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1 Computer Architecture Course Title: Computer Architecture Full Marks: Course No: CSC208 Pass Marks: Nature of the Course: Theory + Lab Credit Hrs: 3 Course Description: This course includes concepts of instruction set architecture, organization or micro-architecture, and system architecture. The instruction set architecture includes programmer s abstraction of computer. The micro-architecture consist internal representation of computers at register and functional unit level. The system architecture includes organization of computers at the cache and bus level.. Course Objectives Discuss representation of data and algorithms used to perform operations on data Demonstrate different operations in terms of Micro-operations Explain architecture of basic computer and micro-programmed control unit Understand and memory and I/O organization of a typical computer system Demonstrate benefits of pipelined systems Course Contents: Unit Unit 1: Data Representation (4 Hrs.) 1.1 Data Representation: Binary Representation, BCD, Alphanumeric Representation, Complements ((r-1) s Complement and r s complement), Fixed Point representation, Representing Negative Numbers, Floating Point Representation, Arithmetic with Complements (Subtraction of Unsigned Numbers, Addition and Subtraction of Signed Numbers) Overflow, Detecting Overflow 1.2 Other Binary Codes: Gray Code, self Complementing Code, Weighted Code (2421 and 8421 codes), Excess-3 Code, EBCDIC 1.3 Error Detection Codes: Parity Bit, Odd Parity, Even parity, Parity Generator & Checker Teaching Hour

2 Unit 2: Register Transfer and Microoperations (5) 2.1 Register Transfer Language: Microoperation, Register Transfer Language, Register Transfer, Control Function 2.2 Arithmetic Microoperations: List of Arithmetic Microoperations, Binary Adder, Binary Adder-subtractor, Binary Incrementer, Arithmetic Circuit 2.3 Logic Microoperations: List of Logic Microoperations, Hardware Implementation, Applications of Logic Microoperations. 2.1 Shift Microoperations: Logical Shift, Circular shift, Arithmetic Shift, Hardware Implementation of Shifter. Unit 3: Basic Computer Organization and Design (8) 3.1 Basic Concepts: Instruction Code, Operation Code, Concept of Instruction Format, Stored Program Concept. 3.2 Basic Computer Registers and Memory: List of Registers, Memory of Basic Computer, Common Bus System for Basic Computer. 3.3 Basic Computer Instructions: Instruction Format, Instruction Set Completeness, Control Unit of Basic Computer, Control Timing Signals 3.4 Instruction Cycle of Basic Computer: Fetch and Decode, Determining Type of Instruction, Memory Reference Instructions, Input-Output Instructions, IO Interrupt, Program Interrupt, Interrupt Cycle. 4 Hour 3.5 Description and Flowchart of Basic Computer

3 Unit 4: Microprogrammed Control (4) 4.1 Introduction: Hardwired and Microprogrammed Control Unit, Control Word, Microprogram, Control Memory, Control Address Register, Sequencer, 4.2 Address Sequencing: Conditional Branch, Mapping of Instructions, Subroutines, Microinstruction Format, Symbolic Microinstructions 4.3 Design of Control Unit: Decoding, Microprogram Sequencer. Unit 5: Central Processing Unit (4) 5.1 Introduction: Major Components of CPU, CPU Organizations (Accumulator Based Organization, General Register Organization, Stack Based Organization) 5.2 CPU Instructions: Instruction Formats, Addressing Modes, Types of Instructions (on the basis of numbers of addresses, on the basis of type of operation: data transfer instructions, data manipulation instructions, program control instructions), Program Control, Subroutine Call and Return, Types of Interrupt 5.3 RISC and CISC: RISC vs CISC, Pros and Cons of RISC and CISC, Overlapped Register Windows 2.5 Hour Unit 6: Pipelining (6) 6.1 Introduction: Parallel Processing, Multiple Functional Units, Flynn s Classification 6.2 Pipelining: Concept and Demonstration with Example, Speedup Equation, Floating Point addition and Subtraction with Pipelining

4 6.3 Instruction Level Pipelining: Review of Instruction Cycle, Three & Four-Segment Instruction Pipeline, Pipeline Conflicts and Solutions (Resource Hazards, Data Hazards, Branch Hazards) 3 Hour 6.4 Vector Processing: Concept and Applications, Vector Operations, Matrix Multiplication Unit 7: Computer Arithmetic (6) 7.1 Addition and Subtraction: Addition and Subtraction with Signed Magnitude Data (Algorithm and Hardware Implementation), Addition and Subtraction with Signed 2 s Complement Data (Algorithm and Hardware Implementation) 7.2 Multiplication and Division: Multiplication of Signed Magnitude Data, Booth Multiplication (Algorithm and Hardware Implementation), Restoring and Non-restoring Division Algorithm, Divide Overflow (Algorithm and Hardware Implementation). Unit 8: Input Output Organization (4) 8.1 Input-Output Interface: Why IO Interface?, I/O Bus and Interface Modules, I/O vs Memory Bus, Isolated vs Memory- Mapped I/O 8.2 Asynchronous Data Transfer: Strobe, Handshaking 8.3 Modes of Transfer: Programmed I/O, Interrupt-Initiated I/O, Direct memory Access 8.4 Priority Interrupt: Polling, Daisy-Chaining, Parallel Priority Interrupt 8.5 DMA and IOP: Direct Memory Access, Input-Output Processor, DMA vs IOP Unit 9: Memory Organization (4) 9.1 Introduction: Memory Hierarchy, Main Memory, RAM and ROM Chips, Memory address Map, Memory Connection to 4 Hour

5 CPU, Auxiliary Memory (Review of magnetic Disk, Magnetic Tape) 9.2 Associative Memory: Hardware Organization, Match Logic, Read Operation, Write Operation 9.3 Cache Memory: Locality of Reference, Hit & Miss Ratio, Mapping, Write Policies Text Book M. Morris Mano, Computer System Architecture, Prentice-Hall of India, Pvt. Ltd., Third edition, 2007 References William Stallings, Computer Organization and Architecture, Prentice-Hall of India, Pvt. Ltd., Seventh edition, Vincent P. Heuring and Harry F. Jordan, Computer System Design and Architecture, Prentice-Hall of India, Pvt. Ltd., Second edition, Laboratory Work Student should be able to implement and simulate the algorithms by using high level languages like C/Matlab and/or VHDL/Verilog. Laboratory work must include following exercises: 1 Laboratory work for familiarizing with the syntax, data types, and operators of Verilog/VHDL 2 Design of n-bit 2 s complement adder/subtractor 3 Design of Overflow detector in signed number addition 4 Design of parity generator and parity checker 5 Design of encoder and decoders 6 Design of multiplexer 7 Design of registers and memory 8 Memory Mapping 9 Design of control unit 10 Design of ALU

7 9 Define priority interrupt. Explain Daisy-chaining method of handling interrupt priority. 10 What is cache mapping? Explain direct mapping with suitable example. 11 What is space-time diagram? Discuss pipeline speedup equation with suitable example 12 Write short notes on a) Excess-3 code b) Input-output processor

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