# Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals. Chapter 1 Digital Computers and Information

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1 Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals Chapter 1 Digital Computers and Information

2 Overview Digital Systems and Computer Systems Information Representation Number Systems [binary, octal and hexadecimal] Arithmetic Operations Base Conversion Decimal Codes [BCD (binary coded decimal), parity] Gray Codes Alphanumeric Codes Chapter 1 2

3 Digital System Takes a set of discrete information inputs and discrete internal information (system state) and generates a set of discrete information outputs. Discrete Inputs Discrete Information Processing System Discrete Outputs System State Chapter 1 3

4 Types of Digital Systems No state present Combinational Logic System Output = Function(Input) State present State updated at discrete times => Synchronous Sequential System State updated at any time =>Asynchronous Sequential System State = Function (State, Input) Output = Function (State) or Function (State, Input) Chapter 1 4

5 Digital System Example: A Digital Counter (e. g., odometer): Count Up Reset Inputs: Count Up, Reset Outputs: Visual Display State: "Value" of stored digits Synchronous or Asynchronous? Chapter 1 5

6 A Digital Computer Example Memory CPU Control unit Datapath Inputs: Keyboard, mouse, modem, microphone Input/Output Synchronous or Asynchronous? Outputs: CRT, LCD, modem, speakers Chapter 1 6

7 Signal An information variable represented by physical quantity. For digital systems, the variable takes on discrete values. Two level, or binary values are the most prevalent values in digital systems. Binary values are represented abstractly by: digits 0 and 1 words (symbols) False (F) and True (T) words (symbols) Low (L) and High (H) and words On and Off. Binary values are represented by values or ranges of values of physical quantities Chapter 1 7

8 Signal Examples Over Time Time Analog Digital Asynchronous Synchronous Continuous in value & time Discrete in value & continuous in time Discrete in value & time Chapter 1 8

9 Signal Example Physical Quantity: Voltage OUTPUT INPUT HIGH LOW Volts HIGH LOW Threshold Region Chapter 1 9

10 Binary Values: Other Physical Quantities What are other physical quantities represent 0 and 1? CPU Voltage Disk Magnetic Field Direction CD Surface Pits/Light Dynamic RAM Electrical Charge Chapter 1 10

11 Number Systems Representation Positive radix, positional number systems A number with radix r is represented by a string of digits: A n - 1 A n - 2 A 1 A 0. A - 1 A - 2 A - m + 1 A - m in which 0 A i < r and. is the radix point. The string of digits represents the power series: (Number) r = ( i = n - 1 )( j = - 1 ) i j Ai r + i = 0 j = - m A (Integer Portion) + (Fraction Portion) j r Chapter 1 11

12 Number Systems Examples General Decimal Binary Radix (Base) r 10 2 Digits 0 => r => 9 0 => 1 0 r r r r Powers of 4 r 4 10, Radix 5 r 5 100, r r r r r Chapter 1 12

13 Positive Powers of 2 Useful for Base Conversion Exponent Value Exponent Value , , , , , , , , , ,048, ,097,152 Chapter 1 13

14 Special Powers of (1024) is Kilo, denoted "K" 2 20 (1,048,576) is Mega, denoted "M" 2 30 (1,073, 741,824)is Giga, denoted "G" Chapter 1 14

15 Converting Binary to Decimal To convert to decimal, use decimal arithmetic to form Σ (digit respective power of 2). Example: Convert to N 10 : = = = (53.75) 10 Chapter 1 15

16 Converting Decimal to Binary Method 1 Subtract the largest power of 2 that gives a positive remainder and record the power. Repeat, subtracting from the prior remainder and recording the power, until the remainder is zero. Place 1 s in the positions in the binary result corresponding to the powers recorded; in all other positions place 0 s. Example: Convert to N = = = = = = = 1 16 = = 0 1 = 2 0 (625) 10 = = ( ) 2 Chapter 1 16

17 Commonly Occurring Bases Name Radix Digits Binary 2 0,1 Octal 8 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Decimal 10 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 Hexadecimal 16 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F The six letters (in addition to the 10 integers) in hexadecimal represent: Chapter 1 17

18 Numbers in Different Bases Good idea to memorize! Decimal (Base 10) Binary (Base 2) Octal (Base 8) A B C D E F Hexadecimal (Base 16) Chapter 1 18

19 Conversion Between Bases Method 2 To convert from one base to another: 1) Convert the Integer Part 2) Convert the Fraction Part 3) Join the two results with a radix point Chapter 1 19

