# Computer System and programming in C

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 1

2 Basic Data Types Integral Types Integers are stored in various sizes. They can be signed or unsigned. Example Suppose an integer is represented by a byte (8 bits). Leftmost bit is sign bit. If the sign bit is 0, the number is treated as positive. Bit pattern = 75 (decimal). The largest positive number is = = 127. Negative numbers are stored as two s complement or as one s complement. -75 = (one s complement). -75 = (two s complement). 2

3 Basic Data Types Integral Types char Stored as 8 bits. Unsigned 0 to 255. Signed -128 to 127. short int Stored as 16 bits. Unsigned 0 to Signed to int Same as either short or long int. long int Stored as 32 bits. Unsigned 0 to Signed to

4 Basic Data Types Floating Point Numbers Floating point numbers are rational numbers. Always signed numbers. float Approximate precision of 6 decimal digits. Typically stored in 4 bytes with 24 bits of signed mantissa and 8 bits of signed exponent. double Approximate precision of 14 decimal digits. Typically stored in 8 bytes with 56 bits of signed mantissa and 8 bits of signed exponent. One should check the file limits.h to what is implemented on a particular machine. 4

5 Constants Numerical Constants Constants like 12, 253 are stored as int type. No decimal point. 12L or 12l are stored as long int. 12U or 12u are stored as unsigned int. 12UL or 12ul are stored as unsigned long int. Numbers with a decimal point (12.34) are stored as double. Numbers with exponent (12e-3 = 12 x 10-3 ) are stored as double f or 1.234e1f are stored as float. These are not valid constants: 25, e 4 \$ e-3.4 etc. 5

6 Constants Character and string constants c, a single character in single quotes are stored as char. Some special character are represented as two characters in single quotes. \n = newline, \t = tab, \\ = backlash, \ = double quotes. Char constants also can be written in terms of their ASCII code. \060 = 0 (Decimal code is 48). A sequence of characters enclosed in double quotes is called a string constant or string literal. For example Charu A 3/9 x = 5 6

7 Variables Naming a Variable Must be a valid identifier. Must not be a keyword Names are case sensitive. Variables are identified by only first 32 characters. Library commonly uses names beginning with _. Naming Styles: Uppercase style and Underscore style lowerlimit lower_limit incometax income_tax 7

8 Declarations Declaring a Variable Each variable used must be declared. A form of a declaration statement is data-type var1, var2, ; Declaration announces the data type of a variable and allocates appropriate memory location. No initial value (like 0 for integers) should be assumed. It is possible to assign an initial value to a variable in the declaration itself. data-type var = expression; Examples int sum = 0; char newline = \n ; float epsilon = 1.0e-6; 8

9 Global and Local Variables Global Variables These variables are declared outside all functions. Life time of a global variable is the entire execution period of the program. Can be accessed by any function defined below the declaration, in a file. /* Compute Area and Perimeter of a circle */ #include <stdio.h> float pi = ; /* Global */ main() { float rad; /* Local */ printf( Enter the radius ); scanf( %f, &rad); if ( rad > 0.0 ) { float area = pi * rad * rad; float peri = 2 * pi * rad; printf( Area = %f\n, area ); printf( Peri = %f\n, peri ); } else printf( Negative radius\n ); } printf( Area = %f\n, area ); 9

10 Global and Local Variables Local Variables These variables are declared inside some functions. Life time of a local variable is the entire execution period of the function in which it is defined. Cannot be accessed by any other function. In general variables declared inside a block are accessible only in that block. /* Compute Area and Perimeter of a circle */ #include <stdio.h> float pi = ; /* Global */ main() { float rad; /* Local */ printf( Enter the radius ); scanf( %f, &rad); if ( rad > 0.0 ) { float area = pi * rad * rad; float peri = 2 * pi * rad; printf( Area = %f\n, area ); printf( Peri = %f\n, peri ); } else printf( Negative radius\n ); } printf( Area = %f\n, area ); 10

