# Chapter 2 - Control Structures

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1 Chapter 2 - Control Structures Introduction 2.2 Algorithms 2.3 Pseudocode 2.4 Control Structures 2.5 if Selection Structure 2.6 if/else Selection Structure 2.7 while Repetition Structure 2.8 Formulating Algorithms: Case Study 1 (Counter-Controlled Repetition) 2.9 Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: Case Study 2 (Sentinel-Controlled Repetition) 2.10 Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: Case Study 3 (Nested Control Structures) 2.11 Assignment Operators 2.12 Increment and Decrement Operators 2.13 Essentials of Counter-Controlled Repetition 2.14 for Repetition Structure 2.15 Examples Using the for Structure Chapter 2 - Control Structures switch Multiple-Selection Structure 2.17 do/while Repetition Structure 2.18 break and continue Statements 2.19 Logical Operators 2.20 Confusing Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators 2.21 Structured-Programming Summary

2 2.1 Introduction 3 Before writing a program Have a thorough understanding of problem Carefully plan your approach for solving it While writing a program Know what building blocks are available Use good programming principles 2.2 Algorithms 4 Computing problems Solved by executing a series of actions in a specific order Algorithm a procedure determining Actions to be executed Order to be executed Example: recipe Program control Specifies the order in which statements are executed

3 2.3 Pseudocode 5 Pseudocode Artificial, informal language used to develop algorithms Similar to everyday English Not executed on computers Used to think out program before coding Easy to convert into C++ program Only executable statements No need to declare variables 2.4 Control Structures 6 Sequential execution Statements executed in order Transfer of control Next statement executed not next one in sequence 3 control structures (Bohm and Jacopini) Sequence structure Programs executed sequentially by default Selection structures if, if/else, switch Repetition structures while, do/while, for

4 2.4 Control Structures 7 C++ keywords Cannot be used as identifiers or variable names C++ Keywords Keywords common to the C and C++ programming languages auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile C++ only keywords while asm bool catch class const_cast delete dynamic_cast explicit false friend inline mutable namespace new operator private protected public reinterpret_cast static_cast template this throw true try typeid typename using virtual wchar_t 2.4 Control Structures 8 Flowchart Graphical representation of an algorithm Special-purpose symbols connected by arrows (flowlines) Rectangle symbol (action symbol) Any type of action Oval symbol Beginning or end of a program, or a section of code (circles) Single-entry/single-exit control structures Connect exit point of one to entry point of the next Control structure stacking

5 2.5 if Selection Structure 9 Selection structure Choose among alternative courses of action Pseudocode example: If student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 Print Passed If the condition is true Print statement executed, program continues to next statement If the condition is false Print statement ignored, program continues Indenting makes programs easier to read C++ ignores whitespace characters (tabs, spaces, etc.) 2.5 if Selection Structure 10 Translation into C++ If student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 Print Passed if ( grade >= 60 ) cout << "Passed"; Diamond symbol (decision symbol) Indicates decision is to be made Contains an expression that can be true or false Test condition, follow path if structure Single-entry/single-exit

6 2.5 if Selection Structure 11 Flowchart of pseudocode statement A decision can be made on any expression. grade >= 60 true print Passed zero -false nonzero -true false Example: 3-4 is true 2.6 if/else Selection Structure 12 if Performs action if condition true if/else Different actions if conditions true or false Pseudocode if student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 print Passed else print Failed C++ code if ( grade >= 60 ) cout << "Passed"; else cout << "Failed";

7 2.6 if/else Selection Structure 13 Ternary conditional operator (?:) Three arguments (condition, value if true, value if false) Code could be written: cout << ( grade >= 60? Passed : Failed ); Condition Value if true Value if false false grade >= 60 true print Failed print Passed 2.6 if/else Selection Structure 14 Nested if/else structures One inside another, test for multiple cases Once condition met, other statements skipped if student s grade is greater than or equal to 90 Print A else if student s grade is greater than or equal to 80 Print B else if student s grade is greater than or equal to 70 Print C else if student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 Print D else Print F

8 2.6 if/else Selection Structure 15 Example if ( grade >= 90 ) // 90 and above cout << "A"; else if ( grade >= 80 ) // cout << "B"; else if ( grade >= 70 ) // cout << "C"; else if ( grade >= 60 ) // cout << "D"; else // less than 60 cout << "F"; 2.6 if/else Selection Structure 16 Compound statement Set of statements within a pair of braces if ( grade >= 60 ) cout << "Passed.\n"; else { cout << "Failed.\n"; cout << "You must take this course again.\n"; } Without braces, cout << "You must take this course again.\n"; always executed Block Set of statements within braces

