# UNIT- V COMBINATIONAL LOGIC DESIGN

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1 UNIT- V COMBINATIONAL LOGIC DESIGN NOTE: This is UNIT-V in JNTUK and UNIT-III and HALF PART OF UNIT-IV in JNTUA SYLLABUS (JNTUK)UNIT-V: Combinational Logic Design: Adders & Subtractors, Ripple Adder, Look Ahead Carry Generator, Binary Parallel Adder, Binary Adder-Subtractor, ALU, Decoders, encoders, three state devices, multiplexers and demultiplexers, Code Converters, parity circuits, comparators, multipliers, Barrel Shifter, Simple Floating-Point Encoder, Cascading Comparators, Dual Priority Encoder, Design considerations with relevant Digital ICs, modeling of Circuits by using VHDL. (JNTU-A)UNIT-III: Combinational Logic Design: Decoders, encoders, three state devices, multiplexers and demultiplexers, Code Converters, EX-OR gates and parity circuits, comparators, adders & Subtractors, ALUs, Combinational multipliers, VHDL models for the above ICs. (JNTU-A)UNIT-IV: Design Examples (using VHDL): Barrel shifter, comparators, floatingpoint encoder, Dual Priority Encoder. 1

2 UNIT- V COMBINATIONAL LOGIC DESIGN 1. Define combinational logic circuit and explain its analysis and design procedure? Ans) Combinational Logic Circuit: Combinational logic circuits are circuits which has connection of logic gates together to produce an output at any time depends upon the combination of input signals present at that instant only, and does not depend on any past conditions. So no Memory element is required in Combinational Logic Circuits. Figure 5.1 Block diagram of Combinational Logic Circuit Combinational Logic Circuit Analysis Procedure: Analysis of a Combinational logic circuit is the procedure by which we can determine the function that the circuit can implement. In this procedure we have to obtain possible boolean expressions and truth tables of output functions from the give given circuit. STEPS to follow in Analysis Procedure: 1. First check whether the given circuit is combinational or sequential circuit. 2. Assign labels to all gate outputs with arbitrary symbols and determine boolean functions for each gate output until to get last output. 3. Substitute all output functions to get final output. 4. Find the truth table for the above mentioned values by taking binary numbers from 0 to 2 n -1 for n number of values. Example: Figure 5.2 A combinational logic circuit example 2

3 Analysis of Figure 5.1: Step-1: The given circuit has output dependency only on present inputs. So given circuit is combinational logic circuit. Step-2: Assigning labels to all gate outputs in each stage. Figure 5.2 Assigning labels to all gate outputs Step-3: Obtaining Boolean expressions for all output stages. Y=AB + CD Y1= A.B.C; Y2= =A. Y1 ; B. C Y3= B.C Y4=Y2+Y3=A. B. C + B.C= A + B + C + B.C=A + B (1 + C )+ C == A + B + C =A. B. C Y5=A+B; Y6=B+C; Y7=Y5+Y6=A+B+C; Y8=B ; The final outputs, F1=B.Y4=B.( A. )=B(A B. C + B + C )= B.A + B. C F2=Y7.Y8=( A+B+C) B =AB +B C Inputs Each stage outputs Output A B C Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 Y8 F1 F Table 5.1: Truth table for circuit represented in figure 5.2 3

4 Combinational Logic Circuit Design Procedure: STEPS to follow in Design Procedure: 1. Problem definition and Determining number of input and output variables 2. Assign Letter symbols to input and output variables. 3. Obtain truth table indicating relation between inputs and outputs. 4. Obtain simplified boolean expressions each output using k-map. 5. By using above obtained boolean expressions draw logic diagram. Example: Design a combinational logic circuit with 3 input variables that will produce output as logic 1 if and only if any two inputs have logic 1. Step-1 & 2: From the given information let inputs are A, B, C. and Output as Y. Step-3: Obtaining truth table Inputs Output A B C Y Table 5.2: Truth table Step-4: Obtaining simplified boolean expression for output Y using k-map. 4

5 Step-5: Draw Logic Diagram Figure 5.2 Assigning labels to all gate outputs 2. Define Decoder? Explain the operation of a binary decoder using example? Ans) Decoder: A Decoder is a multiple input and multiple output logic circuit which converts coded inputs into coded outputs. Each input codeword produces a different output codeword. There is one to one mapping from input codeword into output codeword. Binary Decoder: A decoder is a combinational logic circuit which has n-bit binary input code and one activated output out of 2 n output codes called as Binary decoder. Figure 5.3 Binary Decoder Example: Designing of 2 to 4 binary decoder A 2:4 Decoder contains two inputs and produces four outputs, to activate an enable input is applied to this decoder. Enable Input Inputs Outputs En A B Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 0 X X Table 5.3 Truth table for 2:4 Decoder 5

6 From the above truth table the outputs are obtained as Y0= A. B, Y1= A. B, Y2=A. B, Y3= A.B Figure 5.4: Logic diagram of 2:4 Decoder Example: Designing of 3 to 8 binary decoder A 3:8 Decoder contains two inputs and produces four outputs, to activate an enable input is applied to this decoder. Enable Input Inputs Outputs En A B C Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 0 X X X Table 5.4 Truth table for 3:8 Decoder From the above truth table the outputs are obtained as Y0= A. B. C, Y1= A. B. C, Y2=A. B. C, Y3= A. B. C, Y4= A. B. C, Y5= A. B. C, Y6=A. B. C, Y7= A. B. C, 6

7 Figure 5.5: Logic diagram of 3:8 Decoder 3. Define Decoder? Explain the operation of a binary decoder using IC 74X138? Ans) Decoder: A Decoder is a multiple input and multiple output logic circuit which converts coded inputs into coded outputs. Each input codeword produces a different output codeword. There is one to one mapping from input codeword into output codeword. Binary Decoder: A decoder is a combinational logic circuit which has n-bit binary input code and one activated output out of 2 n output codes called as Binary decoder. Figure 5.6: Pin diagram of IC 74X138 The IC 74X138 is used to produce 3: 8 Decoder operation. 7

