# CSE101-lec#12. Designing Structured Programs Introduction to Functions. Created By: Amanpreet Kaur & Sanjeev Kumar SME (CSE) LPU

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1 CSE101-lec#12 Designing Structured Programs Introduction to Functions Created By: Amanpreet Kaur & Sanjeev Kumar SME (CSE) LPU

2 Outline Designing structured programs in C: Counter-controlled repetition Sentinel-controlled repetition Top down design and stepwise refinement Type conversion Functions(prototype and definition)

3 Example Counter Controlled Sentinel Controlled Do TEN push ups imposes a count condition

4 Repetitions The while loop repeats untill the condition is true. The condition to stop the repeated loop depends upon the output required. Condition True Repeated_Actions False

5 Formulating Algorithms (Counter-Controlled Repetition) Counter-controlled repetition Loop repeated until counter reaches a certain value. Counter is a variable used to specify the number of times a set of statements should execute. Definite repetition: number of repetitions is known Example (class-averaging problem) A class of ten students took a quiz. The marks (integers in the range 0 to 100) for this quiz are available to you. Determine the class average on the quiz

6 Class-averaging Problem Pseudocode: 1. Set total to zero 2. Set grade counter to one 3.while grade counter is less than or equal to ten a. Input the next grade b. Add the grade into the total c. Add one to the grade counter 4. Set the class average to the total divided by ten 5. Print the class average

7 #include <stdio.h> int main() { int counter; //number of grade to be entered next int grade, total, average; total = 0; // initialize total counter = 1; // initialize loop counter while ( counter <= 10 ) { // loop 10 times printf( "%s", "Enter grade: "); scanf( "%d", &grade ); total = total + grade; counter = counter + 1; // increment counter } // end while average = total / 10; printf( "Class average is %d\n", average ); }

9 Formulating Algorithms with Top- Down, Stepwise Refinement Reconsider class-averaging problem: Develop a class-averaging program that will process an arbitrary number of grades each time the program is run. Unknown number of students. How will the program know when to end? Use sentinel value Also called signal value, dummy value, or flag value Indicates end of data entry. Loop ends when user inputs the sentinel value Sentinel value chosen so it cannot be confused with a regular input (such as -1 in this case)

10 Formulating Algorithms with Top- Down, Stepwise Refinement Top-down, stepwise refinement Begin with a pseudocode representation of the top: Determine the class average for the quiz Divide top into smaller tasks and list them in order: Initialize variables Input, sum and count the quiz grades Calculate and print the class average Many programs have three phases: Initialization: initializes the program variables Processing: inputs data values and adjusts program variables accordingly Termination: calculates and prints the final results

11 Formulating Algorithms with Top- Down, Stepwise Refinement Refine the initialization phase from Initialize variables to: Initialize total to zero Initialize counter to zero Refine Input, sum and count the quiz grades to Input the first grade (possibly the sentinel) While the user has not as yet entered the sentinel Add this grade into the running total Add one to the grade counter Input the next grade (possibly the sentinel)

12 Formulating Algorithms with Top- Down, Stepwise Refinement Refine Calculate and print the class average to If the counter is not equal to zero Set the average to the total divided by the counter Print the average else Print No grades were entered

13 Refined Pseudocode for Classaveraging Problem Pseudocode: 1. Initialize total to zero 2. Initialize counter to zero 3. Input the first grade 4. While the user has not as yet entered the sentinel a. Add this grade into the running total b. Add one to the grade counter c. Input the next grade(possibly the sentinel) 5. If the counter is not equal to zero a. Set the average to the total divided by the counter b. Print the average Else a. Print No grades were entered

14 #include <stdio.h> int main() { int counter, grade, total; float average; total = 0; counter = 0; printf("%s", "Enter grade, -1 to end:"); scanf("%d", &grade); while ( grade!= -1 ) { //Sentinel value = -1 total = total + grade; counter = counter + 1; printf( "%s", "Enter grade, -1 to end: " ); scanf("%d", &grade); } //end while if (counter!= 0) { average = (float) total/counter; //type conversion printf("class average is %.2f\n", average); } //end if else { puts("no grades were entered"); } //end else }

16 Type Conversion C evaluates arithmetic expressions only in which the data types of the operands are identical. To ensure that operands are of same type the compiler performs type conversion. Converting between types can be : Implicitly (automatically) Explicitly (forced)

17 Implicit Conversion If two operands are of different data types the compiler performs an operation called implicit conversion on selected operands. Example: in an expression containing the data types int and float, int operand is converted to float. float average, total; int counter; average = total/counter; The copy of counter is made and converted to float, the calculation is performed and the result of floating-point division is assigned to average.

