( ) i 0. Outline. Regular languages revisited. Introduction to Parsing. Parser overview. Contextfree grammars (CFG s) Lecture 5.


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1 Outline Regular languages revisited Introduction to Parsing Lecture 5 Parser overview Contextfree grammars (CFG s) Derivations Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 1 Ambiguity Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 2 Languages and Automata Formal languages are very important in CS specially in programming languages Regular languages The weakest formal languages wely used Many applications Beyond Regular Languages Many languages are not regular Strings of balanced parentheses are not regular: i i ( ) i 0 We will also study contextfree languages, tree languages Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 3 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 4 What Can Regular Languages xpress? Languages requiring counting modulo a fixed integer Intuition: A finite automaton that runs long enough must repeat states The Functionality of the Parser Input: sequence of tokens from lexer Output: parse tree of the program (But some parsers never produce a parse tree...) Finite automaton can t remember # of times it has visited a particular state Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 5 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 6 1
2 xample Cool x = y then 1 else 2 fi Parser input IF ID = ID THN INT LS INT FI Parser output IFTHNLS = INT INT Comparison with Lexical Analysis Phase Input Output Lexer Parser String of characters String of tokens String of tokens Parse tree ID ID Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 7 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 8 The Role of the Parser ContextFree Grammars Not all strings of tokens are programs Parser must distinguish between val and inval strings of tokens We need A language for describing val strings of tokens A method for distinguishing val from inval strings of tokens Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 9 Programming language constructs have recursive structure An XPR is XPR then XPR else XPR fi while XPR loop XPR pool Contextfree grammars are a natural notation for this recursive structure Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 10 CFGs (Cont.) A CFG consists of A set of terminals T A set of nonterminals N A start symbol S (a nonterminal) A set of productions Notational Conventions In these lecture notes Nonterminals are written uppercase Terminals are written lowercase The start symbol is the lefthand se of the first production X YY Y 1 2 n where X N and Y T N i Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 11 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture
3 xamples of CFGs A fragment of Cool: xamples of CFGs (cont.) Simple arithmetic expressions: XPR XPR then XPR else XPR fi while XPR loop XPR pool Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 13 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 14 The Language of a CFG Read productions as rules: X Y Y 1 n Means X can be replaced by Y1 Yn Key Idea 1. Begin with a string consisting of the start symbol S 2. Replace any nonterminal X in the string by a the righthand se of some production X Y Y 1 n 3. Repeat (2) until there are no nonterminals in the string Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 15 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 16 The Language of a CFG (Cont.) More formally, write X X X X X Y Y X X 1 i n 1 i1 1 m i1 n there is a production X Y Y i 1 m The Language of a CFG (Cont.) Write in 0 or more steps 1 n 1 X X Y Y X X Y Y 1 n 1 m m Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 17 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture
4 The Language of a CFG Let G be a contextfree grammar with start symbol S. Then the language of G is: a a S a a and every a is a terminal 1 n 1 n i Terminals Terminals are socalled because there are no rules for replacing them Once generated, terminals are permanent Terminals ought to be tokens of the language Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 19 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 20 xamples L(G) is the language of CFG G Strings of balanced parentheses Two grammars: S ( S) S OR i i ( ) i 0 S ( S) Cool xample A fragment of COOL: XPR XPR then XPR else XPR fi while XPR loop XPR pool Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 21 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 22 Cool xample (Cont.) Some elements of the language then else fi while loop pool while loop pool then else then else fi then else fi Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 23 Arithmetic xample Simple arithmetic expressions: () Some elements of the language: () () () Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture
5 Notes The ea of a CFG is a big step. But: Membership in a language is yes or no ; also need parse tree of the input Must handle errors gracefully More Notes Form of the grammar is important Many grammars generate the same language Tools are sensitive to the grammar Note: Tools for regular languages (e.g., flex) are sensitive to the form of the regular expression, but this is rarely a problem in practice Need an implementation of CFG s (e.g., bison) Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 25 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 26 Derivations and Parse Trees A derivation is a sequence of productions S Derivation xample Grammar () A derivation can be drawn as a tree Start symbol is the tree s root For a production X Y add children 1Yn to node X Y Y 1 n String Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 27 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 28 Derivation xample (Cont.) Derivation in Detail (1) Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 29 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture
6 Derivation in Detail (2) Derivation in Detail (3) Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 31 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 32 Derivation in Detail (4) Derivation in Detail (5) Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 33 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 34 Derivation in Detail (6) Notes on Derivations A parse tree has Terminals at the leaves Nonterminals at the interior nodes An inorder traversal of the leaves is the original input The parse tree shows the association of operations, the input string does not Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 35 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture
7 Leftmost and Rightmost Derivations Rightmost Derivation in Detail (1) The example is a leftmost derivation At each step, replace the leftmost nonterminal There is an equivalent notion of a rightmost derivation Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 37 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 38 Rightmost Derivation in Detail (2) Rightmost Derivation in Detail (3) Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 39 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 40 Rightmost Derivation in Detail (4) Rightmost Derivation in Detail (5) Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 41 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture
8 Rightmost Derivation in Detail (6) Derivations and Parse Trees Note that rightmost and leftmost derivations have the same parse tree The dference is the order in which branches are added Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 43 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 44 Summary of Derivations We are not just interested in whether s e L(G) We need a parse tree for s Ambiguity Grammar String () A derivation defines a parse tree But one parse tree may have many derivations Leftmost and rightmost derivations are important in parser implementation Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 45 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 46 Ambiguity (Cont.) Ambiguity (Cont.) This string has two parse trees A grammar is ambiguous it has more than one parse tree for some string quivalently, there is more than one rightmost or leftmost derivation for some string Ambiguity is BAD Leaves meaning of some programs illdefined Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 47 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture
9 Dealing with Ambiguity Ambiguity in Arithmetic xpressions There are several ways to handle ambiguity Most direct method is to rewrite grammar unambiguously ' ' ' () () nforces precedence of over Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 49 Recall the grammar ( ) int The string int int int has two parse trees: int int int int int int Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 50 Ambiguity: The Dangling lse Conser the grammar then then else OTHR The Dangling lse: xample The expression 1 then 2 then 3 else 4 has two parse trees This grammar is also ambiguous Typically we want the second form Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 51 Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 52 The Dangling lse: A Fix else matches the closest unmatched then We can describe this in the grammar MIF / all then are matched / UIF / some then is unmatched / MIF then MIF else MIF OTHR UIF then then MIF else UIF Describes the same set of strings Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 53 The Dangling lse: xample Revisited The expression 1 then 2 then 3 else A val parse tree (for a UIF) Not val because the then expression is not a MIF Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture
10 Ambiguity No general techniques for handling ambiguity Impossible to convert automatically an ambiguous grammar to an unambiguous one Used with care, ambiguity can simply the grammar Sometimes allows more natural definitions We need disambiguation mechanisms Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 55 Precedence and Associativity Declarations Instead of rewriting the grammar Use the more natural (ambiguous) grammar Along with disambiguating declarations Most tools allow precedence and associativity declarations to disambiguate grammars xamples Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 56 Associativity Declarations Precedence Declarations Conser the grammar int Ambiguous: two parse trees of int int int int int int int int int Left associativity declaration: %left Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 57 Conser the grammar int And the string int int int int int int int int Precedence declarations: %left %left Prof. Aiken CS 143 Lecture 5 58 int 10
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