# At this point in our study of digital circuits, we have two methods for representing combinational logic: schematics and truth tables.

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1 HPTER FIVE oolean lgebra 5.1 Need for oolean Expressions t this point in our study of digital circuits, we have two methods for representing combinational logic: schematics and truth tables Figure 5-1 Schematic and Truth Table of ombinational Logic These two methods are inadequate for a number of reasons: oth schematics and truth tables take too much space to describe the operation of complex circuits with numerous inputs. The truth table "hides" circuit information. The schematic diagram is difficult to use when trying to determine output values for each input combination. To overcome these problems, a discipline much like algebra is practiced that uses expressions to describe digital circuitry. These expressions, which are called boolean expressions, use the input variable names,,,, etc., and combine them using symbols 89

2 90 omputer Organization and Design Fundamentals representing the ND, OR, and NOT gates. These boolean expressions can be used to describe or evaluate the output of a circuit. There is an additional benefit. Just like algebra, a set of rules exist that when applied to boolean expressions can dramatically simplify them. simpler expression that produces the same output can be realized with fewer logic gates. lower gate count results in cheaper circuitry, smaller circuit boards, and lower power consumption. If your software uses binary logic, the logic can be represented with boolean expressions. pplying the rules of simplification will make the software run faster or allow it to use less memory. The next section describes the representation of the three primary logic functions, NOT, ND, and OR, and how to convert combinational logic to a boolean expression. 5.2 Symbols of oolean lgebra nalogous behavior can be shown between boolean algebra and mathematical algebra, and as a result, similar symbols and syntax can be used. For example, the following expressions hold true in math. 0 0 = = = = 1 This looks a great deal like the ND function, and in fact, an analogy can be drawn between the mathematical multiply function and the boolean ND function. Therefore, in boolean algebra, ND'ed with is written. = Figure 5-2 oolean Expression for the ND Function Mathematical addition has a similar parallel in boolean algebra, although it is not quite as flawless. The following four mathematical expressions hold true for addition = = = = 2 The first three operations match the OR function, and if the last operation is viewed as having a non-zero result instead of the decimal

3 hapter 5: oolean lgebra 91 result of two, it too can be viewed as operating similar to the OR function. Therefore, the boolean OR function is comparable to the mathematical function of addition. = + Figure 5-3 oolean Expression for the OR Function Unfortunately, a similar analogy cannot be drawn between the boolean NOT function and any mathematical function. Later in this chapter we will see how the NOT function, unlike ND and OR, requires its own special theorems for algebraic manipulation. For now, we will only present the symbolic representation for the NOT function. = Figure 5-4 oolean Expression for the NOT Function The NOT operation may be used to invert the result of a larger expression. For example, the NND function which places an inverter at the output of an ND gate is written as: = Since the bar goes across, the NOT is performed after the ND. Let's begin with some simple examples. an you determine the output of the boolean expression ? Remember that the plussign represents the OR circuit, and therefore, the expression can be represented with the circuit shown in Figure Figure 5-5 ircuit Representation of the oolean Expression 1+0+1

4 92 omputer Organization and Design Fundamentals Since an OR-gate outputs a one when any of its inputs equal 1, then = 1. The next section shows how the boolean operators, +, and the NOT bar may be combined to represent complex combinational logic. 5.3 oolean Expressions of ombinational Logic Just as mathematical algebra combines multiplication and addition to create complex expressions, boolean algebra combines ND, OR, and NOT functions to represent complex combinational logic. Our experience with algebra allows us to understand the expression Y = ( +5) + 3. The decimal value 5 is added to a copy of, the result of which is then multiplied by a second copy of. Lastly, a decimal 3 is added and the final result is assigned to Y. This example shows us two things. First, each mathematical operation has a priority, e.g., multiplication is performed before addition. This priority is referred to as precedence. Second, variables such can appear multiple times in an expression, each appearance representing the current value of. oolean algebra allows for the same operation. Take for example the circuit shown in Figure 5-6. Figure 5-6 Sample of Multi-Level ombinational Logic In hapter 4, we determined the truth table for this circuit by taking the input signals,, and from left to right through each gate. s shown in Figure 5-7, we can do the same thing to determine the boolean expression. In step c, notice the use of parenthesis. Just as in mathematical algebra, parenthesis can be used to force the order in which operations are taken. In the absence of parenthesis, however, the ND, OR, and NOT functions have an order of precedence.

