# Operators and Expressions:

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1 Operators and Expressions: Operators and expression using numeric and relational operators, mixed operands, type conversion, logical operators, bit operations, assignment operator, operator precedence and associativity. 1

2 Objectives To be able to construct and evaluate expressions. To master operator precedence and associativity To understand implicit type conversion and explicit type conversion. 2

3 Introduction An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform certain manipulations. An expression is a sequence of operands and operators that reduces to a single value. C operators can be classified into a number of categories. Arithmetic operators Relational operators Logical operators Assignment operators Increment and decrement operators Conditional operators Bitwise operators Special operators 3

4 4 Arithmetic operators The arithmetic operators in C Operator meaning + Addition or unary plus - Subtraction or unary minus * Multiplication / Division % modulo division

5 5 Arithmetic operators Note:, Integer division truncates remainder The % operator cannot be applied to a float or double. The precedence of arithmetic operators Unary + or - * / % + -

6 #include<stdio.h> main() { int months, days ; printf ( "Enter days \n ) ; scanf ( "%d, &days ) ; months = days / 30 ; days = days % 30 ; printf ( "Months =%d Days= %d \n", months, days); } 6

7 7 Arithmetic expressions An arithmetic expression is a combination of variables, constants, and operators. For example, a*b-c a*b-c (m+n)(x+y) (m+n)*(x+y) ax 2 +bx+c a*x*x+b*x+c

8 8 Mathematical functions Mathematical functions such as cos, sqrt, log, etc. are frequently used in analysis of real-life problems. Table 3.9 on page 72 lists some standard math functions. We should include the line #include<math.h> in the beginning of the program.

9 9 Mathematical functions for example the roots of ax 2 +bx+c =0 are x b b 2 4ac 2a x1= ( -b + sqrt ( b*b - 4*a*c ) ) / ( 2 * a ) x2= ( -b sqrt ( b*b - 4*a*c ) ) / ( 2 * a )

10 10 Relational Operators The relational operators in C are : Operator Meaning < less that <= less than or equal to > greater than >= greater than or equal to == equal to!= not equal to

11 Relational Operators A relational expression yields a value of 1 or 0. 5 < > if a=3, b=2, c =1; then a > b > c is? the associativity of relational operators is left right table3.8 on page71 11

12 Relational Operators The relational operators >, >=, < and <= have the same precedence. Just below them in precedence are the equality operators: = = and!=. Relational operators have lower precedence than arithmetic operators, so an expression like i < lim-1 is taken as i < (lim-1). 3 >= 2 = = -4 < 0 12

13 Logical operators C has the following three logical operators && meaning logical and meaning logical or! meaning logical not ( unary operator ) Expressions connected by && or are evaluated left to right, and evaluation stops as soon as the truth or falsehood of the result is known. 13

14 14 Logical operators op-1 op2 op-1&&op-2 op-1 op-2!op-1 Non-zero Non-zero Non-zero Non-zero

15 Logical operators The precedence of && is higher than that of, and both are lower than relational operators, so 3 < 5 && -3 < -5 3 > 2 char ch; to decide whether ch is an uppercase, ch >= A && ch <= Z to decide whether a year is leap year, year% 4 ==0 && year % 100!= 0 year % 400 = = 0 15

16 Assignment operators Assignment operators are used to assign the result of an expression to a variable. C has a set of shorthand assignment operators of the form v op= exp; where v is a variable, exp is an expression and op is a C binary arithmetic operator. The operator op= is known as the shorthand assignment operator. The assignment statement v op= exp; is equivalent to v = v op (exp) ; For example, x += y + 1; This is same as the statement x = x + ( y + 1 ) ; 16

17 17 Assignment operators Statement with simple assignment operator Statement with shorthand operator a = a+1 a += 1 a = a-1 a -= 1 a = a * (n+1) a *= n+1 a = a / (n+1) a /= n+1 a = a % b a %= b

18 Assignment operators The use of shorthand assignment operators has three advantages: 1. What appears on the left-hand side need not be repeated and therefore it becomes easier to write. 2. The statement is more concise and easier to read. 3. The statement is more efficient. 18

19 Assignment operators int a=12, n=5; (1) a += a (2) a -= 2 (3) a *= (4) a /= a + a (5) a % = ( n %= 2 ) (6) a += a -= a *= a 19

20 Increment and decrement operators C provides two unusual operators for incrementing and decrementing variables. The increment operator ++ adds 1 to its operand, while the decrement operator -- subtracts 1. The unusual aspect is that ++ and -- may be used either as prefix operators (before the variable, as in ++n), or postfix operators (after the variable: n++). In both cases, the effect is to increment n. But the expression ++n increments n before its value is used, while n++ increments n after its value has been used. 20

21 for example, if n is 5, then x = n++; is equivalent x = n; n++; but x = ++n; is equivalent n++; x = n; The increment and decrement operators can only be applied to variables; an expression like (i+j)++ is illegal. 21

