# Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber

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1 Engineering Problem Solving with C++, Etter/Ingber Chapter 2 Simple C++ Programs C++, Second Edition, J. Ingber 1

2 Simple C++ Programs Program Structure Constants and Variables C++ Operators Standard Input and Output Basic Functions from the C++ Standard Library 2

3 The C++ Programming Language A superset of C C++ compilers can be used to compile C programs Supports Programmer Defined Types Templates Overloading of functions and operators Best to think of C++ as its own language C++ second edition, J. ingber 3

4 Comments Compiler Directives Using Directive Blocks of Code PROGRAM STRUCTURE 4

5 /* Simple C++ Program */ /* This program computes the */ /* distance between two points. */ #include <iostream> // Required for cout, endl. #include <cmath> // Required for sqrt() using namespace std; int main() { // Declare and initialize objects. double x1(1), y1(5), x2(4), y2(7), side1, side2, distance; // Compute sides of a right triangle. side1 = x2 - x1; side2 = y2 - y1; distance = sqrt(side1*side1 + side2*side2); // Print distance. cout << "The distance between the two points is " << distance << endl; // Exit program. return 0; } 5

6 Program structure Comments preprocessor directives using directives Block of code { comments statements } C++ second edition, J. ingber 6

7 Comments Comments help people read programs, but are ignored by the compiler. In C++ there are two types of comments. Line comments begin with // and continue for the rest of the line. Delimited comments begin with /* and end with */ C++ second edition, J. ingber 7

8 Preprocessor Directives Provide instructions to the compiler that are performed before the program is compiled. Begin with a # Example: #include <iostream> The #include directive instructs the compiler to include statements from the file iostream. C++ second edition, J. ingber 8

9 using Directive The using directive instructs the compiler to use files defined a specified namespace. Example: using namespace std; std is the name of the Standard C++ namespace. 9

10 Block of Code A block of code is defined by a set of curly braces { }. Example: int main() { //Block defines body of main function double x1(1), x2(4), side1; side1 = x2 x1; cout << side1 << endl; return 0; // main()returns int value of 0 } //end definition of main Every C++ problem solution contains exactly one function named main(). C++ program solutions always begin execution in main() 10

11 Identifiers Memory Snapshots CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES 11

12 Constants and Variables Constants and variables represent memory locations that we reference in our program solutions. Constants are objects that store specific data that can not be modified. 10 is an integer constant 4.5 is a floating point constant "Side1" is a string constant 'a' is a character constant Variables are memory locations that store values that can be modified. double x1(1.0), x2(4.5), side1; side1 = x2-x1; x1, x2 and side1 are examples of variables that can be modified. 12

13 Memory Snapshot #include<iostream> using namespace std; int main() { double x1(1.0), x2(4.5), side1; double x1 double x2 double side ? Output: side 1 has length: 3.5 side1 = x2-x1; double x1 double x2 double side cout << side 1 has length: side1; 13

14 Common C++ Data Types Keyword Example of a constant bool true char '5' int 25 double 25.0 string "hello" //#include<string> 14

15 C++ Identifiers Identifiers are used to name objects in C++. Rules for selecting valid identifiers: Identifier must begin with a letter or underscore _ Identifiers consists of alphanumeric characters and underscore character only. An identifier can not be a reserved word. Only the first 31 characters of an identifier are used to distinguish it from other identifiers. C++ is case sensitive. Thus, Side1 and side1 are unique identifiers that represent different objects. 15

16 Declarations A type declaration statement defines new identifiers and allocates memory. An initial value may be assigned to a memory location at the time an identifier is defined. Syntax: [modifier] data_type identifier_list; Examples: double length( 20.75), width(11.5), volume; int numberoffeetinyard(3); const int MIN_SIZE = 0; 16

17 Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in a declaration statement using the modifier const. A symbolic constant allocates memory for an object that can not be modified during execution of the program. Any attempt to modify a constant will be flagged as a syntax error by the compiler. A symbolic constant must be initialized in the declaration statement. 17

18 Assignment Operators Arithmetic Operators Precedence of Operators C++ OPERATORS 18

19 Assignment Operator The assignment operator (=) is used in C++ to assign a value to a memory location. The assignment statement: x1 = 1.0; assigns the value 1.0 to the variable x1. Thus, the value 1.0 is stored in the memory location associated with the identifier x1. 19

20 Assignment Operators - Examples Example 1 - initialization double sum = 0; Example 2 int x; x=5; Example 3 char ch; ch = 'a'; sum x ch 0 5 a 20

21 Assignment Statements - continued Example 3 int x, y, z; x=y=0; z=2; x y z How is the memory map affected by the following statement? y = z; 21

22 Arithmetic Operators Addition + Subtraction - Multiplication * Division / Modulus % Modulus returns remainder of division between two integers Example 5%2 returns a value of 1 22

23 Integer Division Division between two integers results in an integer. The result is truncated, not rounded Example: The expression 5/3 evaluates to 1 The expression 3/6 evaluates to 0 23