18 Order of converting type implicitly long double double float unsigned long int long int signed int int char

19 Explicit Conversion Type is converted using unary type cast operator. Which temporary converts the operands. Example: in an expression containing the data types int and float, int operand is converted to float. float average, total; int counter; average = total/(float)counter; The temporary floating-point copy of counter is created. The value stored in counter is still integer. calculation is performed and the result of floating-point division is assigned to average.

20 Cast operator is unary operator i.e. it takes only one operand. It is formed by placing parentheses around the type name with operand. Syntax (type) operand;

21

22 Divide and Conquer Best way to solve a problem is by dividing the problem and solving it. Divide and conquer Construct a program from smaller pieces or components These smaller pieces are called modules Each module more manageable than the original program

23 Program Modules in C Functions Modules in C are called functions. Programs combine user-defined functions with library functions C standard library has a wide variety of functions for performing common mathematical calculations, string manipulations, character manipulations, input/output and many more. C standard library makes your job easier. Functions like printf(), scanf(), pow() are standard library functions. We can also write functions to define some specific task in a program and these functions are called user-defined functions.

24 Functions Functions Modularize a program All variables defined inside functions are local variables Known only in function defined. Parameters Functions have list of parameters. Communicate information between functions. Are also Local variables to that function.

25 Benefits of functions Divide and conquer Manageable program development Software reusability Use existing functions as building blocks for new programs Abstraction - hide internal details (library functions) Avoid code repetition

26 Function Call Function calls Invoking functions Provide function name and arguments (data) Function performs operations or manipulations Function returns results Function call analogy: Boss asks worker to complete task Worker gets information, does task, returns result Information hiding: boss does not know details

27 Program Modules in C Hierarchical boss function/worker function relationship. main worker1 worker2 worker3 worker4 worker5

28 Function Definitions Function definition format return-value-type function-name( parameter-list ) { declarations and statements } Function-name: any valid identifier Return-value-type: data type of the result (default int) void indicates that the function returns nothing Parameter-list: comma separated list, declares parameters A type must be listed explicitly for each parameter unless, the parameter is of type int

29 Function Definitions Function definition format (continued) return-value-type function-name( parameter-list ) { declarations and statements } Definitions and statements: function body (block) Variables can be defined inside blocks (can be nested) Functions can not be defined inside other functions Returning control If nothing returned return; or, until reaches right brace at the end of function. If something returned return expression;

30 #include <stdio.h> int square(int y); // function prototype int main() { int x; //counter for ( x = 1; x <= 10; ++x) { printf( "%d ", square(x)); //function call } //end for puts( ); } //end main int square( int y ) // function definition { return y * y; //returns the square of y as an int }

31 Function Prototypes Function prototype Function name Parameters what the function takes in Return type data type function returns (default int) Used to validate functions Prototype only needed if function definition comes after use in program The function with the prototype int square( int y); Takes in 1 int data. Returns an int Promotion rules and conversions Converting to lower types can lead to errors

32 Function Prototypes The argument values that do not correspond to the parameter types in the function prototype are converted to the proper type before function is called. This is done according to promotion hierarchy of data types in type conversion. The types lower in the table is converted to types higher in the table. Data types printf conversion specifications long double %Lf %Lf double %f %lf float %f %f unsigned long int %lu %lu long int %ld %ld unsigned int %u %u int %d %d short %hd %hd char %c %c Promotion hierarchy for data types. scanf conversion specifications

33 Next Class: Math Library Function

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