# CSI33 Data Structures

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1 Outline Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Bronx Community College October 24, 2018

2 Outline Outline 1 Chapter 8: A C++ Introduction For Python Programmers Expressions and Operator Precedence Type Conversions

3 Outline 1 Chapter 8: A C++ Introduction For Python Programmers Expressions and Operator Precedence Type Conversions

4 Local Variables Must be declared giving their datatypes, so values are guaranteed to fit in the memory locations reserved by the compiler. May optionally be initialized when declared. Local variables declared in a function (not formal parameters) are called automatic variables. They are given memory locations without putting values in those locations. So automatic variables must be initialized before use (to get predictable value). The memory for a variable holds an actual value, not a reference (as in Python). Exception: References (pointer variables) are specially denoted by *, the dereference operation.

5 Expressions Expressions Just as in any programming language, expressions have values. The simplest expressions are constants or variable names. Just as in any programming language, expressions are constructed by connecting smaller sub-expressions with operator symbols. These values are calculated by performing the operations, with the highest precedence operation first. Expressions can also be formed by making function calls which return values.

6 Expressions Operators Are Similar To Those In Python Exceptions: && for and. for or. increment operators: x++ or ++x for x += 1 decrement operators: x-- or --x for x -= 1

7 Expressions Operator Precedence The order of operations in C++ follows the same standard rules as Python: (a+b*c) means multiply b times c, then add a.

8 if statement Indentation is meaningless Since C++ ignores indentation, multiple statements in an if statement must be enclosed in braces to form a block.

9 if statement C++ Has No elif Multiple conditional branches in C++ require nested if statements.

10 Data Types Implicit Conversion Like Python, C++ automatically converts ints to floats or doubles when adding an integer to a float value.

11 Data Types Explicit Conversion C++ also performs explicit conversion with the static cast keyword.

12 Loops for Loops Over Different Values of a Single Variable In Python, a for loop must use a pre-existing sequence of values, like the list returned by the function range. In C++, a variable changes its value by incrementing or decrementing its value for each iteration of the loop.

13 Loops while Loops While loops in C++ are exactly like those in Python. They test for a boolean value to be true before they begin each iteration of the loop. When it is false, the loop is exited.

14 Loops do-while Loops Do-while loops in C++ are different than while loops in Python. They only test for the boolean value to be true at the end of each loop iteration. This means that a loop is guaranteed to execute at least once.

15 Single-Dimension Not As Safe as Python Lists No range checking is performed when an index is used. Can initialize values when declaring an array.

16 Multi-Dimensional of Any number of dimensions is supported. Consecutive addresses are easily found (fast random access via a formula).

17 of Characters Using of Characters is Risky char c[20]; cout << "enter your first name: "; // this code is a security risk // a buffer overflow occurs if the user enters // more than 19 characters cin >> c; cout << "Hello " << c << endl;

18 of Characters C Strings char arrays with terminating zero in last position. Literal string values (in quotes) are zero-terminated strings in C++. Convenient library functions for concatenation (strcat) etc. #include <string.h> for library functions

19 of Characters Better to use the C++ string class. #include <string> An object s capacity increases automatically. Convenient member functions for concatenation and other operations. Easy to initialize a C++ string from a char array. Rule-of-thumb: For text input/output (cin, cout), always use the string class!

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