24 C++ Operators The cast operator. The cast operator is a unary operator that requests that the value of the operand be cast, or changed, to a new type for the next computation. The type of the operand is not affected. Example: int count(10), sum(55); double average; average = (double)sum/count; Memory snapshot: int count int sum double average

25 Priority of Operators 1. Parentheses Inner most first 2. Unary operators Right to left (+ -) 3. Binary operators Left to right (* / %) 4. Binary operators Left to right (+ -) 25

26 Practice! Evaluate Expressions * / 3 8 % 3 * 6 (7 + 3) *

27 Overflow and Underflow Overflow answer too large to store Example: using 16 bits for integers result = ; Exponent overflow answer s exponent is too large Example: using float, with exponent range 38 to 38 result = 3.25e28 * 1.0e15; Exponent underflow answer s exponent too small Example: using float, with exponent range 38 to 38 result = 3.25e-28 *1.0e-15; 27

28 Increment and Decrement Operators Increment Operator ++ post increment pre increment x++; ++x; Decrement Operator - - post decrement x- -; pre decrement - -x; For examples assume k=5 prior to executing the statement. m= ++k; both m and k become 6 n = k- -; n becomes 5 and k becomes 4 28

29 Abbreviated Assignment Operators operator example equivalent statement += x+=2; x=x+2; -= x-=2; x=x-2; *= x*=y; x=x*y; /= x/=y; x=x/y; %= x%=y; x=x%y; 29

30 Precedence of Arithmetic and Assignment Operators Precedence Operator Associativity 1 Parentheses: () Innermost first 2 Unary operators (type) 3 Binary operators * / % 4 Binary operators Assignment operators = += -= *= /= %= Right to left Left ot right Left ot right Right to left 30

31 The cout Object The cin Object STANDARD INPUT AND OUTPUT 31

32 Simple Input - cin cin is an istream object defined in the header file iostream cin is defined to stream data from standard input (the keyboard) We use the input operator >> with cin to assign values to variables General Form: cin >> identifier >> identifier; Note: Data entered from the keyboard must be compatible with the data type of the variable. 32

33 Simple Output - cout cout is an ostream object, defined in the header file iostream cout is defined to stream data to standard output (the display) We use the output operator << with cout to output the value of an expression. General Form: cout << expression << expression; Note: An expression is a C++ constant, identifier, formula, or function call. 33

34 //Example1: Determine the output #include <iostream> #include <string> using namespace std; int main() { int i, j; double x; string units = " cm"; cin >> i >> j; cin >> x; cout << "output \n"; output 1,2 4.5 cm _ cout << i << ',' << j << endl << x << units << endl; return 0; } //Input stream:

35 //Example 2: Determine the output #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int i, j; double x, y; First output 1,2,3.4,5 Second output 3,2,2,3 _ cin >> i >> j >> x >> y; cout << "First output " << endl; cout << i << ',' << j << ',' << x << ',' << y << endl; cin >> x >> y >> i >> j; cout << "Second output" << endl; cout << i << ',' << j << ',' << x << ',' << y << endl; return 0; } //Input stream is:

36 Characters and input The input operator >> skips all whitespace characters. The get() method gets the next character. Example: int x; Memory Snapshot char ch; cin >> x >> ch; cin >> x; cin.get(ch); Input stream: 45 c 39 b 36

37 Characters and input >> discards leading whitespace get() method used to input whitespace characters Example: int x; char ch; cin >> x >> ch; cin >> x; cin.get(ch); x ch Input stream: 45 c 39 b x 45 c 39 \n ch 37

38 Manipulators and methods endl places a newline character in the output buffer and flushes the buffer. setf() and unsetf() Flag ios::showpoint ios::fixed ios::scientific Meaning display the decimal point fixed decimal notation scientific notation ios::right ios::left right justification left justification Manipulators in <iomanip> setprecision(n) setw(n) 38

39 cmath cctype C++ STANDARD LIBRARYS 39

40 Common Functions in <cmath> abs(x) computes absolute value of x sqrt(x) computes square root of x, where x >=0 pow(x,y) ceil(x) floor(x) exp(x) computes x y nearest integer larger than x nearest integer smaller than x computes e x log(x) computes ln x, where x >0 log10(x) computes log 10 x, where x>0 sin(x) cos(x) tan(x) sine of x, where x is in radians cosine of x, where x is in radians tangent of x, where x is in radians 40

41 Common Functions in <cctype> isalpha(ch) isdigit(ch) isspace(ch) islower(ch) isupper(ch) tolower(ch) toupper(ch) Returns true if ch is an upper or lower case letter. Returns true if ch is a decimal digit Returns true if ch is a whitespace character. Returns true if ch is an lower case letter. Returns true if ch is an upper case letter. Returns the lowercase version of ch if ch is an uppercase character, returns ch otherwise. Returns the uppercase version of ch if ch is a lowercase character, returns ch otherwise. 41

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