8 The IC 74X138 is 16 pin Dual In Packaged(DIP) IC. It has three inputs A, B and C. The IC 74X138 has three enable inputs as G1, G2A and G2B. Among these three enable inputs, G1 is active high and G2A, G2B are active low. It produces Eight active low outputs as Y0, Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6 and Y7. Enable Inputs Inputs Outputs(Active low) G1 A B C Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 0 X X X X X X 1 X X X X X X 1 X X X Table 5.5: Truth table for IC 74X Define Decoder? Explain the operation of a binary decoder using IC 74X139? Ans) Decoder: A Decoder is a multiple input and multiple output logic circuit which converts coded inputs into coded outputs. Each input codeword produces a different output codeword. There is one to one mapping from input codeword into output codeword. Binary Decoder: A decoder is a combinational logic circuit which has n-bit binary input code and one activated output out of 2 n output codes called as Binary decoder. Figure 5.6: Pin diagram of IC 74X139 The IC 74X139 is a Dual 2 to 4 Decoder. The IC 74X139 is 16 pin Dual In Packaged(DIP) IC. It has two sets of inputs 1A,1B and 2A, 2B. 8

9 The IC 74X139 has two enable inputs as 1G, 2G both are active low for two decoders separately. It produces four active low outputs as 1Y0, 1Y1, 1Y2, 1Y3, 1Y4 for one half of the dual 2 to 4 decoder and four active low outputs as 2Y0, 2Y1, 2Y2, 2Y3, 2Y4 for another half of the dual 2 to 4 decoder. For active low enable input only the IC 74X139 may produce valid outputs. Enable Inputs Inputs Outputs(Active low) 1A 1B 2A 2B 1Y0 1Y1 1Y2 1Y3 2Y0 2Y1 2Y2 2Y3 1 1 X X X X Table 5.6(a): Truth table for IC 74X139 Enable Inputs Inputs Outputs(Active low) 1A 1B 1Y0 1Y1 1Y2 1Y3 1 X X Table 5.6(b): Truth table for IC 74X139(one half only) 5. What is the need for cascading in decoders? Implement the 4:16 binary decoder using required number of IC 74X138? Ans) The implementation of ICs for higher order decoder requires a large number of AND gates which may leads to the increase in Area occupancy, power consumption and design complexity. So no separate IC is implemented for such kind of higher order decoders. These 9

10 higher order decoders are designed by using cascading of lower order decoders. Hence cascading of decoders is used in the implementation of higher order decoders. Implement the 4:16 binary decoder using IC 74X138 The IC 74X138 is used to produce 3: 8 Decoder operation. This implementation requires two IC 74X138 to get specified 4 inputs and 16 outputs. Each IC 74X138 has three inputs and 3 enable inputs as G1, G2A and G2B. Among these three enable inputs, G1 is active high and G2A, G2B are active low. It produces Eight active low outputs as Y0, Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6 and Y7. To get required specifications all three inputs of both IC 74X138 are shorted together with their respective input terminals. The 4 th required input, let as D is taken from Enable inputs as shown in the figure 5.7. When D=logic 0 then first IC gets enabled or activated and gives 8 outputs of first IC74LS138(1) and When D=logic 1 then second IC gets enabled or activated and gives 8 outputs of first IC74LS138(2) Figure 5.7: Implementation of 4:16 Decoder using IC 74X138 10

11 6. Implement the 5:32 binary decoder using required number of IC 74X138 and IC 74X139? Ans) The IC 74X138 is used to produce 3: 8 Decoder operation. This implementation requires two IC 74X138 to get specified 4 inputs and 16 outputs. Each IC 74X138 has three inputs and 3 enable inputs as G1, G2A and G2B. Among these three enable inputs, G1 is active high and G2A, G2B are active low. It produces seven active low outputs as Y0, Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6 and Y7. To get required specifications all three inputs of four number of IC 74X138 are shorted together with their respective input terminals. The remaining 2 required inputs are taken from IC 74X139. The IC 74X139 is a Dual 2 to 4 Decoder. The IC 74X139 is 16 pin Dual In Packaged (DIP) IC. It has two sets of inputs 1A,1B and 2A, 2B. The IC 74X139 has two enable inputs as 1G, 2G both are active low for two decoders separately. It produces four active low outputs as 1Y0, 1Y1, 1Y2, 1Y3, 1Y4 for one half of the dual 2 to 4 decoder and 2Y0, 2Y1, 2Y2, 2Y3, 2Y4 for another half of the dual 2 to 4 decoder. For active low enable input only the IC 74X139 may produce valid outputs. When the inputs of IC 74X139 are applied then corresponding resultant output is applied to active low enable input G2B of IC74LS138. Based on that active low output, the corresponding IC74LS138 is activated and produces respective outputs. For each input combination of IC 74X139, only one IC74LS138 will be in active at a time. Truth table for one half of the IC 74X139 is given by Enable Inputs Inputs Outputs(Active low) 1A 1B 1Y0 1Y1 1Y2 1Y3 1 X X

12 Figure 5.8: Implementation of 5:32 Decoder using IC 74X138 and IC 74X139 12

13 7. (i)realize the following boolean functions using required decoder. F1(A,B,C)= Σm(1,2,3,7) and F2(A,B,C)=πM(1,3,5,7) (ii) Realize the following boolean functions using decoder IC 74X138. F1(A,B,C)= Σm(1,4,5,7) and F2(A,B,C)=πM(2,3,6,7) Ans) The boolean functions can be represented as Sum Of Products (SOP) and Product Of Sum (POS). When decoder outputs are active high it provides outputs as minterms (standard product terms), Then the implemented boolean expression is called as Standard Sum Of Products. Standard SOPs can be implemented by decoder with help of OR gate when outputs are Active high. Standard POSs can also be implemented by decoder when outputs are Active high with help of NOR gate instead of OR gate by complementing SOP operation. When decoder outputs are active low it provides outputs as maxterms (standard sum terms), Then the implemented boolean expression is called as Standard Products Of Sum. Standard SOPs can be implemented by decoder with help of NAND gate when outputs are Active low. Standard POSs can also be implemented by decoder when outputs are Active low with help of AND gate instead of NAND gate by complementing SOP operation. (i) F1(A,B,C)= Σm(1,2,3,7) and F2(A,B,C)=πM(1,3,5,7) Solution: Given functions F1 and F2 have highest minterm as 7 and 3 inputs. So to implement both functions, the required decoder is 3:8 binary decoder. Let decoder has active high outputs. Hence we know, the standard SOPs can be implemented by decoder with help of OR gate when outputs are Active high. Figure 5.9: Implementation of F1 and F2 using Decoder 13