11 Operators Arithmetic Operators +, -, *, / and the modulus operator %. + and have the same precedence and associate left to right = ( 3 5 ) ( ) = ( ( ) 5 ) + 2 *, /, % have the same precedence and associate left to right. The +, - group has lower precendence than the *, / % group. 3 5 * 7 / / / / /

12 Operators Arithmetic Operators % is a modulus operator. x % y results in the remainder when x is divided by y and is zero when x is divisible by y. Cannot be applied to float or double variables. Example if ( num % 2 == 0 ) printf( %d is an even number\n, num) ; else printf( %d is an odd number\n, num); 12

13 Type Conversions The operands of a binary operator must have a the same type and the result is also of the same type. Integer division: c = (9 / 5)*(f - 32) The operands of the division are both int and hence the result also would be int. For correct results, one may write c = (9.0 / 5.0)*(f - 32) In case the two operands of a binary operator are different, but compatible, then they are converted to the same type by the compiler. The mechanism (set of rules) is called Automatic Type Casting. c = (9.0 / 5)*(f - 32) It is possible to force a conversion of an operand. This is called Explicit Type casting. c = ((float) 9 / 5)*(f - 32) 13

14 Automatic Type Casting 1. char and short operands are converted to int 2. Lower data types are converted to the higher data types and result is of higher type. 3. The conversions between unsigned and signed types may not yield intuitive results. 4. Example float f; double d; long l; int i; short s; d + f f will be converted to double i / s s will be converted to int l / i i is converted to long; long result Hierarchy Double float long Int Short and char 14

15 Explicit Type Casting The general form of a type casting operator is (type-name) expression It is generally a good practice to use explicit casts than to rely on automatic type conversions. Example C = (float)9 / 5 * ( f 32 ) float to int conversion causes truncation of fractional part double to float conversion causes rounding of digits long int to int causes dropping of the higher order bits. 15

16 Precedence and Order of evaluation 16

17 Precedence and Order of evaluation 17

18 Operators Relational Operators <, <=, > >=, ==,!= are the relational operators. The expression operand1 relational-operator operand2 takes a value of 1(int) if the relationship is true and 0(int) if relationship is false. Example int a = 25, b = 30, c, d; c = a < b; d = a > b; value of c will be 1 and that of d will be 0. 18

19 Operators Logical Operators &&, and! are the three logical operators. expr1 && expr2 has a value 1 if expr1 and expr2 both are nonzero. expr1 expr2 has a value 1 if expr1 and expr2 both are nonzero.!expr1 has a value 1 if expr1 is zero else 0. Example if ( marks >= 40 && attendance >= 75 ) grade = P If ( marks < 40 attendance < 75 ) grade = N 19

20 Operators Assignment operators The general form of an assignment operator is v op= exp Where v is a variable and op is a binary arithmetic operator. This statement is equivalent to v = v op (exp) a = a + b can be written as a += b a = a * b can be written as a *= b a = a / b can be written as a /= b a = a - b can be written as a -= b 20

21 Operators Increment and Decrement Operators The operators ++ and - are called increment and decrement operators. a++ and ++a are equivalent to a += 1. a-- and --a are equivalent to a -= 1. ++a op b is equivalent to a ++; a op b; a++ op b is equivalent to a op b; a++; Example Let b = 10 then (++b)+b+b = 33 b+(++b)+b = 33 b+b+(++b) = 31 b+b*(++b) =

22 Floating Point Arithmetic Representation All floating point numbers are stored as such that d 1 is nonzero. B is the base. p is the precision or number of significant digits. e is the exponent. All these put together have finite number of bits (usually 32 or 64 bits ) of storage. Example Assume B = 10 and p = = E = E2 = E5 = E5 = E-4 22

23 Floating Point Arithmetic Representation S k = { x B k-1 <= x < B k }. Number of elements in each Sk is same. In the previous example it is 900. Gap between seuccessive numbers of Sk is B k-p. B1-p is called machine epsilon. It is the gap between 1 and next representable number. Underflow and Overflow occur when number cannot be represented because it is too small or too big. Two floating points are added by aligning decimal points. Floating point arithmetic is not associative and distributive. 23

### These are reserved words of the C language. For example int, float, if, else, for, while etc.

Tokens in C Keywords These are reserved words of the C language. For example int, float, if, else, for, while etc. Identifiers An Identifier is a sequence of letters and digits, but must start with a letter.