20 Conversion Details To Convert the Integral Part: Repeatedly divide the number by the new radix and save the remainders. The digits for the new radix are the remainders in reverse order of their computation. If the new radix is > 10, then convert all remainders > 10 to digits A, B, To Convert the Fractional Part: Repeatedly multiply the fraction by the new radix and save the integer digits that result. The digits for the new radix are the integer digits in order of their computation. If the new radix is > 10, then convert all integers > 10 to digits A, B, Chapter 1 20

21 Example: Convert To Base 2 Convert 46 to Base 2 46 = = Convert to Base 2: x 2 = x 2 = x 2= x 2 = Join the results together with the radix point: Chapter 1 21

22 Additional Issue - Fractional Part Note that in this conversion, the fractional part became 0 as a result of the repeated multiplications. In general, it may take many bits to get this to happen or it may never happen. Example: Convert to N = The fractional part begins repeating every 4 steps yielding repeating 1001 forever! Solution: Specify number of bits to right of radix point and round or truncate to this number. Chapter 1 22

23 Checking the Conversion To convert back, sum the digits times their respective powers of r. From the prior conversion of = = = = 1/2 + 1/8 + 1/16 = = Chapter 1 23

24 Why Do Repeated Division and Multiplication Work? Divide the integer portion of the power series by radix r. The remainder of this division is A 0, represented by the term A 0 /r. Discard the remainder and repeat, obtaining remainders A 1, Multiply the fractional portion of the power series by radix r. The integer part of the product is A -1. Discard the integer part and repeat, obtaining integer parts A -2, This demonstrates the algorithm for any radix r >1. Chapter 1 24

25 Octal, Hexadecimal, Binary Conversion Octal (Hexadecimal) to Binary: Restate the octal (hexadecimal) as three (four) binary digits starting at the radix point and going both ways. Binary to Octal (Hexadecimal): Group the binary digits into three (four) bit groups starting at the radix point and going both ways, padding with zeros as needed in the fractional part. Convert each group of three bits to an octal (hexadecimal) digit. Chapter 1 25

26 Octal to Hexadecimal via Binary Convert octal to binary. Use groups of four bits and convert as above to hexadecimal digits. Example: Octal to Binary to Hexadecimal Chapter 1 26

27 A Final Conversion Note You can use arithmetic in other bases if you are careful: Example: Convert to Base 10 using binary arithmetic: Step / 1010 = 100 r 0110 Step / 1010 = 0 r 0100 Converted Digits are or Chapter 1 27

28 Binary Numbers and Binary Coding Flexibility of representation Within constraints below, can assign any binary combination (called a code word) to any data as long as data is uniquely encoded. Information Types Numeric Must represent range of data needed Very desirable to represent data such that simple, straightforward computation for common arithmetic operations permitted Tight relation to binary numbers Non-numeric Greater flexibility since arithmetic operations not applied. Not tied to binary numbers Chapter 1 28

29 Non-numeric Binary Codes Given n binary digits (called bits), a binary code is a mapping from a set of represented elements to a subset of the 2 n binary numbers. Example: A binary code for the seven colors of the rainbow Code 100 is not used Color Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet Binary Number Chapter 1 29

30 Number of Bits Required Given M elements to be represented by a binary code, the minimum number of bits, n, needed, satisfies the following relationships: 2 n > M >2 (n 1) n = log 2 M where x, called the ceiling function, is the integer greater than or equal to x. Example: How many bits are required to represent decimal digits with a binary code? Chapter 1 30

31 Number of Elements Represented Given n digits in radix r, there are r n distinct elements that can be represented. But, you can represent m elements, m < r n Examples: You can represent 4 elements in radix r = 2 with n = 2 digits: (00, 01, 10, 11). You can represent 4 elements in radix r = 2 with n = 4 digits: (0001, 0010, 0100, 1000). This second code is called a "one hot" code. Chapter 1 31

32 Binary Codes for Decimal Digits There are over 8,000 ways that you can chose 10 elements from the 16 binary numbers of 4 bits. A few are useful: Decimal 8,4,2,1 Excess3 8,4,-2,-1 Gray Chapter 1 32

33 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) The BCD code is the 8,4,2,1 code. This code is the simplest, most intuitive binary code for decimal digits and uses the same powers of 2 as a binary number, but only encodes the first ten values from 0 to 9. Example: 1001 (9) = 1000 (8) (1) How many invalid code words are there? What are the invalid code words? Chapter 1 33

34 Excess 3 Code and 8, 4, 2, 1 Code Decimal Excess , 4, 2, What interesting property is common to these two codes? Chapter 1 34

35 Gray Code Decimal 8,4,2,1 Gray What special property does the Gray code have in relation to adjacent decimal digits? Chapter 1 35