14 (ii) Realize the following boolean functions using decoder IC 74X138. F1(A,B,C)= Σm(1,4,5,7) and F2(A,B,C)=πM(2,3,6,7) Ans) IC 74X138 has three inputs and 3 enable inputs as G1, G2A and G2B. Among these three enable inputs, G1 is active high and G2A, G2B are active low. It produces Eight active low outputs as Y0, Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6 and Y7. Standard SOPs can be implemented by decoder with help of NAND gate when outputs are Active low. Standard POSs can also be implemented by decoder when outputs are Active low with help of AND gate instead of NAND gate by complementing SOP operation. Figure 5.10: Implementation of F1 and F2 using Decoder IC74X Explain the operation of BCD to decimal decoder and configure the IC 7442? Ans) BCD to Decimal decoders have four inputs and ten outputs. The Binary Coded Decimal number are valid only from 0 to 9. So to get these valid BCD, we need 4 input variable. The 4-bit BCD input is decoded to activate one of the ten outputs. Enable Inputs Outputs(Active low) Inputs En A B C D Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 Y8 Y9 0 x x x x Table 5.7(a): Truth table for BCD to Decimal Decoder 14

15 Figure 5.11: Pin diagram of BCD to Decimal decoder IC 7442 Pin Description: IC 7442 is a BCD to Decimal decoder. It accepts four active high BCD inputs and provides ten active low outputs. The Binary Coded Decimal number are valid only from 0 to 9. So to get these valid BCD. For the value above the 9, all outputs are active high. Inputs Outputs(Active low) A B C D X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 0 Table 5.7(b): Truth table for BCD to Decimal Decoder IC Design a BCD to Seven segment display decoder using common cathode connection and configure relevant Digital IC? Ans) A 7-segment display is used in watches, calculators, and devices to show decimal data. A digit is displayed by illuminating a subset of the 7 line segments. A 7-segment decoder has a 4-bit BCD as its input and the 7-segment code as its output. This decoder has two type of connections to produce outputs as common cathode and common anode connections. In common cathode connection the disabled segment indicated with active low value and 15

16 enabled segments are indicated with active high value, But in common anode connection all connections are reversed compared to common cathode connection. Figure 5.12(a): Seven segment display Table 5.8: Truth table for BCD to Seven segment display Decoder Figure 5.12(b) Basic connections for driving common cathode display 16

17 K-Map simplification: 17

18 Figure 5.13: Logic diagram of BCD to seven segment decoder Figure 5.14: Pin diagram of BCD to Seven segment decoder IC 7447/7446A 18

19 In the IC7447 test lamp pin (LT ) is provided to test whether all segments are working properly or not. When LT pin is held low with RBO pin open or at logic high, IC drives all display terminals ON (active low). When BI/RBO pin is pulled low all outputs are blanked; this pin also functions as a Ripple Blanking Output terminal. BI/RBO along with RBI can be used to provide ripple blanking feature. To display Multiple digits we have to connect multiple seven segment decoders in multiplexed connection. Figure 5.15: Seven segment display in multiplexed connection 19

20 9. Define binary encoder? Design octal to binary encoder? Ans) Encoder is a combinational logic circuit that allows 2 n data inputs and produces n data outputs. Encoder gives a reverse operation of decoder circuit. Figure 5.16: Block diagram of Encoder Octal to binary encoder: Octal to binary encoder contains eight inputs and three outputs. Let eight inputs as D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7 and three outputs as A, B, C. Among all inputs only one input will be in active position to produce its corresponding value as output. Then the relation between input combinations and outputs is observed in truth table as follows. Table 5.9: Octal to Binary Encoder Then from truth table the boolean expressions for outputs A, B and C are obtained as From the above boolean expressions the logic diagram is obtained as 20

21 Figure 5.17: Logic diagram for Octal to Binary Encoder 10. Define binary encoder and explain the pin configuration of Decimal to BCD encoder? Ans) Encoder is a combinational logic circuit that allows 2 n data inputs and produces n data outputs. Encoder gives a reverse operation of decoder circuit. Figure 5.18: Pin diagram of Decimal to BCD Encoder Decimal to BCD Encoder: The IC 74xx147 is used for Decimal to BCD encoder has nine active low inputs and four active low BCD outputs. The 10 th pin is actually has no connection. If we consider it as 10 th active low enable input there is no change is present in the IC operation. The IC 74xx147 has the operation as shown in the table In the given table all the active low inputs are applied as logic 1 so the 0 th (initial) input which is not in defined in the IC gives the corresponding Combinational output as 1111 because all BCD outputs are active low. 21

22 Inputs(Active low) Outputs A B C D X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Table 5.10 Truth table for Decimal to BCD Encoder 11. What is Priority encoder? Design a 4-bit Priority encoder? Ans) According to the definition of an encoder circuit, to get a valid output only one input should be in active among all available inputs. If more than one input is active at a time then to get a valid output, we have to consider the highest priority of all inputs. Let a four input priority encoder with four inputs as D0, D1, D2, D3, and two outputs as Y0, Y1, V, where V is a valid output indicator. In this D3 input with highest priority and D0 with lowest priority. When D3 input is high, regardless of other inputs output is 11. D2 has the next highest priority. Thus, when D3=0 and D2=1, regardless of other two lower priority inputs, output is 10, and so on. The valid output indicator V indicates the obtaining of valid output for application of valid inputs. If all inputs in a priority encoder are 0 then V=0, otherwise V=1. Table 5.11 Truth table for 4-bit Priority Encoder 22

23 K-Map simplification: Figure 5.19: Logic diagram for 4-bit Priority Encoder 12. Explain the pin configuration of 8-bit Priority encoder IC and by using it design a 32:5 priority encoder? Ans) The IC 74x148 is an 8-bit priority encoder. It has eight active low inputs defined as and three active low outputs as, A0, A1. A2 Other than these inputs and outputs three more active low signals are there, they are GS, EO, EI. Where EI is active low enable input. A high on EI will force all outputs to inactive (high) state. A GS is a group signal is asserted when the device is enabled and one or more inputs of encoder are active. EO is the enable output that can be used to cascade several priority encoder devices to form a larger priority encoding system. The operation of the IC 74x148 is shown in the table The pin diagram of IC 74x148 is given by 23

24 Figure 5.20: Pin diagram of 8-input Priority Encoder Table 5.12 Truth table for 8-bit Priority Encoder IC 74x148 Design a 32:5 priority encoder: To design a 32:5 priority encoder we require five, 8-bit Priority Encoder IC 74x148s and respective logic gates. The design arrangement is represented as shown in the figure