### Features of C. Portable Procedural / Modular Structured Language Statically typed Middle level language

1 History C is a general-purpose, high-level language that was originally developed by Dennis M. Ritchie to develop the UNIX operating system at Bell Labs. C was originally first implemented on the DEC

### Course Outline Introduction to C-Programming

ECE3411 Fall 2015 Lecture 1a. Course Outline Introduction to C-Programming Marten van Dijk, Syed Kamran Haider Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering University of Connecticut Email: {vandijk,

### Programming in C++ 5. Integral data types

Programming in C++ 5. Integral data types! Introduction! Type int! Integer multiplication & division! Increment & decrement operators! Associativity & precedence of operators! Some common operators! Long

### Operators and Expressions:

Operators and Expressions: Operators and expression using numeric and relational operators, mixed operands, type conversion, logical operators, bit operations, assignment operator, operator precedence

### Fundamentals of Programming

Fundamentals of Programming Lecture 3 - Constants, Variables, Data Types, And Operations Lecturer : Ebrahim Jahandar Borrowed from lecturer notes by Omid Jafarinezhad Outline C Program Data types Variables

### Fundamental of Programming (C)

Borrowed from lecturer notes by Omid Jafarinezhad Fundamental of Programming (C) Lecturer: Vahid Khodabakhshi Lecture 3 Constants, Variables, Data Types, And Operations Department of Computer Engineering

### Review: Exam 1. Your First C++ Program. Declaration Statements. Tells the compiler. Examples of declaration statements

Review: Exam 1 9/20/06 CS150 Introduction to Computer Science 1 1 Your First C++ Program 1 //*********************************************************** 2 // File name: hello.cpp 3 // Author: Shereen Khoja

### Guide for The C Programming Language Chapter 1. Q1. Explain the structure of a C program Answer: Structure of the C program is shown below:

Q1. Explain the structure of a C program Structure of the C program is shown below: Preprocessor Directives Global Declarations Int main (void) Local Declarations Statements Other functions as required

### Lecture 3. More About C

Copyright 1996 David R. Hanson Computer Science 126, Fall 1996 3-1 Lecture 3. More About C Programming languages have their lingo Programming language Types are categories of values int, float, char Constants

### Chapter 2 Elementary Programming

Chapter 2 Elementary Programming Part I 1 Motivations In the preceding chapter, you learned how to create, compile, and run a Java program. Starting from this chapter, you will learn how to solve practical

### CS113: Lecture 3. Topics: Variables. Data types. Arithmetic and Bitwise Operators. Order of Evaluation

CS113: Lecture 3 Topics: Variables Data types Arithmetic and Bitwise Operators Order of Evaluation 1 Variables Names of variables: Composed of letters, digits, and the underscore ( ) character. (NO spaces;

### Chapter 4. Operations on Data

Chapter 4 Operations on Data 1 OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, the reader should be able to: List the three categories of operations performed on data. Perform unary and binary logic operations

### CSE 1001 Fundamentals of Software Development 1. Identifiers, Variables, and Data Types Dr. H. Crawford Fall 2018

CSE 1001 Fundamentals of Software Development 1 Identifiers, Variables, and Data Types Dr. H. Crawford Fall 2018 Identifiers, Variables and Data Types Reserved Words Identifiers in C Variables and Values

### C Language Part 1 Digital Computer Concept and Practice Copyright 2012 by Jaejin Lee

C Language Part 1 (Minor modifications by the instructor) References C for Python Programmers, by Carl Burch, 2011. http://www.toves.org/books/cpy/ The C Programming Language. 2nd ed., Kernighan, Brian,

### ANSI C Programming Simple Programs

ANSI C Programming Simple Programs /* This program computes the distance between two points */ #include #include #include main() { /* Declare and initialize variables */ double

### Work relative to other classes

Work relative to other classes 1 Hours/week on projects 2 C BOOTCAMP DAY 1 CS3600, Northeastern University Slides adapted from Anandha Gopalan s CS132 course at Univ. of Pittsburgh Overview C: A language

### Declaration. Fundamental Data Types. Modifying the Basic Types. Basic Data Types. All variables must be declared before being used.

