# CS 132 Compiler Construction, Fall 2012 Instructor: Jens Palsberg Multiple Choice Exam, Nov 6, 2012

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1 CS 132 Compiler Construction, Fall 2012 Instructor: Jens Palsberg Multiple Choice Exam, Nov 6, 2012 ID Name This exam consists of 22 questions. Each question has four options, exactly one of which is correct, while the other three options are incorrect. For each question, you can check multiple options. I will grade each question in the following way. If you check none of the options, you get 0 points. If you check all four options, you get 0 points. Check one option. If you check one option, and that option is correct, you get 2 points. If you check one option, and that option is wrong, you get points (yes, negative!). Check two options. If you check two options, and one of those options is correct, you get 1 point. If you check two options, and both of them are wrong, you get 1 point (yes, negative!). Check three options. If you check three options, and one of those options is correct, you get points. If you check three options, and all three of them are wrong, you get points (yes, negative!). The maximum point total is 22 2 = 44 points. I will calculate a percentage based on the points in the following way: max(0, point total) Notice that if your point total is negative, you will get 0 percent

2 Example Consider the grammar A ::= B x y C ɛ B ::= C z A C ::= x B where {A, B, C is the set of nonterminal symbols, A is the start symbol, {x, y, z is the set of terminal symbols, and ɛ denotes the empty string. Question 1 Which nonterminals are nullable? 52 a x A b B c C d A and B Question 2 What is First(A)? a {y 49 b x {x, y 1 c {y, z 2 d {x, y, z Question 3 What is First(B)? 52 a x {x b {y c {z d {x, y Question 4 What is First(C)? 52 a x {x b {y c {z d {x, y Question 5 What is Follow(A)? 4 a {x b {y 1 c {z 47 d x {x, z

3 Question 6 What is Follow(B)? 1 a {x b {y 1 c {z 50 d x {x, z Question 7 What is Follow(C)? 1 a {x b {y 8 c {z 43 d x {x, z Question 8 Is the grammar LL(1)? 10 a Yes 43 b x No c The question cannot be answered with the information provided 3 d The LL(1)-checker would go into an infinite loop Example Consider the grammar A ::= x C B B ::= z A x C ::= y B z ɛ where {A, B, C is the set of nonterminal symbols, A is the start symbol, {x, y, z is the set of terminal symbols, and ɛ denotes the empty string. The grammar is LL(1). The predictive parsing table is a two-dimensional table called table. Question 9 What does table(a, x) contain? a error 52 c x x C B Question 10 What does table(a, y) contain? 51 a x error 1 c x C B

4 Question 11 What does table(a, z) contain? 52 a x error c x C B Question 12 What does table(b, x) contain? a error c z 52 d x A x Question 13 What does table(b, y) contain? 52 a x error c z Question 14 What does table(b, z) contain? a error 52 c x z Question 15 What does table(c, x) contain? 1 a error 50 b x ɛ 1 c y B z d x C B Question 16 What does table(c, y) contain? a error 52 c x y B z d x C B

5 Question 17 What does table(c, z) contain? 1 a error 50 b x ɛ 2 c y B z d x C B Example Consider the grammar A ::= C z x B B ::= z B x C ::= y A ɛ where {A, B, C is the set of nonterminal symbols, A is the start symbol, {x, y, z is the set of terminal symbols, and ɛ denotes the empty string. The grammar is LL(1). Assume that a recursivedescent parser for the above grammer declares a variable next of type token, and that the program has three procedures A(), B(), C(), and the following main part: void main() { next = getnexttoken(); A(); The procedure getnexttoken() gets the next token from an input file. Assume also we have the following helper procedure, written in pseudo-code: void eat(token t) { if (t == next) { next = getnexttoken(); else { error();

6 Question 18 The procedure A() looks like: if (next == x) { eat(x); B() else {???? What is????? a /* do nothing */ b error(); 44 c x C(); eat(z); 9 d if (next == y) { C(); eat(z); else { error(); Question 19 The procedure B() looks like: {???? What is????? a /* do nothing */ b error 2 c if ((next == x) or (next == z)) { eat(z); B(); eat(x); 51 d x if (next == z) { eat(z); B(); eat(x); else { error();

7 Question 20 The procedure C() looks like: if (next == y) { eat(y); A() else {???? What is????? 11 a /* do nothing */ b error(); c if (next == x) { /* do nothing */ else { error(); 41 d x if (next == z) { /* do nothing */ else { error(); Example Consider the grammar: A ::= A x B y y A z B ::= x A y where {A, B is the set of nonterminal symbols, A is the start symbol, and {x, y, z is the set of terminal symbols, and ɛ denotes the empty string.

8 Question 21 Which grammar generates the same language as the above grammar? 3 a A ::= y A D z D B ::= x A y D y D D ::= x B ɛ 33 b x c 26 d A ::= y A D z D B ::= x A y D y y D D ::= x B ɛ A ::= y A D z D B ::= x A y y D D ::= x B ɛ A ::= y A D z D B ::= x A y y y D D ::= x B ɛ Example Consider the grammar: A ::= x B y x B B ::= y x y B x where {A, B is the set of nonterminal symbols, A is the start symbol, {x, y is the set of terminal symbols, and ɛ denotes the empty string.

9 Question 22 Which grammar generates the same language as the above grammar? a A ::= x x C y x y C C ::= x y C x 52 c x b 1 d A ::= x x C y x y C C ::= x y C y A ::= x y C y x y C C ::= x y C x A ::= x y C y x y C C ::= x y C y

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