9 2.7 while Repetition Structure 17 Repetition structure Action repeated while some condition remains true Psuedocode while there are more items on my shopping list Purchase next item and cross it off my list while loop repeated until condition becomes false Example int product = 2; while ( product <= 1000 ) product = 2 * product; 2.7 The while Repetition Structure 18 Flowchart of while loop product <= 1000 true product = 2 * product false

10 2.8 Formulating Algorithms (Counter- Controlled Repetition) 19 Counter-controlled repetition Loop repeated until counter reaches certain value Definite repetition Number of repetitions known Example A class of ten students took a quiz. The grades (integers in the range 0 to 100) for this quiz are available to you. Determine the class average on the quiz. 2.8 Formulating Algorithms (Counter- Controlled Repetition) 20 Pseudocode for example: Set total to zero Set grade counter to one While grade counter is less than or equal to ten Input the next grade Add the grade into the total Add one to the grade counter Set the class average to the total divided by ten Print the class average Next: C++ code for this example

12 2.9 Formulating Algorithms (Sentinel- Controlled Repetition) 23 Suppose problem becomes: Develop a class-averaging program that will process an arbitrary number of grades each time the program is run Unknown number of students How will program know when to end? Sentinel value Indicates end of data entry Loop ends when sentinel input Sentinel chosen so it cannot be confused with regular input -1 in this case 2.9 Formulating Algorithms (Sentinel- Controlled Repetition) 24 Top-down, stepwise refinement Begin with pseudocode representation of top Determine the class average for the quiz Divide top into smaller tasks, list in order Initialize variables Input, sum and count the quiz grades Calculate and print the class average

13 2.9 Formulating Algorithms (Sentinel- Controlled Repetition) 25 Many programs have three phases Initialization Initializes the program variables Processing Input data, adjusts program variables Termination Calculate and print the final results Helps break up programs for top-down refinement 2.9 Formulating Algorithms (Sentinel- Controlled Repetition) 26 Refine the initialization phase Initialize variables goes to Initialize total to zero Initialize counter to zero Processing Input, sum and count the quiz grades goes to Input the first grade (possibly the sentinel) While the user has not as yet entered the sentinel Add this grade into the running total Add one to the grade counter Input the next grade (possibly the sentinel)

14 2.9 Formulating Algorithms (Sentinel- Controlled Repetition) 27 Termination Calculate and print the class average goes to If the counter is not equal to zero Set the average to the total divided by the counter Print the average Else Print No grades were entered Next: C++ program 1 // Fig. 2.9: fig02_09.cpp 2 // Class average program with sentinel-controlled repetition. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::cin; 7 using std::endl; 8 using std::fixed; 9 10 #include <iomanip> // parameterized stream manipulators using std::setprecision; // sets numeric output precision // function main begins program execution 15 int main() 16 { 17 int total; Data type doubleused to represent // sum of gradesdecimal numbers. 18 int gradecounter; // number of grades entered 19 int grade; // grade value double average; // number with decimal point for average // initialization phase 24 total = 0; // initialize total 25 gradecounter = 0; // initialize loop counter fig02_09.cpp (1 of 3) 28

16 2.10 Nested Control Structures 31 Problem statement A college has a list of test results (1 = pass, 2 = fail) for 10 students. Write a program that analyzes the results. If more than 8 students pass, print "Raise Tuition". Notice that Program processes 10 results Fixed number, use counter-controlled loop Two counters can be used One counts number that passed Another counts number that fail Each test result is 1 or 2 If not 1, assume Nested Control Structures 32 Top level outline Analyze exam results and decide if tuition should be raised First refinement Initialize variables Input the ten quiz grades and count passes and failures Print a summary of the exam results and decide if tuition should be raised Refine Initialize variables to Initialize passes to zero Initialize failures to zero Initialize student counter to one

17 2.10 Nested Control Structures 33 Refine Input the ten quiz grades and count passes and failures to While student counter is less than or equal to ten Input the next exam result If the student passed Add one to passes Else Add one to failures Add one to student counter 2.10 Nested Control Structures 34 Refine Print a summary of the exam results and decide if tuition should be raised to Print the number of passes Print the number of failures If more than eight students passed Print Raise tuition Program next