Declaration Fundamental Data Types All variables must be declared before being used. Tells compiler to set aside an appropriate amount of space in memory to hold a value. Enables the compiler to perform

### Reserved Words and Identifiers

1 Programming in C Reserved Words and Identifiers Reserved word Word that has a specific meaning in C Ex: int, return Identifier Word used to name and refer to a data element or object manipulated by the

### 3. EXPRESSIONS. It is a sequence of operands and operators that reduce to a single value.

3. EXPRESSIONS It is a sequence of operands and operators that reduce to a single value. Operator : It is a symbolic token that represents an action to be taken. Ex: * is an multiplication operator. Operand:

### Introduction. Following are the types of operators: Unary requires a single operand Binary requires two operands Ternary requires three operands

Introduction Operators are the symbols which operates on value or a variable. It tells the compiler to perform certain mathematical or logical manipulations. Can be of following categories: Unary requires

### C: How to Program. Week /Mar/05

1 C: How to Program Week 2 2007/Mar/05 Chapter 2 - Introduction to C Programming 2 Outline 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A Simple C Program: Printing a Line of Text 2.3 Another Simple C Program: Adding Two Integers

### CS102: Variables and Expressions

CS102: Variables and Expressions The topic of variables is one of the most important in C or any other high-level programming language. We will start with a simple example: int x; printf("the value of

### COMP Primitive and Class Types. Yi Hong May 14, 2015

COMP 110-001 Primitive and Class Types Yi Hong May 14, 2015 Review What are the two major parts of an object? What is the relationship between class and object? Design a simple class for Student How to

### Number Systems. Binary Numbers. Appendix. Decimal notation represents numbers as powers of 10, for example

Appendix F Number Systems Binary Numbers Decimal notation represents numbers as powers of 10, for example 1729 1 103 7 102 2 101 9 100 decimal = + + + There is no particular reason for the choice of 10,

### CSc 10200! Introduction to Computing. Lecture 2-3 Edgardo Molina Fall 2013 City College of New York

CSc 10200! Introduction to Computing Lecture 2-3 Edgardo Molina Fall 2013 City College of New York 1 C++ for Engineers and Scientists Third Edition Chapter 2 Problem Solving Using C++ 2 Objectives In this

### UNIT- 3 Introduction to C++

UNIT- 3 Introduction to C++ C++ Character Sets: Letters A-Z, a-z Digits 0-9 Special Symbols Space + - * / ^ \ ( ) [ ] =!= . \$, ; : %! &? _ # = @ White Spaces Blank spaces, horizontal tab, carriage

### Objectives. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Introduction. Objectives (cont d.) A C++ Program (cont d.) A C++ Program

Objectives Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types Discover how a program evaluates

### Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++

Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types Discover how a program evaluates

### Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ Objectives. Objectives (cont d.) A C++ Program. Introduction

Chapter 2: Basic Elements of C++ C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fifth Edition 1 Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers

### Chapter 2 - Introduction to C Programming

Chapter 2 - Introduction to C Programming 2 Outline 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A Simple C Program: Printing a Line of Text 2.3 Another Simple C Program: Adding Two Integers 2.4 Memory Concepts 2.5 Arithmetic

### BASIC ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER PROGRAM

BASIC ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER PROGRAM CSC128 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER PROBLEM SOLVING LOGO Contents 1 Identifier 2 3 Rules for naming and declaring data variables Basic data types 4 Arithmetic operators

### More Programming Constructs -- Introduction

More Programming Constructs -- Introduction We can now examine some additional programming concepts and constructs Chapter 5 focuses on: internal data representation conversions between one data type and

### Programming and Data Structures

Programming and Data Structures Teacher: Sudeshna Sarkar sudeshna@cse.iitkgp.ernet.in Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur #include int main()

### Expressions. Arithmetic expressions. Logical expressions. Assignment expression. n Variables and constants linked with operators