5 hapter 5: oolean lgebra 93 a) goes through the first inverter which outputs a b) and go through the ND gate which outputs. ( ) + c) and go through the OR gate which outputs ( ) +. ( ) + ( ) + d) The output of the OR gate goes through a second inverter giving us our result. Figure 5-7 reating oolean Expression from ombinational Logic To begin with, ND takes precedence over OR unless overridden by parenthesis. NOT is a special case in that it can act like a set of parenthesis. If the bar indicating the NOT function spans a single variable, it takes precedence over ND and OR. If, however, the NOT bar spans an expression, the expression beneath the bar must be evaluated before the NOT is taken. Figure 5-8 presents two examples of handling precedence with the NOT function. = = Figure 5-8 Examples of the Precedence of the NOT Function

6 94 omputer Organization and Design Fundamentals Understanding this is vital because unlike the mathematical inverse, the two expressions below are not equivalent. Let's do an example addressing precedence with a more complex boolean expression. Using parenthesis and the order of precedence, the boolean expression below has a single interpretation. = D + ( + + ) The following steps show the order to evaluate the above expression. 1. OR with because the operation is contained under a single NOT bar and is contained within the lowest set of parenthesis 2. Invert the result of step 1 because NOT takes precedence over OR 3. OR with the result of step 2 because of the parenthesis 4. Invert result of step 3 5. ND and D because ND takes precedence over OR 6. OR the results of steps 4 and 5 We can use this order of operations to convert the expression to its schematic representation. y starting with a list of inputs to the circuit, then passing each input through the correct gates, we can develop the circuit. Figure 5-9 does just this for the previous boolean expression. We list the inputs for the expression,,,, and D, on the left side of the figure. These inputs are then passed through the gates using the same order as the steps shown above. The number inside each gate of the figure corresponds to the order of the steps. D Figure 5-9 Example of a onversion from a oolean Expression

7 hapter 5: oolean lgebra 95 The following sections show how boolean expressions can be used to modify combinational logic in order to reduce complexity or otherwise modify its structure. 5.4 Laws of oolean lgebra The manipulation of algebraic expressions is based on fundamental laws. Some of these laws extend to the manipulation of boolean expressions. For example, the commutative law of algebra which states that the result of an operation is the same regardless of the order of operands holds true for boolean algebra too. This is shown for the OR function applied to two variables in the truth tables of Figure = = = = = = = = 1 Figure 5-10 ommutative Law for Two Variables OR'ed Together Not only does Figure 5-10 show how the commutative law applies to the OR function, it also shows how truth tables can be used in boolean algebra to prove laws and rules. If a rule states that two boolean expressions are equal, then by developing the truth table for each expression and showing that the output is equal for all combinations of ones and zeros at the input, then the rule is proven true. elow, the three fundamental laws of boolean algebra are given along with examples. ommutative Law: The results of the boolean operations ND and OR are the same regardless of the order of their operands. + = + =

8 96 omputer Organization and Design Fundamentals ssociative Law: The results of the boolean operations ND and OR with three or more operands are the same regardless of which pair of elements are operated on first. + ( + ) = ( + ) + ( ) = ( ) Distributive Law: The ND'ing of an operand with an OR expression is equivalent to OR'ing the results of an ND between the first operand and each operand within the OR expression. ( + ) = + The next section uses truth tables and laws to prove twelve rules of boolean algebra. 5.5 Rules of oolean lgebra NOT Rule In algebra, the negative of a negative is a positive and taking the inverse of an inverse returns the original value. lthough the NOT gate does not have an equivalent in mathematical algebra, it operates in a similar manner. If the boolean inverse of a boolean inverse is taken, the original value results. This is proven with a truth table. = Since the first column and the third column have the same pattern of ones and zeros, they must be equivalent. Figure 5-11 shows this rule in schematic form. = Figure 5-11 Schematic Form of NOT Rule

9 hapter 5: oolean lgebra OR Rules If an input to a logic gate is a constant 0 or 1 or if the same signal is connected to more than one input of a gate, a simplification of the expression is almost always possible. This is true for the OR gate as is shown with the following four rules for simplifying the OR function. First, what happens when one of the inputs to an OR gate is a constant logic 0? It turns out that the logic 0 input drops out leaving the remaining inputs to stand on their own. Notice that the two columns in the truth table below are equivalent thus proving this rule. Rule: + 0 = = = 1 What about inputting a logic 1 to an OR gate? In this case, a logic 1 forces the other operands into the OR gate to drop out. Notice that the output column ( + 1) is always equal to 1 regardless of what equals. Therefore, the output of this gate will always be 1. Rule: + 1 = = = 1 If the same operand is connected to all of the inputs of an OR gate, we find that the OR gate has no effect. Notice that the two columns in the truth table below are equivalent thus proving this rule. + Rule: + = = 0 nother case of simplification occurs 1 when 1+1 an operand = 1 is connected to one input of a two-input OR gate and its inverse is connected to the other. In this case, either the operand is equal to a one or its inverse is. There is no other possibility. Therefore, at least one logic 1 is connected to the inputs of the OR gate. This gives us an output of logic 1 regardless of the inputs. Rule: + = = = 1