25 Figure 5.21: Design of 32-input 5-output priority encoder using IC 74x148 and gates 25

26 13. Write short notes on Tri-State devices and available digital ICs for them? Ans) A three state(tri-state) device is a digital device that exhibits three states as Logic 1 state (H). Logic 0 state (L). High impedance state (Z). The high impedance state is the state of output that appears to be disconnected like an open circuit. In this state circuit has no logic significance. These tri-state device has a control input that can place the gate into a high impedance state. High impedance state is denoted with Z. There are four types of tri-state gates are available. They are Bufif0: It is a tri-state device represents a non-inverting buffer that has three terminals as active low control input En, Input X and output Y. If En =0 then only it provides input X value as output. En =1 then output exhibits as High impedance state. Figure 5.22: Bufif0 (a) Logic symbol; (b) Truth table Bufif1: It is a tri-state device represents a non-inverting buffer that has three terminals as active high control input En, Input X and output Y. If En=1 then only it provides input X value as output. En=0 then output exhibits as High impedance state. Figure 5.23: Bufif1 (a) Logic symbol; (b) Truth table 26

27 Notif0: It is a tri-state device represents an inverting buffer that has three terminals as active low control input En, Input X and output Y. If En =0 then only it provides output as complement value of input X. En =1 then output exhibits as High impedance state. Figure 5.24: Notif0 (a) Logic symbol; (b) Truth table Notif1: It is a tri-state device represents an inverting buffer that has three terminals as active High control input En, Input X and output Y. If En=1 then only it provides output as complement value of input X. En = 0 then output exhibits as High impedance state. Figure 5.25: Notif1 (a) Logic symbol; (b) Truth table Two ICs are available for tri-state devices, they are IC 74X125 and IC 74X126. Both the ICs are 14 pin Dual In Packaged ICs. The IC 74X125 has tri-state buffer with active low enable and IC 74X126 has tri-state buffer with active high enable. Figure 5.26: Pin diagrams of IC 74X125 and IC 74X126 tri-state buffers 27

28 14. What is a multiplexer? Design 4X1 and 8X1 multiplexer circuits? Ans) Multiplexer is a combinational digital logic circuit, it allows data information bits from several sources and selects only one data bit as output from all that are connected to the circuit based on the combination of selection input lines. That is selection of particular data input bit as output is controlled by a set of selection input lines. Hence multiplexer is also called as Data Selector. For 2 n input lines n selection lines are required. So the mapping in multiplexer is Many to One. Example: Design of 4X1 multiplexer. A 4X1 multiplexer has 4 input lines, 2 selection input lines and one output line. Let D0, D1, D2, D3 are four data bits, S0, S1 are two selection input lines and Y is the output. From four combinations of two selection inputs each one selects only one data bit from all four inputs (D0, D1, D2, D3) as output bit. Figure 5.27: 4X1 multiplexer. From the functional table, when S0=0, S1=0, then output selects D0 ; when S0=1, S1=0, it selects D1; when S0=0, S1=1, it selects D2; when S0=1, S1=1, it selects D3. 28

29 Example: Design of 8X1 multiplexer. An 8X1 multiplexer has 8 input lines, 3 selection input lines and one output line. Let D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7 are eight data bits, S0, S1, S2 are three selection input lines and Y is the output. From four combinations of two selection inputs each one selects only one data bit from all eight inputs (D0, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7) as output bit. Figure 5.28: 8X1 multiplexer. 29

30 14. Explain the pin configuration and Design structure of the following ICs (i) 74XX151 (ii) 74XX157 (iii) 74XX153 (iv) 74XX150 Ans) (i) IC 74XX151: The IC 74xx151 has two output terminals, in those one output is active low and another output is active high. (a) Pin Diagram of IC 74XX151 (8X1 Multiplexer) (b) Truth table of IC 74XX151 (8X1 Multiplexer) 30

31 (c) Logic Diagram of IC 74XX151 (8X1 Multiplexer) Figure 5.29: Implementation of IC 74XX151 (8X1 Multiplexer) (ii) IC 74XX157: The IC 74XX157 is a Quad 2X1 multiplexer with 16 pins DIP. It has four 2X1 multiplexers that are fabricated on a single chip. The IC 74XX157 has one active low enable input and one selection input common for all 2X1 multiplexers. (a) Truth table of IC 74XX157 31

32 (b) Pin diagram of IC 74XX157 (c) Logic diagram of IC 74XX157 Figure 5.30: Implementation of IC 74XX157 (Quad 2X1 Multiplexer) 32

33 (iii) IC 74XX153: The IC 74XX153 is a Dual 4X1 multiplexer with 16 pins DIP. It has two identical and independent 4X1 multiplexers that are fabricated on a single chip. The IC 74XX153 has two active low enable inputs and two common selection inputs for both 4X1 multiplexers. When the corresponding enable input is active low then only its respective data input bit is obtained as output. If 1En is active high no data bit will be appeared at output 1Y. Similarly if 2En is active high no data bit will be appeared at output 2Y. (a) Pin diagram of IC 74XX153(Dual 4X1 Multiplexer) (b) Truth table of IC 74XX153 Figure 5.31: Implementation of IC 74XX153 (Dual 4X1 Multiplexer) 33

34 (iv) IC 74XX150: The IC 74XX150 is a Dual 16X1 multiplexer with 24 pins DIP. The IC 74XX150 has one active low enable input four selection input lines. If the enable input is active low then only the respective data input bit is obtained as output. Enable input is active high no data bit will be appeared at output Y. Figure 5.32(a): Pin diagram of IC 74XX150(16X1 Multiplexer) Figure 5.32(b): Truth table of IC 74XX150(16X1 Multiplexer) 34

35 15. Design a 32X1 multiplexer by using required number of ICs 74xx150. Ans) The IC 74XX150 is a Dual 16X1 multiplexer with 24 pins DIP. To design a 32X1 multiplexer we require two IC 74XX150. The four selection inputs of both ICs are shorted together and Enable inputs of both connected in complementary connection which gives required fifth selection input, because 32X1 multiplexer has 5 selection inputs. Figure 5.33: Implementation of 32X1 multiplexer using IC 74XX150 35

36 16. Design a 32X1 multiplexer by using required number of 8X1 multiplexers and 2:4 Decoder? Ans) To design a 32X1 multiplexer we require four 8X1 multiplexers and one 2:4 decoder. The three selection inputs of four 8X1 multiplexers are shorted together and remaining two selection inputs are taken from inputs of 2:4 decoder.. Figure 5.34: Implementation of 32X1 multiplexer using 8X1 multiplexers and 2:4 Decoder 36