Expressions 1 Expressions n Variables and constants linked with operators Arithmetic expressions n Uses arithmetic operators n Can evaluate to any value Logical expressions n Uses relational and logical

### CEN 414 Java Programming

CEN 414 Java Programming Instructor: H. Esin ÜNAL SPRING 2017 Slides are modified from original slides of Y. Daniel Liang WEEK 2 ELEMENTARY PROGRAMMING 2 Computing the Area of a Circle public class ComputeArea

### Objects and Types. COMS W1007 Introduction to Computer Science. Christopher Conway 29 May 2003

Objects and Types COMS W1007 Introduction to Computer Science Christopher Conway 29 May 2003 Java Programs A Java program contains at least one class definition. public class Hello { public static void

### A Java program contains at least one class definition.

Java Programs Identifiers Objects and Types COMS W1007 Introduction to Computer Science Christopher Conway 29 May 2003 A Java program contains at least one class definition. public class Hello { public

### Chapter 3. Fundamental Data Types

Chapter 3. Fundamental Data Types Byoung-Tak Zhang TA: Hanock Kwak Biointelligence Laboratory School of Computer Science and Engineering Seoul National Univertisy http://bi.snu.ac.kr Variable Declaration

### DEPARTMENT OF MATHS, MJ COLLEGE

T. Y. B.Sc. Mathematics MTH- 356 (A) : Programming in C Unit 1 : Basic Concepts Syllabus : Introduction, Character set, C token, Keywords, Constants, Variables, Data types, Symbolic constants, Over flow,

### Datatypes, Variables, and Operations

Datatypes, Variables, and Operations 1 Primitive Type Classification 2 Numerical Data Types Name Range Storage Size byte 2 7 to 2 7 1 (-128 to 127) 8-bit signed short 2 15 to 2 15 1 (-32768 to 32767) 16-bit

### Outline. Performing Computations. Outline (cont) Expressions in C. Some Expression Formats. Types for Operands

Performing Computations C provides operators that can be applied to calculate expressions: tax is 8.5% of the total sale expression: tax = 0.085 * totalsale Need to specify what operations are legal, how

### On a 64-bit CPU. Size/Range vary by CPU model and Word size.

On a 64-bit CPU. Size/Range vary by CPU model and Word size. unsigned short x; //range 0 to 65553 signed short x; //range ± 32767 short x; //assumed signed There are (usually) no unsigned floats or doubles.

### THE FUNDAMENTAL DATA TYPES

THE FUNDAMENTAL DATA TYPES Declarations, Expressions, and Assignments Variables and constants are the objects that a prog. manipulates. All variables must be declared before they can be used. #include

### Basics of Java Programming

Basics of Java Programming Lecture 2 COP 3252 Summer 2017 May 16, 2017 Components of a Java Program statements - A statement is some action or sequence of actions, given as a command in code. A statement

### Programming in C++ 6. Floating point data types

Programming in C++ 6. Floating point data types! Introduction! Type double! Type float! Changing types! Type promotion & conversion! Casts! Initialization! Assignment operators! Summary 1 Introduction

### Zheng-Liang Lu Java Programming 45 / 79

1 class Lecture2 { 2 3 "Elementray Programming" 4 5 } 6 7 / References 8 [1] Ch. 2 in YDL 9 [2] Ch. 2 and 3 in Sharan 10 [3] Ch. 2 in HS 11 / Zheng-Liang Lu Java Programming 45 / 79 Example Given a radius

### Time: 8:30-10:00 pm (Arrive at 8:15 pm) Location What to bring:

ECE 120 Midterm 1 HKN Review Session Time: 8:30-10:00 pm (Arrive at 8:15 pm) Location: Your Room on Compass What to bring: icard, pens/pencils, Cheat sheet (Handwritten) Overview of Review Binary IEEE

### Unit 3. Operators. School of Science and Technology INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION Operators Unit 3 In the previous units (unit 1 and 2) you have learned about the basics of computer programming, different data types, constants, keywords and basic structure of a C program.

