ECE380 Digital Logic


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1 ECE38 Digital Logic Optimized Implementation of Logic Functions: Strategy for Minimization, Minimum ProductofSums Forms, Incompletely Specified Functions Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 8 Terminology For a given term, each appearance of a varile (in true or complemented form) is called a literal xyz => three literals c d => four literals Any or group of s that can be combined on a K map represents an implicant of a function An implicant is a prime implicant if it cannot be combined with another implicant to remove a varile A collection of implicants that account of all valuations for which a given function is is called a cover of that function Cost is the number of gates plus the total number of inputs to all gates in the circuit Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 82
2 Terminology example f(a,b,c,d)= m(,,4,5,7,9,) Example Implicants: all single s, a c, a b c, a bd, d Prime Implicants: a c, a bd, d, b c d f(a,b,c,d) min : a c +a bd+ d Thus, a minimum SOP form contains only (but not necessarily all) prime implicants. Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 83 Prime implicants distinctions Essential: needed to form a minimum solution Nonessential: not necessarily needed to form a minimum solution All prime implicants: b d, a bc, c a c d, a Essential primes: b d, a bc, c Nonessential primes: a c d, a f(a,b,c,d) min : b d+a bc +c Minimum contains all essential and possibly some nonessential primes Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 84 2
3 Prime implicants example Essential primes: a c, ac d Nonessential primes: a bd, bc d One of these must be included to form a minimum solution f(a,b,c,d) min : a c+ac d+ a bd bc d Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 85 Prime implicants example Identify all prime implicants for the given truth tle. Which are essential and which are nonessential? What is a minimum SOP expression for this function? Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 86 3
4 Minimization of POS expressions POS minimization using Kmaps proceeds exactly as does SOP form except that groupings of s in the Kmap are used to form POS terms. Kmap can be constructed directly from M expression for a function Place s in the Kmap for every maxterm in the M expression Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 87 Minimization of POS example f(a,b,c)=(a+b +c )(a +b+c )(a +b +c)(a +b +c ) f(a,b,c)= M(3,5,6,7) c f=(a +b )(b +c )(a +c ) Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 88 4
5 Minimization of POS example f(a,b,c,d)= M(,,4,8,2,4,5) (c+d) (a+b+c) (a +c ) f(a,b,c,d) min = (a+b+c)(a +c )(c+d) Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 89 Kmap groupings example Draw the Kmap and give the minimized POS logic expression for the following. f(a,b,c)= M(,2,3,57) Show the groupings made in the Kmap Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 85
6 Incompletely specified functions In digital systems it often happens that some input conditions (i.e. some input valuations) can never happen An input combination that can never happen is referred to as a don t care condition As a circuit is designed, a don t care condition can be ignored (i.e. the output for that condition can be treated as or in the truth tle) A function that has don t care condition(s) is said to be incompletely specified Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 8 Example function with don t cares x y z f d d Assume for a three varile function f(x,y,z) that the input combination xy= never occurs, otherwise the function is m(,,4,5) f(x,y,z)= m(,,4,5)+d(2,3) Or f(x,y,z)= M(6,7) D(2,3) Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 82 6
7 Example function with don t cares f(x,y,z)= m(,,4,5)+d(2,3) f(x,y,z)= M(6,7) D(2,3) xy z d xy z d d d f(x,y,z)= y f(x,y,z)= y Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 83 Minimum SOP form. Choose a minterm (a in the Kmap) which is not yet covered (don t consider d s). 2. Find all adjacent s and d s (check the n adjacent cells for an nvarile Kmap). 3. If a single term (i.e. a single looping) covers the and all adjacent s and d s then the looping forms an essential prime implicant. Loop the essential prime. 4. Repeat steps 3 until all essential prime implicants are located. 5. Find a minimum set of nonessential prime implicants to cover (loop) the remaining s. If more than set is possible, choose the set with the minimum number of literals (the largest grouping). Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 84 7
8 Minimum POS form. Choose a maxterm (a in the Kmap) which is not yet covered (don t consider d s). 2. Find all adjacent s and d s (check the n adjacent cells for an nvarile Kmap). 3. If a single term (i.e. a single looping) covers the and all adjacent s and d s then the looping forms an essential prime implicant. Loop the essential prime. 4. Repeat steps 3 until all essential prime implicants are located. 5. Find a minimum set of nonessential prime implicants to cover (loop) the remaining s. If more than set is possible, choose the set with the minimum number of literals (the largest grouping). Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 85 8
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