37 The decoder outputs are connected to the enable inputs of all four 8X1 multiplexers. The operation 2:4 decoder can be observed in the following truth table. Enable Inputs Inputs Outputs(Active low) En D E 1Y0 1Y1 1Y2 1Y3 0 X X Table 5.6(b): Truth table for 2:4 Decoder At a time only one 8X1 multiplexer is activated by depending on the operation of 2:4 decoder operation. 17. Design a 32X1 multiplexer by using required number of IC 74xx151 & IC 74x139? Ans) The IC 74XX151 is an 8X1 multiplexer with 16 pins DIP. To design a 32X1 multiplexer we require four IC 74XX151. The three selection inputs of both ICs are shorted together, and remaining two selection inputs are taken from inputs of a Decoder IC 74XX139. Its outputs are connected to enable inputs of all four 8X1 multiplexers. The operation of IC 74XX139 can be observed in the following truth table. At a time only one IC74xx151 is activated by depending on the operation of Dual 2:4 decoder operation. Enable Inputs Inputs Outputs(Active low) 1A 1B 1Y0 1Y1 1Y2 1Y3 1 X X Table 5.6(b): Truth table for IC 74X139(one half only) 37

38 Figure 5.35: Implementation of 32X1 multiplexer using IC74XX151 & IC74xx139 38

39 18. Implement the boolean function F(A,B,C)= Σm (1, 3, 5, 6) using 8x1 multiplexer? Ans) In the given boolean function F(A,B,C)= Σm (1, 3, 5, 6), the number of inputs are three. So to implement the function F, an 8x1 multiplexer is required. In this implementation the minterms given in the boolean function are connected to logic 1, and not included inputs are connected to logic 0. Figure 5.36: Implementation of F(A,B,C)= Σm (1, 3, 5, 6) using 8x1 multiplexer 19. Implement the boolean function F(A,B,C)= Σm (1, 3, 5, 6) using 4x1 multiplexer? Ans) In the given boolean function F(A,B,C)= Σm (1, 3, 5, 6), the number of inputs are three. So to implement the function F, an 8x1 multiplexer is required. In this implementation the minterms given in the boolean function are connected to logic 1, and not included inputs are connected to logic 0. But the implementation has to be design by using 4x1 Multiplexer. So to design a boolean function with lower order multiplexer we have two methods. They are row-wise implementation and column-wise implementation. Row-Wise Implementation: In the row-wise implementation, the two input variable B, C are connected to two selection inputs of 4x1 multiplexer and input variable A is labeled for rows of implementation table. When A variable is logic 0 then corresponding combinational row is named as A and when A variable is logic 1 then corresponding combinational row is named as A. Then the values for four inputs of multiplexer are obtained by comparing each column minterms by circle the included minterms in the given function. If both minterms in a column are not circled then the corresponding input of 39

40 multiplexer is represented by logic 0, if both are circled then the corresponding input of multiplexer is represented by logic 1. If only one minterm in a column is circled then the name of corresponding row is assigned to input of 4x1 multiplexer. (a) Truth table for function F(A,B,C)= Σm (1, 3, 5, 6) (b) Implementation table (c) Multiplexer implementation Figure 5.37: Implementation of F(A,B,C) using Row-Wise Implementation Column-Wise Implementation: In the Column-wise implementation, the two input variable A, B are connected to two selection inputs of 4x1 multiplexer and input variable C is labeled for Columns of implementation table. When C variable is logic 0 then corresponding combinational Column is named as C and when C variable is logic 1 then 40

41 corresponding combinational Column is named as C. Then the values for four inputs of multiplexer are obtained by comparing each row minterms by circle the included minterms in the given function. If both minterms in a row are not circled then the corresponding input of multiplexer is represented by logic 0, if both are circled then the corresponding input of multiplexer is represented by logic 1. If only one minterm in a row is circled then the name of corresponding column is assigned to input of 4x1 multiplexer. (a) Truth table for function F(A,B,C)= Σm (1, 3, 5, 6) (b) Implementation table (c) Multiplexer implementation Figure 5.38: Implementation of F(A,B,C) using Column-Wise Implementation 41

42 20. Implement the boolean function F(A, B, C, D)= Σm (0, 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 15) using 8x1 multiplexer? Ans) In the given boolean function F(A, B, C, D)= Σm (0, 1, 3, 4, 8, 9, 15), the number of inputs are four. So to implement the function F, a 16x1 multiplexer is required. But the implementation has to be design by using 8x1 Multiplexer. So to design a boolean function with lower order multiplexer we have two methods. They are row-wise implementation and column-wise implementation. In the row-wise implementation, the three input variable B, C, D are connected to three selection inputs of 8x1 multiplexer and input variable A is labeled for rows of implementation table. When A variable is logic 0 then corresponding combinational row is named as A and when A variable is logic 1 then corresponding combinational row is named as A. Then the values for eight inputs of multiplexer are obtained by comparing each column minterms by circle the included minterms in the given function. If both minterms in a column are not circled then the corresponding input of multiplexer is represented by logic 0, if both are circled then the corresponding input of multiplexer is represented by logic 1. If only one minterm in a column is circled then the name of corresponding row is assigned to input of 8x1 multiplexer. (a) Implementation table (b) Multiplexer implementation Figure 5.39: Implementation of F(A,B,C,D) using Row-Wise Implementation 42

43 20. Implement the boolean function F(A, B, C, D)= Σm (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 14) using 4x1 multiplexer? Ans) In the given boolean function F(A, B, C, D)= Σm (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 14), the number of input variables are four. So to implement the function F, a 16x1 multiplexer is required. But the implementation has to be design by using 4x1 Multiplexer. So to design given function with 4x1 multiplexer, two 4x1 multiplexers are cascaded together. Hence to design a boolean function with lower order multiplexer we have two methods. They are row-wise implementation and column-wise implementation. Row-Wise Implementation: In the row-wise implementation, the two input variable C, D are connected to two selection inputs of 4x1 multiplexer and input variable A is labeled for rows of implementation table. When A variable is logic 0 then corresponding combinational row is named as A and when A variable is logic 1 then corresponding combinational row is named as A. Then the values for four inputs of multiplexer are obtained by comparing each column minterms by circle the included minterms in the given function. If both minterms in a column are not circled then the corresponding input of multiplexer is represented by logic 0, if both are circled then the corresponding input of multiplexer is represented by logic 1. If only one minterm in a column is circled then the name of corresponding row is assigned to input of 4x1 multiplexer. The input variable B is connected to enable inputs of both 4x1 multiplexers in a complementary connection. (a) Implementation table 43