18 1 // Fig. 2.11: fig02_11.cpp 2 // Analysis of examination results. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::cin; 7 using std::endl; 8 9 // function main begins program execution 10 int main() 11 { 12 // initialize variables in declarations 13 int passes = 0; // number of passes 14 int failures = 0; // number of failures 15 int studentcounter = 1; // student counter 16 int result; // one exam result // process 10 students using counter-controlled loop 19 while ( studentcounter <= 10 ) { // prompt user for input and obtain value from user 22 cout << "Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): "; 23 cin >> result; 24 fig02_11.cpp (1 of 2) // if result 1, increment passes; if/else nested in while 26 if ( result == 1 ) // if/else nested in while 27 passes = passes + 1; else // if result not 1, increment failures 30 failures = failures + 1; // increment studentcounter so loop eventually terminates 33 studentcounter = studentcounter + 1; } // end while // termination phase; display number of passes and failures 38 cout << "Passed " << passes << endl; 39 cout << "Failed " << failures << endl; // if more than eight students passed, print "raise tuition" 42 if ( passes > 8 ) 43 cout << "Raise tuition " << endl; return 0; // successful termination } // end function main fig02_11.cpp (2 of 2) 36

19 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 2 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 2 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 2 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 2 Passed 6 Failed 4 fig02_11.cpp output (1 of 1) 37 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 2 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Passed 9 Failed 1 Raise tuition 2.11 Assignment Operators 38 Assignment expression abbreviations Addition assignment operator c = c + 3; abbreviated to c += 3; Statements of the form variable = variable operator expression; can be rewritten as variable operator= expression; Other assignment operators d -= 4 (d = d - 4) e *= 5 (e = e * 5) f /= 3 (f = f / 3) g %= 9 (g = g % 9)

20 2.12 Increment and Decrement Operators Increment operator (++) - can be used instead of c += 1 Decrement operator (--) - can be used instead of c - = 1 Preincrement When the operator is used before the variable (++c or c) Variable is changed, then the expression it is in is evaluated. Posincrement When the operator is used after the variable (c++ or c--) Expression the variable is in executes, then the variable is changed Increment and Decrement Operators 40 Increment operator (++) Increment variable by one c++ Same as c += 1 Decrement operator (--) similar Decrement variable by one c--

21 2.12 Increment and Decrement Operators 41 Preincrement Variable changed before used in expression Operator before variable (++c or --c) Postincrement Incremented changed after expression Operator after variable (c++, c--) 2.12 Increment and Decrement Operators 42 If c = 5, then cout << ++c; c is changed to 6, then printed out cout << c++; Prints out 5 (cout is executed before the increment. c then becomes 6

22 2.12 Increment and Decrement Operators 43 When variable not in expression Preincrementing and postincrementing have same effect ++c; cout << c; and c++; cout << c; are the same 1 // Fig. 2.14: fig02_14.cpp 2 // Preincrementing and postincrementing. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 int c; // declare variable // demonstrate postincrement 14 c = 5; // assign 5 to c 15 cout << c << endl; // print 5 16 cout << c++ << endl; // print 5 then postincrement 17 cout << c << endl << endl; // print // demonstrate preincrement 20 c = 5; // assign 5 to c 21 cout << c << endl; // print 5 22 cout << ++c << endl; // preincrement then print 6 23 cout << c << endl; // print 6 fig02_14.cpp (1 of 2) 44

23 24 25 return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main fig02_14.cpp (2 of 2) fig02_14.cpp output (1 of 1) Essentials of Counter-Controlled Repetition 46 Counter-controlled repetition requires Name of control variable/loop counter Initial value of control variable Condition to test for final value Increment/decrement to modify control variable when looping

24 1 // Fig. 2.16: fig02_16.cpp 2 // Counter-controlled repetition. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 int counter = 1; // initialization while ( counter <= 10 ) { // repetition condition 14 cout << counter << endl; // display counter 15 ++counter; // increment } // end while return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main fig02_16.cpp (1 of 1) fig02_16.cpp output (1 of 1) 48

25 2.13 Essentials of Counter-Controlled Repetition 49 The declaration int counter = 1; Names counter Declares counter to be an integer Reserves space for counter in memory Sets counter to an initial value of for Repetition Structure 50 General format when using for loops for ( initialization; LoopContinuationTest; increment ) statement Example for( int counter = 1; counter <= 10; counter++ ) cout << counter << endl; Prints integers from one to ten No semicolon after last statement

26 1 // Fig. 2.17: fig02_17.cpp 2 // Counter-controlled repetition with the for structure. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 // Initialization, repetition condition and incrementing 12 // are all included in the for structure header for ( int counter = 1; counter <= 10; counter++ ) 15 cout << counter << endl; return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main fig02_17.cpp (1 of 1) fig02_17.cpp output (1 of 1) 52

