# Flow Control. CSC215 Lecture

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1 Flow Control CSC215 Lecture

2 Outline Blocks and compound statements Conditional statements if - statement if-else - statement switch - statement? : opertator Nested conditional statements Repetitive statements for - statement while - statement do-while - statement Nested repetitive statements Break and continue statements Unconditional jump: goto

3 Blocks and Compound Statements A simple statement ends in a semicolon: z = foo(x+y); Consider the multiple statements: temp = x+y ; z = foo (temp) ; Curly braces combine into compound statement/block Block can substitute for simple statement Compiled as a single unit Variables can be declared inside No semicolon at end { int temp = x+y; z = foo(temp); } Block can be empty {}

4 Blocks and Compound Statements Blocks nested inside each other { int temp = x+y ; z = foo ( temp ) ; { float temp2 = x y ; z += bar ( temp2 ) ; } } Variables declared inside a block are only visibly within this block and its internatl blocks

5 Conditional Statements if - Statement if-else - Statement switch - Statement? : Ternary operator No boolean type in ANSI C introduced in C99 Relational and logical expressions are evaluated to: 1 if they are logically true 0 if they are logically false Numeric expressions are considered false if they are evaluated to integer 0 Pointer expressions are considered false if they are evaluated to null

6 if- Statement Syntax: Example: if (<condition>) <statement>; if ( x % 2 == 0) y += x / 2 ; Evaluate condition: (x % 2 == 0) If true, execute inner statement: y += x/2; Otherwise, do nothing Inner statements may be block

7 if-else - Statement Syntax: if (<condition>) <statement1>; else <statement2>; Example: if ( x % 2 == 0) y += x / 2 ; else y += ( x + 1 ) / 2; Evaluate condition: (x % 2 == 0) If true, execute first statement: y += x/2; Otherwise, execute second statement: y += ( x + 1 ) / 2; Either inner statements may be block

8 Nesting if/if-else Statements Can have additional alternative control paths by nesting if statements: if (<condition>) <statement1>; /* can be an if or if-else statement*/ else <statement2>; /* can be an if or if-else statement*/ Conditions are evaluated in order until one is met; inner statement then executed if multiple conditions true, only first executed Example: if ( x % 2 == 0) y += x / 2 ; else if ( x % 4 == 1) y += 2 (( x + 3 )/ 4 ); else y += ( x +1 )/ 2 ;

9 Nesting if/if-else Statements Dangling else, example: if ( x % 4 == 0) if ( x % 2 == 0) y = 2; else y = 1; if ( x % 4 == 0) if ( x % 2 == 0) y = 2; else y = 1; if ( x % 4 == 0) if ( x % 2 == 0) y = 2; else y = 1; To which if statement does the else keyword belong? Belongs to the nearest if in the same block To associate else with outer if statement: use braces if ( x % 4 == 0) { if ( x % 2 == 0) y = 2; } else y = 1;

10 switch - Statement Syntax: switch (<int or char expression>) { case <literal1>: <statements> [break;] [more cases] [default: <statements>] } Provides multiple paths Case labels: different entry points into block Compares evaluated expression to each case in order: When match found, starts executing inner code until break; reached Execution falls through if break; is not included

11 switch - Statement Example: switch ( ch ) { case Y : / ch == Y / / do something / break ; case N : / ch == N / / do something else / break ; default : / otherwise / / do a third thing / }

12 Loops (Iterative Statements) while - loop for - loop do-while - loop break and continue keywords

13 Loops: while - Statement Syntax: while ( <condition> ) <loop body> Simplest loop structure evaluate body as long as condition is true Condition evaluated first, so body may never be executed Example:

14 Loops: for - Statement Syntax: for ([<initialization>];[<condition>];[<modification>]) <loop body> Example: int i, j = 1; for ( i = 1; i <= n ; i ++) j = i ; printf( %d\n, j); A counting loop Inside parentheses, three expressions, separated by semicolons: Initialization: i = 1 Condition: i <= n Modification: i++

15 Loops: for - Statement Any expression can be empty (condition assumed to be true ): for (;;) /* infinite loop */ <loop body> Compound expressions separated by commas Comma: operator with lowest precedence, evaluated left-to-right for ( i = 1, j = 1; i <= n ; j = i, i ++) <loop body> Equivalent to while loop: <initialization> while (<condition>) { <loop body> <modification> }

16 Loops: do-while - Statement Syntax: do { <loop body> } while(<condition>); Differs from while loop condition evaluated after each iteration Body executed at least once Note semicolon at end Example: char c ; do { / loop body / puts( "Keep going? (y/n) " ) ; c = getchar(); / other processing / } while ( c == y && / other conditions / );

17 Loops: Nested Loops A nested loop is a loop within a loop an inner loop within the body of an outer one. for ([<initialization>];[<condition>];[<modification>]) <loop body> /* another loop here */ Can nest any loop statement within the body of any loop statement Can have more than two levels of nested loops

18 Loops: break - Statement Sometimes want to terminate a loop early break; exits innermost loop or switch statement to exit early Consider the modification of the do-while example: char c ; do { /* loop body / puts ( "Keep going? (y/n) " ) ; c = getchar() ; if ( c!= y ) break ; / other processing / } while ( / other conditions / ) ;

19 Loops: continue - Statement Use to skip an iteration continue; skips rest of innermost loop body, jumping to loop condition Example: int i, ret = 1, minval; for ( i = 2; i <= (a > b? a:b); i++) { } if ( a % i ) / a not divisible by b / continue; if ( b % i == 0) / b and a are multiple of i / ret = i; printf( %d\n, ret);

20 Unconditional Jump goto: transfers program execution to a labeled statement in the current function DISCOURAGED easily avoidable requires a label Label: a plain text, except C keywords, followed by a colon, prefixing a code line may occur before or after the goto statement Example: int main () { int a = 10; LOOP:do { if ( a == 15) { a = a + 1; goto LOOP; } printf("value of a: %d\n", a++); } while( a < 20 ); return 0;

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