44 (b) Multiplexer implementation Figure 5.40: Implementation of F(A,B,C,D) using cascading of multiplexers 21. Implement the boolean function F(A, B, C, D)= πm (0, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14) using 8x1 multiplexer? Ans)In the given boolen function instead of minterms maxterms are given, so in the part of implementation we have to circle the maxterms which are not included in the given function. (a) Implementation table ( (b) Multiplexer implementation Figure 5.41: Implementation of F(A,B,C,D) using cascading of multiplexers 44

45 22. Implement the following boolean function using 8x1 multiplexer? F(A, B, C, D)= Σm (0, 2, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13)+d(3, 8, 14) Ans) In the given boolen function in addition to the minterms don t care values are given, so in the part of implementation we have to include and circle the don t care values also. (a) Implementation table (b) Multiplexer implementation Figure 5.42: Implementation of F(A,B,C,D) using 8x1 multiplexer 23. Define Demultiplexer. Explain its operation with a suitable example? Ans) Demultiplexer is a combinational digital logic circuit, it allows only one data bit from single source and distributed it to multiple outputs based on the combination of selection input lines. That is selection of particular output line is controlled by a set of selection input lines. Hence multiplexer is also called as Data Distributor. For 2 n output lines n selection lines are required. So the mapping in Demultiplexer is One to Many. Figure 5.43: Block diagram of Demultiplexer 45

46 Example: Design of 1X4 Demultiplexer: A 1X4 demultiplexer has 1 input line, 2 selection input lines and four output lines. Let Din is data bit, S0, S1 are two selection input lines and Y0, Y1, Y2, Y3 are the outputs. From four combinations of two selection inputs, Din is distributed to any one of Y0, Y1, Y2, Y3 data output lines. Enable Input Inputs Outputs En S1 S0 Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 0 X X Din Din Din Din (a) Truth table for 1X4 Demultiplexer (b) Logic diagram of 1X4 Demultiplexer Figure 5.44: Design of 1X4 Demultiplexer Figure 5.45: Pin Diagram of IC74xx155(dual 1X4 Demultiplexer) 46

47 24. Design a 4-bit binary to BCD code convertor circuit? Ans) There are several types of binary codes are used in digital systems. Some of these codes are BCD, Excess-3, Gray and so on. Sometimes it may requires to change one code into another code format. The logic circuit used to convert one code into another code is called as Code Converter. Designing of 4-bit binary to BCD code convertor: Given 4-bit binary code has to convert into BCD code. We know BCD has valid numbers only from 0 to 9. To make the values above the 9 as valid BCD numbers, a value 6 is added. Here we have 4-binary bits at input so there is a possibility of 16 combinations. For 0 to 9 only the valid BCD code we can generate, for combinations from 10 to 15 a number 6 is added to get valid BCD numbers. K-Map simplification: Binary code BCD code D C B A B4 B3 B2 B1 B Table 5.13 Truth table for 4-bit binary to BCD code convertor 47

48 Logic Diagram design: Figure 5.46: Logic Diagram of 4-bit binary to BCD code convertor 25. Design a BCD to Binary code convertor circuit? Ans) There are several types of binary codes are used in digital systems. Some of these codes are BCD, Excess-3, Gray and so on. Sometimes it may requires to change one code into another code format. The logic circuit used to convert one code into another code is called as Code Converter. 48

49 Design of BCD to Binary code convertor: We know BCD has valid numbers only from 0 to 9. To make the values above the 9 as valid BCD numbers, a value 6 is added. BCD code Binary code B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 E D C B A Table 5.14 Truth table for BCD to Binary code convertor K-Map simplification: 49

50 50

51 Logic Diagram design: Figure 5.47: Logic Diagram of BCD to Binary code convertor 51

52 26. Design a BCD to Excess-3 code convertor circuit? Ans) There are several types of binary codes are used in digital systems. Some of these codes are BCD, Excess-3, Gray and so on. Sometimes it may requires to change one code into another code format. The logic circuit used to convert one code into another code is called as Code Converter. Design of BCD to Excess-3 code convertor: We know BCD has valid numbers only from 0 to 9. For each BCD number if we add a digit 3 then it will be converted into Excess-3 code. To get all valid BCD numbers we require four input variables, which may provide 16 combinations. In that 16 combinations only 0 to 9 are treated as valid BCD numbers. The combinations from 10 to 15 are represented as don t care values. K-Map simplification: BCD code Excess-3 code B3 B2 B1 B0 E3 E2 E1 E Table 5.15: Truth table for BCD to Excess-3 code convertor 52

53 Logic Diagram design: Figure 5.48: Logic Diagram of BCD to Excess-3 code convertor 53

54 27. Design a Excess-3 to BCD code convertor circuit? Ans) There are several types of binary codes are used in digital systems. Some of these codes are BCD, Excess-3, Gray and so on. Sometimes it may requires to change one code into another code format. The logic circuit used to convert one code into another code is called as Code Converter. Design of Excess-3 to BCD code convertor: We know BCD has valid numbers only from 0 to 9. For each BCD number if we add a digit 3 then it will be converted into Excess-3 code. To obtain valid BCD output we require four output variables. Excess-3 code starts from 3 and ends with 12 for BCD numbers. To get these values we require four input variables. The remaining combinations of four input variables such as 0, 1, 2, 13, 14 and 15 values will be treated as don t care conditions. K-Map simplification: Excess-3 code BCD code E3 E2 E1 E0 B3 B2 B1 B Table 5.16: Truth table for Excess-3 to BCD code convertor 54

55 Logic Diagram design: Figure 5.49: Logic Diagram of Excess-3 to BCD code convertor 55

56 28. Design a Binary to Gray code convertor circuit? Ans) The logic circuit used to convert one code into another code is called as Code Converter. Design of Binary to Gray code convertor: Gray Code is used in digital circuits because it has an advantage that only one bit is changed between two successive numbers. In Gray code the first or MSB digit is obtained by taking MSB bit of corresponding binary numbers as it is and next digit in gray code is obtained by exclusive-or operation between two successive binary digits. Gray codes also generated by mirror method, in G0 column take two successive digits as 0, 1 then put one mirror, it will be visible in reverse as 1, 0. And in G1 column take four successive digits as 0, 0, 1, 1 then put one mirror, it will be visible in reverse as 1, 1, 0, 0. And in G2 column take eight successive digits as 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1 then put one mirror, it will be visible in reverse as 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0. Then take MSB digit as 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1. Binary code Gray code D C B A G3 G2 G1 G Table 5.16: Truth table for Binary to Gray code convertor 56