27 2.14 for Repetition Structure 53 for loops can usually be rewritten as while loops initialization; while ( loopcontinuationtest){ } statement increment; Initialization and increment For multiple variables, use comma-separated lists for (int i = 0, j = 0; j + i <= 10; j++, i++) cout << j + i << endl; 1 // Fig. 2.20: fig02_20.cpp 2 // Summation with for. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 int sum = 0; // initialize sum // sum even integers from 2 through for ( int number = 2; number <= 100; number += 2 ) 15 sum += number; // add number to sum cout << "Sum is " << sum << endl; // output sum 18 return 0; // successful termination } // end function main fig02_20.cpp (1 of 1) fig02_20.cpp output (1 of 1) 54 Sum is 2550

28 2.15 Examples Using the for Structure 55 Program to calculate compound interest A person invests \$ in a savings account yielding 5 percent interest. Assuming that all interest is left on deposit in the account, calculate and print the amount of money in the account at the end of each year for 10 years. Use the following formula for determining these amounts: n a = p(1+r) p is the original amount invested (i.e., the principal), r is the annual interest rate, n is the number of years and a is the amount on deposit at the end of the nth year 1 // Fig. 2.21: fig02_21.cpp 2 // Calculating compound interest. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 using std::ios; 8 using std::fixed; 9 10 #include <iomanip> using std::setw; 13 using std::setprecision; #include <cmath> // enables program to use function pow // function main begins program execution 18 int main() 19 { <cmath> header needed for the pow function (program will not compile without it). 20 double amount; // amount on deposit 21 double principal = ; // starting principal 22 double rate =.05; // interest rate 23 fig02_21.cpp (1 of 2) 56

29 24 // output table column heads 25 cout << "Year" << setw( 21 ) << "Amount on deposit" << endl; // set floating-point number format 28 cout << fixed << setprecision( 2 ); // calculate amount on deposit for each of ten years 31 for ( int year = 1; year <= 10; year++ ) { // calculate new amount for specified year 34 amount = principal * pow( rate, year ); // output one table row 37 cout << setw( 4 ) << year 38 << setw( 21 ) << amount << endl; } // end for return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main Sets the field width to at least 21 characters. If output less than 21, it is right-justified. pow(x,y) = x raised to the yth power. fig02_21.cpp (2 of 2) 57 Year Amount on deposit fig02_21.cpp output (1 of 1) 58 Numbers are right-justified due to setwstatements (at positions 4 and 21).

30 2.16 switch Multiple-Selection Structure switch Test variable for multiple values Series of case labels and optional default case switch ( variable ) { case value1: statements break; // taken if variable == value1 // necessary to exit switch 59 } case value2: case value3: statements break; default: statements break; // taken if variable == value2 or == value3 // taken if variable matches no other cases 2.16 switch Multiple-Selection Structure 60 true case a case a action(s) break false true case b case b action(s) break false... true case z case z action(s) break false default action(s)

31 2.16 switch Multiple-Selection Structure 61 Example upcoming Program to read grades (A-F) Display number of each grade entered Details about characters Single characters typically stored in a char data type char a 1-byte integer, so chars can be stored as ints Can treat character as int or char 97 is the numerical representation of lowercase a (ASCII) Use single quotes to get numerical representation of character cout << "The character (" << 'a' << ") has the value " << static_cast< int > ( 'a' ) << endl; Prints The character (a) has the value 97 1 // Fig. 2.22: fig02_22.cpp 2 // Counting letter grades. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::cin; 7 using std::endl; 8 9 // function main begins program execution 10 int main() 11 { 12 int grade; // one grade 13 int acount = 0; // number of As 14 int bcount = 0; // number of Bs 15 int ccount = 0; // number of Cs 16 int dcount = 0; // number of Ds 17 int fcount = 0; // number of Fs cout << "Enter the letter grades." << endl 20 << "Enter the EOF character to end input." << endl; 21 fig02_22.cpp (1 of 4) 62

33 67 // output summary of results 68 cout << "\n\ntotals for each letter grade are:" 69 << "\na: " << acount // display number of A grades 70 << "\nb: " << bcount // display number of B grades 71 << "\nc: " << ccount // display number of C grades 72 << "\nd: " << dcount // display number of D grades 73 << "\nf: " << fcount // display number of F grades 74 << endl; return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main fig02_22.cpp (4 of 4) 65 Enter the letter grades. Enter the EOF character to end input. a B c C A d f C E Incorrect letter grade entered. Enter a new grade. D A b ^Z fig02_22.cpp output (1 of 1) 66 Totals for each letter grade are: A: 3 B: 2 C: 3 D: 2 F: 1