10 98 omputer Organization and Design Fundamentals ND Rules Just as with the OR gate, if either of the inputs to an ND gate is a constant (logic 0 or logic 1) or if two operands represent the same input, a simplification can usually be performed. The following four rules represent simplifications that can be performed on the ND gate. Let's begin with the case where one of the inputs to the ND gate is a constant logic 0. Remember that an ND gate must have all ones at its inputs to output a one. In this case, one of the outputs will always be zero, and therefore, the ND gate can never output a one. The truth table below supports this. Rule: 0 = = = 0 If, however, one input of a two-input ND gate is connected to a constant logic 1, then it only takes the other input going to a one to get all ones on the inputs. onversely, if the other input goes to zero, the output becomes zero. This means that the output follows the input that is not connected to the logic 1. Rule: 1 = = = 1 If the same operand is connected to all of the inputs of an ND gate, we get a simplification similar to that of the OR gate. Notice that the two columns in the truth table below are equivalent proving this rule. Rule: = = = 1 The last case of simplification using an ND gate occurs when an operand is connected to one input of a two-input ND gate and its inverse is connected to the other. In this case, either the operand is equal to a zero or its inverse is equal to zero. There is no other possibility. Therefore, at least one logic 0 is connected to the inputs of the ND gate giving us an output of logic 0 regardless of the inputs.

11 hapter 5: oolean lgebra 99 Rule: = = = Derivation of Other Rules If we combine the NOT, OR, and ND rules with the commutative, associative, and distributive laws, we can derive other rules for boolean algebra. This can be shown with the following example. Example Prove that + = Solution + = 1 + Rule: 1 = = (1 + ) Distributive Law = ( + 1) ommutative Law = 1 Rule: + 1 = 1 = Rule: 1 = Remember also that rules of boolean algebra can be proven using a truth table. The example below uses a truth table to derive another rule. Example Prove that + = + Solution The truth table below uses the method presented in hapter 4 where a new column is created for each gate or function that the inputs pass through on their way to the output

12 100 omputer Organization and Design Fundamentals The last two columns are equal, and therefore, so are the expressions they represent. Example Prove ( + ) ( + ) = + Solution ( + ) ( + ) = ( + ) + ( + ) Distributive Law = Distributive Law = Rule: = = ommutative Law = + + Rule: + = = + Rule: + = Notice that the first two steps of the previous example are equivalent to the "F-O-I-L" operation in algebra. FOIL is an acronym to aid in remembering the multiplication pattern for multiplying quadratic equations. It stands for: F ND the first terms from each OR expression O ND the outside terms (the first term from the first OR expression and the last term from the last OR expression) I ND the inside terms (the last term from the first OR expression and the first term from the last OR expression) L ND the last terms from each OR expression Now that you have a taste for the manipulation of boolean expressions using the laws and rules of boolean algebra, the next section will show how complex expressions can be simplified through their application. 5.6 Simplification Many students of algebra are frustrated by problems requiring simplification. Sometimes it feels as if extrasensory perception is required to see where the best path to simplification lies. Unfortunately, boolean algebra is no exception. There is no substitute for practice.

13 hapter 5: oolean lgebra 101 Therefore, this section provides a number of examples of simplification in the hope that seeing them presented in detail will give you the tools you need to simplify the problems on your own. The rules of the previous section are summarized in Figure = 7. 1 = = 8. = = 1 9. = = = 5. + = = = ( + )( + ) = + Figure 5-12 Rules of oolean lgebra Example Simplify ( + )( + D) Solution From rule 12, we know that ( + )( + ) = +. Substitute for, for, and D for and we get: Solution ( + ) ( + ) ( + )( + D) = + D Example Simplify ( + ) ( + ). ( + ) 1 nything OR'ed with its inverse is 1 ( + ) nything ND'ed with 1 is itself

14 102 omputer Organization and Design Fundamentals Example Simplify ( + ). Solution ( + ) + Distributive Law + ssociative Law + 0 nything ND'ed with its inverse is nything ND'ed with 0 is 0 nything OR'ed with 0 is itself ssociative Law Example Simplify ( + )( + ) Solution ( + )( + ) Use FOIL to distribute terms nything ND'ed with its inverse is 0 + nything OR'ed with 0 is itself Example Simplify

