# COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements

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1 COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe Research School of Computer Science, ANU 3 March 2017 Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe (RSCS, ANU) COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements 3 March / 11

2 Operators Assignment = Arithmetic + - * / % Unary ! Equality, relational, conditional and instanceof ==!= > >= < <= && instanceof Bitwise ~ & ˆ << >> >>> Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe (RSCS, ANU) COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements 3 March / 11

3 Arithmetic and String Operators Integer arithmetic is modular two s complement arithmetic, ie, if the value exceeds the range of its type (int or long), it is reduced modulo the range (it wraps), so that the integer arithmetic never results in an overflow or an underflow Integer division truncates toward zero (5/2 = 2, and -5/2 = -2) Division and remainder obey this rule: (x/y)*y + (x%y) == x // hence 5%2 = 1 and -5%2 = -1 Division (or remainder) by zero is illegal for integer arithmetic and throws ArithmeticException Character arithmetic is an integer arithmetic after the char is implicitly converted to int Floating point arithmetic is more lengthy subject (we only scratched the surface in J5) String concatenation: The addition operator also applies to two String objects, returning a string with the joined content: String s1 = "French Connection"; String s2 = " UK"; Systemoutprint("s1 + s2 = " + s1 + s2); Unlike for primitive types, string addition is not commutative Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe (RSCS, ANU) COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements 3 March / 11

4 Other Operators Comparing test operators: <, >, <=, >=, ==,!= (Non-)Equality (!= and ==) operators apply to all types, others to numbers and characters Logical operators: & (bitwise AND) (bitwise inclusive OR) ˆ (bitwise exclusive XOR) && (conditional AND) (conditional OR)! (logical negation) Conditional operators short-circuit : they do not evaluate the right-hand side if it is not required Increment and decrement operators (in J9) Conditional ternary operator (in J9) Type check: (reference) instanceof (ClassName/InterfaceName) (evaluates to boolean) Bit manipulation operators: first three of the logical operators plus three shift operators Assignment operator x = 5; Type conversion operator (convert-to-type)var: char c = (char)x; Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe (RSCS, ANU) COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements 3 March / 11

5 Operators on Objects Objects (more details in O2) need to be created and operated upon Object creation operator: String str = new String("I love Perignon!"); The operator new allocates memory for a new object and return a reference to it, Method invocation: Objects represent chunks of data and operations which involve these data These operations are carried out by invoking or calling a corresponding method by using the object reference o the invocation operator is a dot which follows the object reference: omethodname(x); // x is a parameter passed to the method Systemoutprintln("I am confused"); // "out" is output stream object Field access: Data associated with the object o can be read by using the same dot operator followed by the name of the field representing the data: int age = oage; Systemoutprintln("The object name is " + oname); Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe (RSCS, ANU) COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements 3 March / 11

6 Expressions A construct that evaluates to a single value Made up of - variables - operators - method invocations Compound expressions follow precedence rules - Use parentheses (clarity, disambiguation) 2 * MathPI * Mathsqrt(Mathpow(r, 30) / (G * (earthmass + moonmass))) r T = 2π 3 G(M 1 + M 2 ) Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe (RSCS, ANU) COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements 3 March / 11

7 Operator Precedence Precedence Type Operators 1 postfix operators [] (params) expr++ expr-- 2 unary operators ++expr --expr +expr -expr ~! 3 creation or cast new (type)expr 4 multiplicative * / % 5 additive shift << >> >>> 7 relational < > <= >= instanceof 8 equality ==!= 9 bitwise AND & 10 bitwise exclusive OR ^ 11 bitwise inclusive XOR 12 conditional AND && 13 conditional OR 14 ternary (elvis)?: 15 assignment = += -= *= /= %= >>= <<= >>>= &= ˆ= = Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe (RSCS, ANU) COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements 3 March / 11

8 Practice with Expressions Which expressions are legal and what do they evaluate to? 3 << 2L - 1; (3L << 2) -1; 10 < 12 == 6 > 17; 10 << 12 == 6 >> 17; 135e-1 % FloatPOSITIVE_INFINITY; FloatPOSITIVE_INFINITY + DoubleNEGATIVE_INFINITY; DoublePOSITIVE_INFINITY - FloatNEGATIVE_INFINITY; 00 / -00 == -00 / 00; // very important why the answer is what it is? IntegerMAX_VALUE + IntegerMIN_VALUE; LongMAX_VALUE + 5; (short) 5 * (byte) 10; (i < 15)? 172e3f : 0; // assuming int i is declared, but not initialised i++ + i i; // i = 3 before statement executed, what is i after? (hint the table on Operator Precedence slide above can help; if perplexed, type them into a program, run and try to understand why the results are what they are) Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe (RSCS, ANU) COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements 3 March / 11

9 Statements A complete unit of execution Expression statements (expressions made into statements by terminating with ; ): - Assignment expressions - Use of ++ or - - Method invocations - Object creation expressions Declaration statements Control flow statements double T; if (careaboutrelativity) { einsteinask(); } else { T = 2 * MathPI * Mathsqrt(Mathpow(r, 30) / (G * (earthmass + moonmass))); } Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe (RSCS, ANU) COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements 3 March / 11

10 Blocks Zero or more statements between balanced braces ( { and } ) Can be used anywhere a single statement can Blocks define scope Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe (RSCS, ANU) COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements 3 March / 11

11 Further Reading Core Java for the Impatient, Ch 14, 15 Expressions, Statements, and Blocks in Java Tutorial Alexei B Khorev and Josh Milthorpe (RSCS, ANU) COMP6700/2140 Operators, Expressions, Statements 3 March / 11

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