### Overview of C. Basic Data Types Constants Variables Identifiers Keywords Basic I/O

Overview of C Basic Data Types Constants Variables Identifiers Keywords Basic I/O NOTE: There are six classes of tokens: identifiers, keywords, constants, string literals, operators, and other separators.

### Main Memory Organization

Main Memory Organization Bit Smallest piece of memory Stands for binary digit Has values 0 (off) or 1 (on) Byte Is 8 consecu>ve bits Word Usually 4 consecu>ve bytes Has an address 8 bits 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

### Arithmetic Expressions in C

Arithmetic Expressions in C Arithmetic Expressions consist of numeric literals, arithmetic operators, and numeric variables. They simplify to a single value, when evaluated. Here is an example of an arithmetic

### Informatics Ingeniería en Electrónica y Automática Industrial

Informatics Ingeniería en Electrónica y Automática Industrial Operators and expressions in C Operators and expressions in C Numerical expressions and operators Arithmetical operators Relational and logical

### Floating Point Arithmetic

Floating Point Arithmetic CS 365 Floating-Point What can be represented in N bits? Unsigned 0 to 2 N 2s Complement -2 N-1 to 2 N-1-1 But, what about? very large numbers? 9,349,398,989,787,762,244,859,087,678

### Basics of Programming

Unit 2 Basics of Programming Problem Analysis When we are going to develop any solution to the problem, we must fully understand the nature of the problem and what we want the program to do. Without the

### printf( Please enter another number: ); scanf( %d, &num2);

CIT 593 Intro to Computer Systems Lecture #13 (11/1/12) Now that we've looked at how an assembly language program runs on a computer, we're ready to move up a level and start working with more powerful

### Introduction to C Programming. Chih-Wei Tang ( 唐之瑋 ) Department of Communication Engineering National Central University JhongLi, Taiwan

Introduction to C Programming Chih-Wei Tang ( 唐之瑋 ) Department of Communication Engineering National Central University JhongLi, Taiwan Outline Printing texts Adding 2 integers Comparing 2 integers C.E.,

### INTRODUCTION TO C A PRE-REQUISITE

This document can be downloaded from www.chetanahegde.in with most recent updates. 1 INTRODUCTION TO C A PRE-REQUISITE 1.1 ALGORITHMS Computer solves a problem based on a set of instructions provided to

### Arithmetic Operators. Portability: Printing Numbers

Arithmetic Operators Normal binary arithmetic operators: + - * / Modulus or remainder operator: % x%y is the remainder when x is divided by y well defined only when x > 0 and y > 0 Unary operators: - +

### Java Notes. 10th ICSE. Saravanan Ganesh

Java Notes 10th ICSE Saravanan Ganesh 13 Java Character Set Character set is a set of valid characters that a language can recognise A character represents any letter, digit or any other sign Java uses

CS313D: ADVANCED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE Computer Science department Lecture 2 : C# Language Basics Lecture Contents 2 The C# language First program Variables and constants Input/output Expressions and casting

### Expressions and Data Types CSC 121 Spring 2015 Howard Rosenthal

Expressions and Data Types CSC 121 Spring 2015 Howard Rosenthal Lesson Goals Understand the basic constructs of a Java Program Understand how to use basic identifiers Understand simple Java data types

### Operators and Expressions in C & C++ Mahesh Jangid Assistant Professor Manipal University, Jaipur

Operators and Expressions in C & C++ Mahesh Jangid Assistant Professor Manipal University, Jaipur Operators and Expressions 8/24/2012 Dept of CS&E 2 Arithmetic operators Relational operators Logical operators

### Declaration and Memory

Declaration and Memory With the declaration int width; the compiler will set aside a 4-byte (32-bit) block of memory (see right) The compiler has a symbol table, which will have an entry such as Identifier

### Data Types. Data Types. Integer Types. Signed Integers

Data Types Data Types Dr. TGI Fernando 1 2 The fundamental building blocks of any programming language. What is a data type? A data type is a set of values and a set of operations define on these values.

