# LL(1) Grammars. Example. Recursive Descent Parsers. S A a {b,d,a} A B D {b, d, a} B b { b } B λ {d, a} D d { d } D λ { a }

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1 LL(1) Grammars A context-free grammar whose Predict sets are always disjoint (for the same non-terminal) is said to be LL(1). LL(1) grammars are ideally suited for top-down parsing because it is always possible to correctly predict the expansion of any nonterminal. No backup is ever needed. Formally, let First(X 1...X n )= {a in V t A X 1...X n * a... Follow(A) = {a in V t S +...Aa... Predict(A X 1...X n ) = If X 1...X n * λ Then First(X 1...X n ) U Follow(A) Else First(X 1...X n ) If some CFG, G, has the property that for all pairs of distinct productions with the same lefthand side, A X 1...X n and A Y 1...Y m it is the case that Predict(A X 1...X n ) Predict(A Y 1...Y m ) = φ then G is LL(1). LL(1) grammars are easy to parse in a top-down manner since predictions are always correct Example Recursive Descent Parsers Production Predict Set S A a {b,d,a A B D {b, d, a B b { b B λ {d, a D d { d D λ { a Since the predict sets of both B productions and both D productions are disjoint, this grammar is LL(1). An early implementation of topdown (LL(1)) parsing was recursive descent. A parser was organized as a set of parsing procedures, one for each non-terminal. Each parsing procedure was responsible for parsing a sequence of tokens derivable from its non-terminal. For example, a parsing procedure, A, when called, would call the scanner and match a token sequence derivable from A. Starting with the start symbol s parsing procedure, we would then match the entire input, which must be derivable from the start symbol

2 This approach is called recursive descent because the parsing procedures were typically recursive, and they descended down the input s parse tree (as top-down parsers always do). Building A Recursive Descent Parser We start with a procedure Match, that matches the current input token against a predicted token: void Match(Terminal a) { if (a == currenttoken) currenttoken = Scanner() else SyntaxErrror() To build a parsing procedure for a non-terminal A, we look at all productions with A on the lefthand side: A X 1...X n A Y 1...Y m... We use predict sets to decide which production to match (LL(1) grammars always have disjoint predict sets). We match a production s righthand side by calling Match to match terminals, and calling parsing procedures to match nonterminals. The general form of a parsing procedure for A X 1...X n A Y 1...Y m... is Usually this general form isn t used. Instead, each production is macro-expanded into a sequence of Match and parsing procedure calls. void A() { if (currenttoken in Predict(A X 1...X n )) for(i=1i<=ni++) if (X[i] is a terminal) Match(X[i]) else X[i]() else if (currenttoken in Predict(A Y 1...Y m )) for(i=1i<=mi++) if (Y[i] is a terminal) Match(Y[i]) else Y[i]() else // Handle other A... productions else // No production predicted SyntaxError()

3 Example: CSX-Lite CSX-Lite Parsing Procedures Production Predict Set Prog { { Stmt id if void Prog() { Match("{") Match("") λ Stmt id = id Stmt if ( ) Stmt if id Etail id Etail + + Etail - - Etail λ ) void () { if (currenttoken == id currenttoken == if){ Stmt() else { /* null */ void Stmt() { if (currenttoken == id){ Match(id) Match("=") () else { Match(if) Match("(") () Match(")") Stmt() void () { Match(id) Etail() void Etail() { if (currenttoken == "+") { Match("+") () else if (currenttoken == "-"){ Match("-") () else { /* null */ Let s use recursive descent to parse { a = b + c We start by calling Prog() since this represents the start symbol. Calls Pending Prog() Match("{") Match("") Match("") { a = b + c { a = b + c a = b + c Stmt() Match("") a = b + c Match(id) Match("=") () Match("") a = b + c

4 Calls Pending Calls Pending Match("=") () Match("") = b + c Match("+") () Match("") + c () Match("") b + c () Match("") c Match(id) Etail() Match("") b + c Match(id) Etail() Match("") c Etail() Match("") + c Etail() Match("") /* null */ Match("") Calls Pending Match("") Match("") /* null */ Match("") Match("") Done! All input matched Syntax Errors in Recursive Descent Parsing In recursive descent parsing, syntax errors are automatically detected. In fact, they are detected as soon as possible (as soon as the first illegal token is seen). How? When an illegal token is seen by the parser, either it fails to predict any valid production or it fails to match an expected token in a call to Match. Let s see how the following illegal CSX-lite program is parsed: { b + c = a (Where should the first syntax error be detected?)

5 Calls Pending Prog() Match("{") Match("") Match("") Stmt() Match("") Match(id) Match("=") () Match("") { b + c = a { b + c = a b + c = a b + c = a b + c = a Calls Pending Match("=") () Match("") + c = a Call to Match fails! + c = a Table-Driven Top-Down Parsers Recursive descent parsers have many attractive features. They are actual pieces of code that can be read by programmers and extended. This makes it fairly easy to understand how parsing is done. Parsing procedures are also convenient places to add code to build ASTs, or to do typechecking, or to generate code. A major drawback of recursive descent is that it is quite inconvenient to change the grammar being parsed. Any change, even a minor one, may force parsing procedures to be reprogrammed, as productions and predict sets are modified. To a less extent, recursive descent parsing is less efficient than it might be, since subprograms are called just to match a single token or to recognize a righthand side. An alternative to parsing procedures is to encode all prediction in a parsing table. A pre-programed driver program can use a parse table (and list of productions) to parse any LL(1) grammar. If a grammar is changed, the parse table and list of productions will change, but the driver need not be changed

6 LL(1) Parse Tables CSX-lite Example An LL(1) parse table, T, is a twodimensional array. Entries in T are production numbers or blank (error) entries. T is indexed by: A, a non-terminal. A is the nonterminal we want to expand. CT, the current token that is to be matched. T[A][CT] = A X 1...X n if CT is in Predict(A X 1...X n ) T[A][CT] = error if CT predicts no production with A as its lefthand side Production Predict Set 1 Prog { { 2 Stmt id if 3 λ 4 Stmt id = id 5 Stmt if ( ) Stmt if 6 id Etail id 7 Etail Etail Etail λ ) { if ( ) id = + - eof Prog Stmt Etail LL(1) Parser Driver Example of LL(1) Parsing Here is the driver we ll use with the LL(1) parse table. We ll also use a parse stack that remembers symbols we have yet to match. We ll again parse { a = b + c We start by placing Prog (the start symbol) on the parse stack. void LLDriver(){ Push(StartSymbol) while(! stackempty()){ //Let X=Top symbol on parse stack //Let CT = current token to match if (isterminal(x)) { match(x) //CT is updated pop() //X is updated else if (T[X][CT]!= Error){ //Let T[X][CT] = X Y 1...Y m Replace X with Y 1...Y m on parse stack else SyntaxError(CT) Parse Stack Prog { Stmt { a = b + c { a = b + c a = b + c a = b + c

7 Parse Stack Parse Stack id = = id Etail a = b + c = b + c b + c b + c Etail + id Etail + c + c c c Parse Stack Etail Done! All input matched Syntax Errors in LL(1) Parsing In LL(1) parsing, syntax errors are automatically detected as soon as the first illegal token is seen. How? When an illegal token is seen by the parser, either it fetches an error entry from the LL(1) parse table or it fails to match an expected token. Let s see how the following illegal CSX-lite program is parsed: { b + c = a (Where should the first syntax error be detected?)

8 Parse Stack Parse Stack Prog { { b + c = a { b + c = a b + c = a = Current token (+) fails to match expected token (=)! + c = a + c = a Stmt b + c = a id = b + c = a

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