m 4 =xy z M 4 =x +y+z F(,,) m 5 =xy z M 5 =x +y+z F(,,) m 6 =xyz M 6 =x +y +z F(,,) m 7 =xyz M 7 =x +y +z F(,,) F(x, y, z) = (F(,,)+M ) (F(,,)+M ) (F(,,)+M 2 ) (F(,,)+M 3 ) (F(,,)+M 4 ) (F(,,)+M 5 ) (F(,,)+M 6 ) (F(,,)+M 7 ) 46
42 Boolean Functions in Standard Form F (x, y, z) = F 2 (x, y, z) = 47 x y z F F 2
43 Important Properties Any Boolean function can be expressed as a sum of minterms Any Boolean function can be expressed as a product of maxterms Example: F = (, 2, 3, 5, 6) = x y z + x yz + x yz + xy z + xyz How do we find the complement of F? F = (x + y + z)(x + y + z)(x + y + z )(x + y + z )(x + y + z) = = 48
44 Canonical Form If a Boolean function is expressed as a sum of minterms or product of maxterms the function is said to be in canonical form. Example: F = x + y z canonical form? No But we can put it in canonical form. F = x + y z = (7, 6, 5, 4, ) Alternative way: Obtain the truth table first and then the canonical term. 49
45 Example: Product of Maxterms F = xy + x z Use the distributive law + over F = xy + x z = xy(z+z ) + x z(y+y ) =xyz + xyz +x yz + x y z = (7,6,3,) 5 = (4, 5,, 2)
46 Conversion Between Canonical Forms Fact: The complement of a function (given in sum of minterms) can be expressed as a sum of minterms missing from the original function Example: F(x, y, z) = (, 4, 5, 6, 7) F (x, y, z) = Now take the complement of F and make use of DeMorgan s theorem (F ) = = F = M M 2 M 3 = (, 2, 3) 5
47 General Rule for Conversion Important relation: m j = M j. M j = m j. The rule: Interchange symbols and, and list those terms missing from the original form Example: F = xy + x z F = (, 3, 6, 7) F = (?,?,?,?) 52
48 53 Standard Forms Fact: Canonical forms are very seldom the ones with the least number of literals Alternative representation: Standard form a term may contain any number of literals Two types. the sum of products 2. the product of sums Examples: F = y + xy + x yz F 2 = x(y + z)(x + y + z )
49 Example: Standard Forms F = y + xy + x yz F 2 = x(y + z)(x + y + z ) 54
50 Example: F 3 = AB(C+D) + C(D + E) 55 Nonstandard Forms This hybrid form yields threelevel implementation A B C D D E C The standard form: F 3 = ABC + ABD + CD + CE A B C A B D C D C E F 3 F 3
51 Positive & Negative Logic In digital circuits, we have two digital signal levels: H (higher signal level; e.g. 3 ~ 5 V) L  (lower signal level; e.g. ~ V) There is no logic or logic at the circuit level We can do any assignment we wish For example: H logic L logic 56
52 Feedforward or Feedback x 4 x x 2 x4 x 3 x 5 57
53 Feedforward or Feedback x 4 x x 2 z y x4 x 3 x 5 z = x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 (x 4 +y)) 58
54 Feedforward or Feedback x 4 x x 2 z y x4 x 3 x 5 z = x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 (x 4 +y))=x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 x 4 +x 3 x 5 y) 59
55 Feedforward or Feedback x 4 x x 2 z y x4 x 3 x 5 6 z = x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 (x 4 +y))=x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 x 4 +x 3 x 5 y) = x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 +x 3 x 5 y)
56 Feedforward or Feedback x 4 x x 2 z y x4 x 3 x 5 6 z = x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 (x 4 +y))=x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 x 4 +x 3 x 5 y) = x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 +x 3 x 5 y)=x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 (+y))
57 Feedforward or Feedback x 4 x x 2 z y x4 x 3 x 5 62 z = x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 (x 4 +y))=x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 x 4 +x 3 x 5 y) = x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 +x 3 x 5 y)=x x 2 (x 4 +x 3 x 5 )
58 Signal Designation  x y digital gate F x y F L L L L H H H L H H H H What kind of logic function does it implement? 63
59 Signal Designation  2 x y F x y F x y x y positive logic negative logic F F polarity indicator 64
60 Another Example x y F L L H L H H H L H H H L 74LS 65
61 Integrated Circuits IC silicon semiconductor crystal ( chip ) that contains gates. gates are interconnected inside to implement a Boolean function Chip is mounted in a ceramic or plastic container Inputs & outputs are connected to the external pins of the IC. Many external pins (4 to hundreds) 66
62 Levels of Integration SSI (smallscale integration): Up to gates per chip MSI (mediumscale integration): From to, gates per chip LSI (largescale integration): thousands of gates per chip VLSI (very largescale integration): hundreds of thousands of gates per chip ULSI (ultra largescale integration): Over a million gates per chip 94 million transistors 67
63 Digital Logic Families Circuit Technologies TTL transistortransistor logic ECL Emittercoupled logic fast MOS metaloxide semiconductor high density CMOS Complementary MOS low power 68
64 Parameters of Logic Gates  Fanout load that the output of a gate drives If a gate, say NAND, drives four such inverters, then the fanout is equal to 4. standard loads. 69
65 Parameters of Logic Gates 
66 Parameters of Logic Gates  2 Fanin number of inputs that a gate can have in a particular logic family In principle, we can design a CMOS NAND or NOR gate with a very large number of inputs In practice, however, we have some limits 4 for NOR gates 6 for NAND gates Power dissipation power consumed by the gate that must be available from the power supply 7
67 Power Dissipation Difference in voltage level! 72
68 Parameters of Logic Gates  3 Propagation delay: the time required for a change in value of a signal to propagate from input to output. logic logic logic x y logic F logic t PHL t PLH x time y F 73
69 ComputerAided Design  CAD Design of digital systems with VLSI circuits containing millions of transistors is not easy and cannot be done manually. To develop & verify digital systems we need CAD tools software programs that support computerbased representation of digital circuits. Design process design entry database that contains the photomask used to fabricate the IC 74
70 ComputerAided Design  2 Different physical realizations ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) PLD FPGA Other reconfigurable devices For every piece of device we have an array of software tools to facilitate design, simulating, testing, and even programming 75
71 76 Xilinx Tools
72 Schematic Editor Editing programs for creating and modifying schematic diagrams on a computer screen schematic capturing or schematic entry you can draganddrop digital components from a list in an internal library (gates, decoders, multiplexers, registers, etc.) You can draw interconnect lines from one component to another 77
73 78 Schematic Editor
74 79 A Schematic Design
75 Hardware Description Languages HDL Verilog, VHDL resembles a programming language designed to describe digital circuits so that we can develop and test digital circuits module comp(f, x, y, z, t); input x, y, z, t; output F; F (x,y,z,t) = xz + yz t + xyt 8 wire e, e2, e3; and g(e, x, ~z); and g2(e2, y, ~z, ~t); and g3(e3, x, y, ~t); or g4(f, e, e2, e3); endmodule
76 8 Simulation Results /3
77 82 Simulation Results 2/3
78 83 Simulation Results 3/3
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