### Variables and literals

Demo lecture slides Although I will not usually give slides for demo lectures, the first two demo lectures involve practice with things which you should really know from G51PRG Since I covered much of

### Number Systems, Scalar Types, and Input and Output

Number Systems, Scalar Types, and Input and Output Outline: Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal, and Decimal Numbers Character Set Comments Declaration Data Types and Constants Integral Data Types Floating-Point

### Numbers In, Numbers Out

Programming, Problem Solving, and Abstraction Chapter Two Numbers In, Numbers Out c The University of Melbourne, 2018 Lecture slides prepared by Alistair Moffat Chapter 2 2.2 Constants and variables and

### Programming for Engineers Introduction to C

Programming for Engineers Introduction to C ICEN 200 Spring 2018 Prof. Dola Saha 1 Simple Program 2 Comments // Fig. 2.1: fig02_01.c // A first program in C begin with //, indicating that these two lines

### CHAPTER 3 Expressions, Functions, Output

CHAPTER 3 Expressions, Functions, Output More Data Types: Integral Number Types short, long, int (all represent integer values with no fractional part). Computer Representation of integer numbers - Number

### Arithmetic type issues

Arithmetic type issues Type combination and promotion ( a 32) = 97 32 = 65 = A Smaller type (char) is promoted to be the same size as the larger type (int) Determined at compile time - based purely on

### Annotation Annotation or block comments Provide high-level description and documentation of section of code More detail than simple comments

Variables, Data Types, and More Introduction In this lesson will introduce and study C annotation and comments C variables Identifiers C data types First thoughts on good coding style Declarations vs.

### 2/29/2016. Definition: Computer Program. A simple model of the computer. Example: Computer Program. Data types, variables, constants

Data types, variables, constants Outline.1 Introduction. Text.3 Memory Concepts.4 Naming Convention of Variables.5 Arithmetic in C.6 Type Conversion Definition: Computer Program A Computer program is a

### Lecture 3 Tao Wang 1

Lecture 3 Tao Wang 1 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: Arithmetic operations Variables and declaration statements Program input using the cin object Common programming errors C++ for Engineers

### Chapter 7. Basic Types

Chapter 7 Basic Types Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 7-1 Basic Types C s basic (built-in) types: Integer types, including long integers, short integers, and unsigned integers Floating types (float, double,

### Objectives. In this chapter, you will:

Objectives In this chapter, you will: Become familiar with functions, special symbols, and identifiers in C++ Explore simple data types Discover how a program evaluates arithmetic expressions Learn about

### Chapter 2 Elementary Programming. Liang, Introduction to Java Programming, Tenth Edition, (c) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter 2 Elementary Programming 1 Motivations In the preceding chapter, you learned how to create, compile, and run a Java program. Starting from this chapter, you will learn how to solve practical problems

### Chapter 6 Primitive types

Chapter 6 Primitive types Lesson page 6-1. Primitive types Question 1. There are an infinite number of integers, so it would be too ineffient to have a type integer that would contain all of them. Question

### Programming in C and Data Structures [15PCD13/23] 1. PROGRAMMING IN C AND DATA STRUCTURES [As per Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) scheme]

Programming in C and Data Structures [15PCD13/23] 1 PROGRAMMING IN C AND DATA STRUCTURES [As per Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) scheme] Course objectives: The objectives of this course is to make students

Visual C# 2005 2-1 Chapter 2 Using Data At a Glance Instructor s Manual Table of Contents Overview Objectives s Quick Quizzes Class Discussion Topics Additional Projects Additional Resources Key Terms

### A Fast Review of C Essentials Part I

A Fast Review of C Essentials Part I Structural Programming by Z. Cihan TAYSI Outline Program development C Essentials Functions Variables & constants Names Formatting Comments Preprocessor Data types

### Programming. Elementary Concepts

Programming Elementary Concepts Summary } C Language Basic Concepts } Comments, Preprocessor, Main } Key Definitions } Datatypes } Variables } Constants } Operators } Conditional expressions } Type conversions

### LESSON 1. A C program is constructed as a sequence of characters. Among the characters that can be used in a program are:

LESSON 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF C The purpose of this lesson is to explain the fundamental elements of the C programming language. C like other languages has all alphabet and rules for putting together words