57 K-Map simplification: Logic Diagram design: Figure 5.50: Logic Diagram of Binary to Gray code convertor 29. Design a Gray to Binary code convertor circuit? Ans) Design of Gray to Binary code convertor: Gray Code is used in digital circuits because it has an advantage that only one bit is changed between two successive numbers. In Gray to Binary conversion the first or MSB digit in binary number is obtained by taking MSB bit of corresponding Gray code as it is and next 57

58 digit in binary code is obtained by exclusive-or operation between resultant and next binary digit. Gray code Binary code G3 G2 G1 G0 D C B A K-Map simplification: Table 5.17: Truth table for Gray to Binary code convertor 58

59 Logic Diagram design: Figure 5.51: Logic Diagram of Gray to Binary code convertor 59

60 30. Design a BCD to Gray code convertor circuit? Ans) There are several types of binary codes are used in digital systems. Some of these codes are BCD, Excess-3, Gray and so on. Sometimes it may requires to change one code into another code format. The logic circuit used to convert one code into another code is called as Code Converter. Designing of BCD to Gray code convertor: K-Map simplification: Table 5.18: Truth table for BCD to Gray code convertor 60

61 Logic Diagram design: Figure 5.52: Logic Diagram of BCD to Gray code convertor 31. What is the need of parity in digital transmission? Design the parity generator circuit? Ans) A parity bit is an extra added bit to the binary information bits used to detect the errors during transmission. The parity bit does not carry any information. It included in binary information at the time of transmission to make the number of 1s either even or odd. The message included with parity bit is transmitted and checked at the receiver end for errors. An error will be detected if the received message is not corresponds to the transmitted one. The circuit that generates the parity bit at the transmitter is called Parity Generator and the circuit that checks the parity in the receiver is called Parity Checker. In even parity the added parity bit makes total number of 1 s as even amount. In odd parity the added parity bit makes total number of 1 s as odd amount. Table 5.19: Truth table for 3-bit parity generator 61

62 K-Map simplification: Logic Diagram design: Figure 5.53: Logic Diagram of even and odd parity generator Figure 5.54: Pin Diagram of Ex-OR gate 62

63 32. What is the need of parity in digital transmission? Design the parity error checker circuit? Ans) A parity bit is an extra added bit to the binary information bits used to detect the errors during transmission. The parity bit does not carry any information. It included in binary information at the time of transmission to make the number of 1s either even or odd. The message included with parity bit is transmitted and checked at the receiver end for errors. An error will be detected if the received message is not corresponds to the transmitted one. The circuit that generates the parity bit at the transmitter is called Parity Generator and the circuit that checks the parity in the receiver is called Parity Checker. In even parity the added parity bit makes total number of 1 s as even amount. In odd parity the added parity bit makes total number of 1 s as odd amount. Parity Error Checker circuit verifies is there any error bit in received data or not. If received data stream has number of 1 s as even number then there is no error. If it has odd number of 1 s then Parity Error checker(pec) gives a value 1, which means there is an error. Table 5.20: Truth table for 4-bit Parity Error Checker 63

64 K-Map simplification: Logic Diagram design: Figure 5.55: Logic Diagram of Parity Error Checker 33. Explain the pin configuration and internal structure of IC 74XX280? Ans) Figure 5.56: Pin Diagram of 9-bit Parity Generator or Checker These universal 9-bit parity generators/checkers utilize advanced Schottky highperformance circuitry and feature odd (Σ ODD) and even (Σ EVEN) outputs to facilitate operation of either odd- or even-parity applications. The word-length capability is easily expanded by cascading. These devices can be used to upgrade the performance of most 64

65 systems utilizing the SN74ALS180 and SN74AS180 parity generators/checkers. Although the SN74ALS280 and SN74AS280 are implemented without expander inputs, the corresponding function is provided by the availability of an input (I) at terminal 4 and the absence of any internal connection at terminal 3. This permits the SN74ALS280 and SN74AS280 to be substituted for the SN74ALS180 and SN74AS180 in existing designs to produce an identical function even if the devices are mixed with existing SN74ALS180 and SN74AS180 devices. The SN74ALS280 and SN74AS280 are characterized for operation from 0 C to 70 C. Figure 5.57: Logic Diagram for IC74xx280 (9-bit Parity Generator or Checker) 65

66 34. Design an error correcting circuit for 7 bit hamming code using IC 74xx280? Ans) Figure 5.58: Logic Diagram for 7 bit hamming code using IC 74xx What is comparator? Design a 2-bit comparator using gates? Ans) A comparator is a special combinational circuit designed to compare the relative magnitude of two binary numbers. The following figure shows an n-bit, it receives two n-bit numbers A and B as inputs and gives outputs as A>B, A=B, A<B. Depending upon the relative magnitudes of two numbers one of the output is high. 66

67 Figure 5.59: Block Diagram of n-bit comparator Designing of 2-bit comparator using gates: Table 5.21: Truth table for 2-bit Comparator 67

68 K-Map Simlification: Figure 5.60: Logic diagram of 2-bit comparator 68

69 36. What is comparator? Explain pin configuration and operation of IC7485? Ans) Figure 5.61: Pin diagram of IC 74x85 (4-bit comparator) Table 5.22: Truth table for IC 74x85 (4-bit comparator) 69

70 37. How to cascade a comparator explain with an example? Or Explain cascading of comparators using IC 74x682(8-bit comparator) Ans) Example1: Example2: Figure 5.62: Design of 8-bit comparator using two 74X85 Figure 5.63: Design of 12-bit comparator using three 74X85 70

71 The cascading using IC74x85 is very easy because it has cascading inputs. We have one more comparator IC 74x682 is an 8-bit comparator which is not having any cascaded input. But still it can be used to cascade with another 74x682 to form larger comparator. Figure 5.64Pin diagram of IC74X682 (8-bit comparator) Figure 5.65: Logic diagram of IC 74x682 71

72 Example3: Design of 24-bit comparator using three 74X682 Figure 5.66: Design of 24-bit comparator using three 74X682 72

73 38. Explain cascading of comparators using IC 74x682 (8-bit comparator) and design its logic diagram? Ans) Refer question number Design and explain the following logic circuits (i) Half Adder (ii)full Adder (iii)half Subtractor (iv) Full Subtractor Ans) Digital circuits performs various basic arithmetic operations such as Additions, Subtractions, Multiplications and Division. The simple Addition operation has four possible elementary operations. (i) Half Adder: 73