22 The increment and decrement operators can be used in complex statements. Example: m=n++ -j +10; Consider the expression m = - n++ ; The precedence of ++ and operators are the same as those of unary + and -. The associatively of them is right to left. m = - n++; is equivalent to m = - (n++) 22

23 suppose, int a, b, c ; a = b = c = 1; After execution the following statements, what are the values of the expression and variables. (1) a>b && b>c++; (2) a-- c++; (3)!a && b++; (4) ++a && ++b && ++c; (5) ++a && --b && ++c; 23

24 Conditional operator a ternary operator pair? : is available in C to construct conditional expressions of the form expr1? expr2 : expr3 the expression expr1 is evaluated first. If it is non-zero (true), then the expression expr2 is evaluated, and that is the value of the conditional expression. Otherwise expr3 is evaluated, and that is the value. Only one of expr2 and expr3 is evaluated. 24

25 Special operators 1. The Comma Operator The comma operator can be used to link the related expressions together. A comma-linked list of expressions is evaluated left to right and the value of right-most expression is the value of the combined expression. For example, the statement value = (x=10, y=5, x+y); first assigns the value 10 to x, then assigns 5 to y, and finally assigns 15 to value. Since comma operator has the lowest precedence of all operators, the parentheses are necessary. 25

26 2. The sizeof Operator The sizeof is a compile time operator and, when used with an operand, it returns the number of bytes the operand occupies. The operand may be variable, a constant or a data type qualifier. Examples: m = sizeof ( sum ); n = sizeof ( long int ); k = sizeof ( 235L ); 26

27 Example 3.3 The different kinds of operators. #include<stdio.h> main() { int a, b, c, d; a = 15; b = 10; c = ++a - b; printf ("a=%d b=%d c=%d\n", a, b, c ); d = b++ +a; printf("a = %d b = %d d = %d\n", a, b, d ); printf("a/b = %d\n", a / b); printf("a%%b = %d\n", a%b ); printf("a *= b = %d\n", a *= b ); printf("%d\n", ( c>d )? 1 : 0 ); printf("%d\n", ( c<d )? 1 : 0 ); } 27

28 example3.4 variables in expressions and their evaluation #include<stdio.h> main() { float a, b, c, x, y, z; a = 9; b = 12; c = 3; x = a b / 3 + c * 2-1; y = a - b / ( 3+ c ) * ( 2-1 ); z = a - ( b / ( 3 + c ) * 2 ) - 1; printf ( "x = %f \n", x ); printf(" y = %f \n", y ) ; printf( "z = %f \n", z ) ; } 28

29 Some Computational Problems When expressions include real values, then it is important to take necessary precautions to guard against certain computational errors. For example, consider the following statements: a = 1.0 / 3.0; b = a * 3.0; There is no guarantee that the value of b will equal 1. Another problem is division by zero. The third problem is to avoid overflow and underflow errors. 29

30 example3.5 round-off errors in computation of floating point numbers. #include <stdio.h> main() { float sum, n, term; int count = 1; sum = 0; printf ( "Enter value of n \n " ) ; scanf ( "%f", &n ) ; term = 1.0 / n; while ( count <= n ) { sum = sum + term ; count++ ; } printf ( "Sum = %f \n", sum ) ; } 30

31 Type conversions in expressions 1. Implicit Type Conversion C permits mixing of constants and variables of different types in an expression. C automatically converts any intermediate values to the proper type so that the expression can be evaluated without loosing any significance. This automatic conversion is known as implicit type conversion. The rule of type conversion: the lower type is automatically converted to the higher type. 31

32 Type conversions in expressions for example, int i, x; float f; double d; long int li ; x = li / i + i * f d long long float float float float double int double The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the left of the assignment. 32

33 Type conversions in expressions The sequence of rules is given on page 67. Conversion Hierarchy is given below Conversion hierarchy double float unsigned long int long int int short char long double 33

34 Type conversions in expressions 2. Explicit conversion We can force a type conversion in a way. The general form of explicit conversion is ( type-name ) expression for example x = ( int ) 7.5 ; a = ( int ) 21.3 / (int) 4.5; a = ( float ) 3 / 2 ; a = float ( 3 / 2 ) ; 34

35 Operator precedence and Associativity Rules of Precedence and Associativity (1)Precedence rules decides the order in which different operators are applied. (2)Associativity rule decide the order in which multiple occurrences of the same level operator are applied. Table3.8 on page71 shows the summary of C Operators. for example, a = i +1== j k and 3!= x 35

36 Mathematical functions Mathematical functions such as cos, sqrt, log, etc. are frequently used in analysis of real-life problems. Table 3.9 on page 72 lists some standard math functions. All mathematical functions implement double type parameters and return double type values. To use any of mathematical functions, we should include the line: #include < math. h > 36

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