### Operations On Data CHAPTER 4. (Solutions to Odd-Numbered Problems) Review Questions

CHAPTER 4 Operations On Data (Solutions to Odd-Numbered Problems) Review Questions 1. Arithmetic operations interpret bit patterns as numbers. Logical operations interpret each bit as a logical values

### Module 2 - Part 2 DATA TYPES AND EXPRESSIONS 1/15/19 CSE 1321 MODULE 2 1

Module 2 - Part 2 DATA TYPES AND EXPRESSIONS 1/15/19 CSE 1321 MODULE 2 1 Topics 1. Expressions 2. Operator precedence 3. Shorthand operators 4. Data/Type Conversion 1/15/19 CSE 1321 MODULE 2 2 Expressions

### Basic Assignment and Arithmetic Operators

C Programming 1 Basic Assignment and Arithmetic Operators C Programming 2 Assignment Operator = int count ; count = 10 ; The first line declares the variable count. In the second line an assignment operator

### ECE232: Hardware Organization and Design

ECE232: Hardware Organization and Design Lecture 11: Floating Point & Floating Point Addition Adapted from Computer Organization and Design, Patterson & Hennessy, UCB Last time: Single Precision Format

### 1.3b Type Conversion

1.3b Type Conversion Type Conversion When we write expressions involved data that involves two different data types, such as multiplying an integer and floating point number, we need to perform a type

### I Internal Examination Sept Class: - BCA I Subject: - Principles of Programming Lang. (BCA 104) MM: 40 Set: A Time: 1 ½ Hrs.

I Internal Examination Sept. 2018 Class: - BCA I Subject: - Principles of Programming Lang. (BCA 104) MM: 40 Set: A Time: 1 ½ Hrs. [I]Very short answer questions (Max 40 words). (5 * 2 = 10) 1. What is

### A First Program - Greeting.cpp

C++ Basics A First Program - Greeting.cpp Preprocessor directives Function named main() indicates start of program // Program: Display greetings #include using namespace std; int main() { cout

### CS101 Introduction to computing Floating Point Numbers

CS101 Introduction to computing Floating Point Numbers A. Sahu and S. V.Rao Dept of Comp. Sc. & Engg. Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 1 Outline Need to floating point number Number representation

### Data and Variables. Data Types Expressions. String Concatenation Variables Declaration Assignment Shorthand operators. Operators Precedence

Data and Variables Data Types Expressions Operators Precedence String Concatenation Variables Declaration Assignment Shorthand operators Review class All code in a java file is written in a class public

### SECTION II: LANGUAGE BASICS

Chapter 5 SECTION II: LANGUAGE BASICS Operators Chapter 04: Basic Fundamentals demonstrated declaring and initializing variables. This chapter depicts how to do something with them, using operators. Operators

### IT 1204 Section 2.0. Data Representation and Arithmetic. 2009, University of Colombo School of Computing 1

IT 1204 Section 2.0 Data Representation and Arithmetic 2009, University of Colombo School of Computing 1 What is Analog and Digital The interpretation of an analog signal would correspond to a signal whose

### Motivations. Chapter 2: Elementary Programming 8/24/18. Introducing Programming with an Example. Trace a Program Execution. Trace a Program Execution

Chapter 2: Elementary Programming CS1: Java Programming Colorado State University Original slides by Daniel Liang Modified slides by Chris Wilcox Motivations In the preceding chapter, you learned how to

### 3. Java - Language Constructs I

Educational Objectives 3. Java - Language Constructs I Names and Identifiers, Variables, Assignments, Constants, Datatypes, Operations, Evaluation of Expressions, Type Conversions You know the basic blocks

### Data types, variables, constants

Data types, variables, constants Outline 2.1 Introduction 2.2 A Simple C Program: Printing a Line of Text 2.3 Another Simple C Program: Adding Two Integers 2.4 Memory Concepts 2.5 Arithmetic in C 2.6 Decision

### Computers Programming Course 6. Iulian Năstac

Computers Programming Course 6 Iulian Năstac Recap from previous course Data types four basic arithmetic type specifiers: char int float double void optional specifiers: signed, unsigned short long 2 Recap