75 Sum expression can be simplified as Full Adder can also be implemented using two half adders. Figure 5.71: Implementation of Full Adder using two Half Adders 75

76 (iii)half Subtractor: 76

77 (iv) Full Subtractor: Expression D can be simplified as 77

78 A full Subtractor can also be implemented using two half Subtractors Figure 5.74: Implementation of Full Subtractor using two half subtractors 40. What is ripple adder (n-bit parallel adder)? Design 4-bit parallel adder using full adders? Ans) Figure 5.75: Block diagram of n-bit parallel adder 78

80 : Figure 5.77: Full adder circuit with Carry generate and Carry propagate. Gi is called carry carry generator, it generates a carry when both input Ai and Bi are logic 1. Pi is called carry propagate, because it can propagate a carry from Ci to Ci+1. Then the boolean expressions for carry outputs at each stage can be written as follows From the above expressions we can conclude that the carry C1 Depends for C0 and carry C2 depends on C1 and carries C3 and C4 also propagating in the same time that the carry C2 can propagate. IN this way by using carry look-ahead adder we can reduce increased carry propagation dealy. Figure 5.78:Pin diagram of IC74x182 Look-ahead carry circuit 80

81 Figure 5.80:4-bit parallel adder using IC 74x182 81

82 42. Design a 4-bit binary parallel adder using IC 74LS283? Ans) 82

83 Figure 5.82:Logic diagram for IC74x283(4-bit binary parallel adder) 83

84 43. Write a short note on n-bit parallel Subtractor? Ans) 44. Design a 4-bit Adder-Subtractor circuit and explain its operation? Ans) 84

85 45. Design and explain the operation of ALU? Ans) Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU) performs necessary arithmetic and logical operations. It is basically a multi functional combinational logic circuit. It provides select input to select perticular output. IC 74LS181 is a 4-bit ALU. Its features are given by ALU has 4-bit operands and a mode control input M. It selects one of two modes of Arithmetic or Logical and it has four functional select inputs to select a particular function from the selected mode. Table 5.27: Pin description of IC74LS181 85

86 Table 5.28: Functional table of IC74LS181 86

87 46. Design 8-bit ALU circuit using IC74LS181? Ans) Figure 5.86: Design of 8-bit ALU circuit using IC74LS181 87

88 47. Design and explain the operation of ALU using IC74x381 and IC74x382? Ans) IC74x381 and IC74X382 are two other MSI ICs for ALU. The only difference between IC74x381 and IC74X382 is that IC74x381 provides group carry look-ahead outputs, while IC74X382 provides ripple carry and overflow outputs. 88

89 48. Explain the operation of combinational multiplier with an example? Ans) Combinationa multiplier involves full adder circuits to add each product term obtained. 89

90 49. Explain the operation of combinational multiplier using carry save method? Ans) 90

91 91

92 50. Design a 16-bit ALU using look-ahead group carry circuit? Ans) 92

93 51. Explain the operation of barrel shifter using 16x1 multiplexers? Ans) 93

94 Table 5.30: properties of different barrel shifter ICs Figure 5.91: Design of 16-bit barrel shifter using sixteen 16x1 multiplexer 52. Explain the operation of barrel shifter using IC 74X157 multiplexers? Ans) 94

95 Figure 5.92: Design of 16-bit barrel shifter using sixteen 74X157 ICs 53. Explain the operation of dual priority encoder circuit? Ans) It is an encoder circuit that includes priority function. In priority encoder if two or more inputs are equal to 1, then input having highest priority will take precedence. In dual priority encoder, it identifies both highest priority and second highest priority. Figure 5.93: Dual priority encoder 95

96 54. Explain the operation of Fixed point to floating point encoder circuit? Ans) 96

97 Figure 5.94: Fixed point to Floating point Encoder 97

98 55. Design a priority encoder for 16 inputs using two IC74X148s? Ans) Figure 5.95: Priority Encoder for 16 inputs using two IC74X148s. 56. Write VHDL code for D Flip Flop with asynchronous reset using behavioral Modeling? library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity dff is port(d,clk,pre_l,clr_l: in std_logic; q,qn : out std_logic); end dff; architecture behavioural of dff is signal pre,clr:std_logic; 98

99 begin process(clk,pre_l,pre,clr_l,clr) begin pre<=not pre_l; clr<=not clr_l; if(clr='1' and pre='0')then q<='0';qn<='1'; elsif(pre='1'and clr ='0')then q<='1';qn<='0'; elsif( clk'event and clk='1')then q<=d;qn<=not d; end if; end process; end behavioural; 57. Write VHDL code for ALU with IC74x381? Ans) 99

100 58. Write VHDL codes which convert a fixed point number into a floating point Ans) number? Alternative Architecure body: 100

101 59. Write VHDL codes for carry look-ahead adder circuit? Ans) LIBRARY ieee; USE ieee.std_logic_1164.all; ENTITY c_l_addr IS PORT ( x_in : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 DOWNTO 0); y_in : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 DOWNTO 0); carry_in : IN STD_LOGIC; sum : OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 DOWNTO 0); carry_out : OUT STD_LOGIC ); END c_l_addr; ARCHITECTURE behavioral OF c_l_addr IS SIGNAL h_sum : STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 DOWNTO 0); SIGNAL carry_generate : STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 DOWNTO 0); SIGNAL carry_propagate : STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 DOWNTO 0); SIGNAL carry_in_internal : STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(7 DOWNTO 1); BEGIN h_sum <= x_in XOR y_in; carry_generate <= x_in AND y_in; carry_propagate <= x_in OR y_in; PROCESS (carry_generate,carry_propagate,carry_in_internal) BEGIN carry_in_internal(1) <= carry_generate(0) OR (carry_propagate(0) AND carry_in); inst: FOR i IN 1 TO 6 LOOP carry_in_internal(i+1) <= carry_generate(i) OR (carry_propagate(i) AND carry_in_internal(i)); END LOOP; carry_out <= carry_generate(7) OR (carry_propagate(7) AND carry_in_internal(7)); END PROCESS; sum(0) <= h_sum(0) XOR carry_in; sum(7 DOWNTO 1) <= h_sum(7 DOWNTO 1) XOR carry_in_internal(7 DOWNTO 1); END behavioral; 101

102 60. Write VHDL program for a full adder using two half adders implementation? Ans) 61. Write a VHDL code Design a 2X2 combinational multiplier? Ans) 102

103 62.Write a VHDL code Design a priority encoder for 16 inputs using two IC74X148s? Ans) 103

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