15 hapter 5: oolean lgebra 103 Solution ( ) Distributive Law ( ( + ) + ( + )) Distributive Law ( 1 + 1) nything OR'ed with its inverse is 1 ( + ) nything ND'ed with 1 is itself 1 nything OR'ed with its inverse is 1 nything ND'ed with 1 is itself 5.7 DeMorgan's Theorem Some of you may have noticed that the truth tables for the ND and OR gates are similar. elow is a comparison of the two operations. ND OR = = Okay, so maybe they're not exactly the same, but notice that the output for each gate is the same for three rows and different for the fourth. For the ND gate, the row that is different occurs when all of the inputs are ones, and for the OR gate, the different row occurs when all of the inputs are zeros. What would happen if we inverted the inputs of the ND truth table?

16 104 omputer Organization and Design Fundamentals ND of inverted inputs OR = = The two truth tables are still not quite the same, but they are quite close. The two truth tables are now inverses of one another. Let's take the inverse of the output of the OR gate and see what happens. ND of inverted inputs OR with inverted output = = (+) So the output of an ND gate with inverted inputs is equal to the inverted output of an OR gate with non-inverted inputs. similar proof can be used to show that the output of an OR gate with inverted inputs is equal to the inverted output of an ND gate with non-inverted inputs. This resolves our earlier discussion where we showed that the NOT gate cannot be distributed to the inputs of an ND or an OR gate. This brings us to DeMorgan's Theorem, the last oolean law presented in this chapter. + = + = The purpose of DeMorgan's Theorem is to allow us to distribute an inverter from the output of an ND or OR gate to the gate's inputs. In doing so, an ND gate is switched to an OR gate and an OR gate is switched to an ND gate. Figure 5-13 shows how pushing the inverter from the output of a gate to its inputs.

17 hapter 5: oolean lgebra 105 a.) Pushing an inverter through an ND gate flips it to an OR gate b.) Pushing an inverter through an OR gate flips it to an ND gate Figure 5-13 pplication of DeMorgan's Theorem DeMorgan's Theorem applies to gates with three or more inputs too D = ( + ) ( + D) = ( ) ( D) = D One of the main purposes of DeMorgan's Theorem is to distribute any inverters in a digital circuit back to the inputs. This typically improves the circuit's performance by removing layers of logic and can be done either with the boolean expression or the schematic. Either way, the inverters are pushed from the output side to the input side one gate at a time. Figure 5-14 shows this process using a schematic. a.) Push inverter through the OR gate distributing it to the inputs

18 106 omputer Organization and Design Fundamentals b.) Push inverter through the ND gate distributing it to the inputs c.) Two inverters at input cancel each other Figure 5-14 Schematic pplication of DeMorgan's Theorem It is a little more difficult to apply DeMorgan's Theorem to a boolean expression. To guarantee that the inverters are being distributed properly, it is a good idea to apply DeMorgan's Theorem in the reverse order of precedence for the expression. + Step 1: The ND takes precedence over the OR, so distribute inverter across the OR gate first. Step 2: Now distribute the inverter across the term. ( + ) Step 3: In this final case, the use of parenthesis is vital. 5.8 What's Next? Using the methods presented in this chapter, a boolean expression can be manipulated into whatever form best suits the needs of the computer system. s far as the binary operation is concerned, two circuits are the same if their truth tables are equivalent. The circuits, however, may not be the same when measuring performance or when

19 hapter 5: oolean lgebra 107 counting the number of gates it took to implement the circuit. The optimum circuit for a specific application can be designed using the tools presented in this chapter. In hapter 6, we will show how the rules presented in this chapter are used to take any boolean expression and put it into one of two standard formats. The standard formats allow for quicker operation and support the use of programmable hardware components. hapter 6 also presents some methods to convert truth tables into circuitry. It will be our first foray into designing circuitry based on a system specification. Problems 1. List three drawbacks of using truth tables or schematics for describing a digital circuit. 2. List three benefits of a digital circuit that uses fewer gates. 3. True or False: oolean expressions can be used to optimize the logic functions in software. 4. onvert the following boolean expressions to their schematic equivalents. Do not modify the original expression a.) + b.) + + c.) ( + ) + D d.) + 5. onvert each of the digital circuits shown below to their corresponding boolean expressions without simplification. a.)

20 108 omputer Organization and Design Fundamentals b.) c.) 6. pply DeMorgan's Theorem to each of the following expressions so that the NOT bars do not span more than a single variable. a.) + b.) D( + )( + ) c.) () 7. Simplify each of the following expressions. a.) + b.) ( + )( + ) c.) () d.) ( + ) e.) ( + )( + ) f.) + () +

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