34 2.17 do/while Repetition Structure 67 Similar to while structure Makes loop continuation test at end, not beginning Loop body executes at least once Format do { statement } while ( condition ); action(s) condition true false 1 // Fig. 2.24: fig02_24.cpp 2 // Using the do/while repetition structure. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 int counter = 1; // initialize counter do { 14 cout << counter << " "; // display counter 15 } while ( ++counter <= 10 ); // end do/while cout << endl; return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main Notice the preincrement in loop-continuation test. fig02_24.cpp (1 of 1) fig02_24.cpp output (1 of 1)

35 2.18 break and continue Statements 69 break statement Immediate exit from while, for, do/while, switch Program continues with first statement after structure Common uses Escape early from a loop Skip the remainder of switch 1 // Fig. 2.26: fig02_26.cpp 2 // Using the break statement in a for structure. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { int x; // x declared here so it can be used after the loop // loop 10 times 15 for ( x = 1; x <= 10; x++ ) { // if x is 5, terminate loop 18 if ( x == 5 ) 19 break; // break loop only if x is cout << x << " "; // display value of x } // end for Exits for structure when break executed cout << "\nbroke out of loop when x became " << x << endl; fig02_26.cpp (1 of 2) 70

36 26 27 return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main Broke out of loop when x became 5 fig02_26.cpp (2 of 2) fig02_26.cpp output (1 of 1) break and continue Statements 72 continue statement Used in while, for, do/while Skips remainder of loop body Proceeds with next iteration of loop while and do/while structure Loop-continuation test evaluated immediately after the continue statement for structure Increment expression executed Next, loop-continuation test evaluated

37 1 // Fig. 2.27: fig02_27.cpp 2 // Using the continue statement in a for structure. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 // loop 10 times 12 for ( int x = 1; x <= 10; x++ ) { // if x is 5, continue with next iteration of loop 15 if ( x == 5 ) 16 continue; // skip remaining code in loop body cout << x << " "; // display value of x } // end for structure 21 Skips to next iteration of the loop. 22 cout << "\nused continue to skip printing the value 5" 23 << endl; return 0; // indicate successful termination fig02_27.cpp (1 of 2) } // end function main Used continue to skip printing the value 5 fig02_27.cpp (2 of 2) fig02_27.cpp output (1 of 1) 74

38 2.19 Logical Operators 75 Used as conditions in loops, if statements && (logical AND) true if both conditions are true if ( gender == 1 && age >= 65 ) ++seniorfemales; (logical OR) true if either of condition is true if ( semesteraverage >= 90 finalexam >= 90 ) cout << "Student grade is A" << endl; 2.19 Logical Operators 76! (logical NOT, logical negation) Returns true when its condition is false, & vice versa if (!( grade == sentinelvalue ) ) cout << "The next grade is " << grade << endl; Alternative: if ( grade!= sentinelvalue ) cout << "The next grade is " << grade << endl;

39 2.20 Confusing Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators 77 Common error Does not typically cause syntax errors Aspects of problem Expressions that have a value can be used for decision Zero = false, nonzero = true Assignment statements produce a value (the value to be assigned) 2.20 Confusing Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators 78 Example if ( paycode == 4 ) cout << "You get a bonus!" << endl; If paycode is 4, bonus given If == was replaced with = if ( paycode = 4 ) cout << "You get a bonus!" << endl; Paycode set to 4 (no matter what it was before) Statement is true (since 4 is non-zero) Bonus given in every case

40 2.20 Confusing Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators 79 Lvalues Expressions that can appear on left side of equation Can be changed (I.e., variables) x = 4; Rvalues Only appear on right side of equation Constants, such as numbers (i.e. cannot write 4 = x;) Lvalues can be used as rvalues, but not vice versa 2.21 Structured-Programming Summary 80 Structured programming Programs easier to understand, test, debug and modify Rules for structured programming Only use single-entry/single-exit control structures Rules 1) Begin with the simplest flowchart 2) Any rectangle (action) can be replaced by two rectangles (actions) in sequence 3) Any rectangle (action) can be replaced by any control structure (sequence, if, if/else, switch, while, do/while or for) 4) Rules 2 and 3 can be applied in any order and multiple times

41 2.21 Structured-Programming Summary 81 Representation of Rule 3 (replacing any rectangle with a control structure) Rule 3 Rule 3 Rule Structured-Programming Summary 82 All programs broken down into Sequence Selection if, if/else, or switch Any selection can be rewritten as an if statement Repetition while, do/while or for Any repetition structure can be rewritten as a while statement

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