36 Gray Code (Continued) Does this special Gray code property have any value? An Example: Optical Shaft Encoder B B 1 B G 0 G 1 G (a) Binary Code for Positions 0 through (b) Gray Code for Positions 0 through 7 Chapter 1 36

37 Gray Code (Continued) How does the shaft encoder work? For the binary code, what codes may be produced if the shaft position lies between codes for 3 and 4 (011 and 100)? Is this a problem? Chapter 1 37

38 Gray Code (Continued) For the Gray code, what codes may be produced if the shaft position lies between codes for 3 and 4 (010 and 110)? Is this a problem? Does the Gray code function correctly for these borderline shaft positions for all cases encountered in octal counting? Chapter 1 38

39 Warning: Conversion or Coding? Do NOT mix up conversion of a decimal number to a binary number with coding a decimal number with a BINARY CODE = (This is conversion) (This is coding) Chapter 1 39

40 Binary Arithmetic Single Bit Addition with Carry Multiple Bit Addition Single Bit Subtraction with Borrow Multiple Bit Subtraction Multiplication BCD Addition Chapter 1 40

41 Single Bit Binary Addition with Carry Given two binary digits (X,Y), a carry in (Z) we get the following sum (S) and carry (C): Carry in (Z) of 0: Z X Y C S Carry in (Z) of 1: Z X Y C S Chapter 1 41

42 Multiple Bit Binary Addition Extending this to two multiple bit examples: Carries 0 0 Augend Addend Sum Note: The 0 is the default Carry-In to the least significant bit. Chapter 1 42

43 Single Bit Binary Subtraction with Borrow Given two binary digits (X,Y), a borrow in (Z) we get the following difference (S) and borrow (B): Borrow in (Z) of 0: Z X Y BS Borrow in (Z) of 1: Z X Y BS Chapter 1 43

44 Multiple Bit Binary Subtraction Extending this to two multiple bit examples: Borrows 0 0 Minuend Subtrahend Difference Notes: The 0 is a Borrow-In to the least significant bit. If the Subtrahend > the Minuend, interchange and append a to the result. Chapter 1 44

45 Binary Multiplication The binary multiplication table is simple: 0 0 = = = = 1 Extending multiplication to multiple digits: Multiplicand 1011 Multiplier x 101 Partial Products Product Chapter 1 45

46 BCD Arithmetic Given a BCD code, we use binary arithmetic to add the digits: Eight Plus is 13 (> 9) Note that the result is MORE THAN 9, so must be represented by two digits! To correct the digit, subtract 10 by adding 6 modulo Eight Plus is 13 (> 9) so add 6 carry = leaving 3 + cy Final answer (two digits) If the digit sum is > 9, add one to the next significant digit Chapter 1 46

47 BCD Addition Example Add 2905 BCD to 1897 BCD showing carries and digit corrections Chapter 1 47

48 Error-Detection Codes Redundancy (e.g. extra information), in the form of extra bits, can be incorporated into binary code words to detect and correct errors. A simple form of redundancy is parity, an extra bit appended onto the code word to make the number of 1 s odd or even. Parity can detect all single-bit errors and some multiple-bit errors. A code word has even parity if the number of 1 s in the code word is even. A code word has odd parity if the number of 1 s in the code word is odd. Chapter 1 48

49 4-Bit Parity Code Example Fill in the even and odd parity bits: Even Parity Odd Parity Message - Parity Message - Parity The codeword "1111" has even parity and the codeword "1110" has odd parity. Both can be used to represent 3-bit data. Chapter 1 49

50 ASCII Character Codes American Standard Code for Information Interchange (Refer to Table 1-4 in the text) This code is a popular code used to represent information sent as character-based data. It uses 7-bits to represent: 94 Graphic printing characters. 34 Non-printing characters Some non-printing characters are used for text format (e.g. BS = Backspace, CR = carriage return) Other non-printing characters are used for record marking and flow control (e.g. STX and ETX start and end text areas). Chapter 1 50

51 ASCII Properties ASCII has some interesting properties: Digits 0 to 9 span Hexadecimal values to Upper case A-Z span to 5A 16. Lower case a-z span to 7A 16. Lower to upper case translation (and vice versa) occurs by flipping bit 6. Delete (DEL) is all bits set, a carryover from when punched paper tape was used to store messages. Punching all holes in a row erased a mistake! Chapter 1 51

52 UNICODE UNICODE extends ASCII to 65,536 universal characters codes For encoding characters in world languages Available in many modern applications 2 byte (16-bit) code words Chapter 1 52

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