Parsing Part II (Topdown parsing, leftrecursion removal)


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1 Parsing Part II (Topdown parsing, leftrecursion removal) Copyright 2003, Keith D. Cooper, Ken Kennedy & Linda Torczon, all rights reserved. Students enrolled in Comp 412 at Rice University have explicit permission to make copies of these materials for their personal use.
2 Parsing Techniques Topdown parsers (LL(1), recursive descent) Start at the root of the parse tree and grow toward leaves Pick a production & try to match the input Bad pick may need to backtrack (predictive parsing) Some grammars are backtrackfree Bottomup parsers (LR(1), operator precedence) Start at the leaves and grow toward root As input is consumed, encode possibilities in an internal state Start in a state valid for legal first tokens Bottomup parsers handle a large class of grammars
3 Topdown Parsing A topdown parser starts with the root of the parse tree The root node is labeled with the goal symbol of the grammar Topdown parsing algorithm: Construct the root node of the parse tree Repeat until the fringe of the parse tree matches the input string 1 At a node labeled A, select a production with A on its lhs and, for each symbol on its rhs, construct the appropriate child 2 When a terminal symbol is added to the fringe and it doesn t match the input, backtrack 3 Find the next node to be expanded (label NT) The key is picking the right production in step 1 That choice should be guided by the input string
4 Remember the expression grammar? Version with precedence derived last lecture And the input x 2 * y
5 Example Let s try x 2 * y : Goal Expr Expr + Term Term Fact. <id,x> Leftmost derivation, choose productions in an order that exposes problems
6 Example Let s try x 2 * y : Goal Expr Expr + Term Fact. <id,x> This worked well, except that doesn t match + The parser must backtrack to here Term
7 Example Continuing with x 2 * y : Goal Expr Expr Term Fact. <id,x> Term
8 Example Continuing with x 2 * y : Goal Expr Expr Term Term Fact. <id,x> This time, and matched We can advance past to look at 2 Now, we need to expand Term  the last NT on the fringe
9 Example Trying to match the 2 in x 2 * y : Goal Expr Expr Term Term Fact. Fact. <num,2> <id,x>
10 Example Trying to match the 2 in x 2 * y : Goal Expr Expr  Term Term Fact. Fact. <num,2> Where are we? <id,x> 2 matches 2 We have more input, but no NTs left to expand The expansion terminated too soon Need to backtrack
11 Example Trying again with 2 in x 2 * y : Goal Expr Expr Term Term Term * Fact. Fact. <id,x> <num,2> This time, we matched & consumed all the input Success! Fact. <id,y>
12 Another possible parse Other choices for expansion are possible Rule Sentential Form Input Goal x 2 * y 1 Expr x 2 * y 2 Expr + Term x 2 * y 2 Expr + Term +Term x 2 * y 2 Expr + Term + Term +Term x 2 * y 2 Expr +Term + Term + +Term x 2 * y consuming no input! This doesn t terminate (obviously) Wrong choice of expansion leads to nontermination Nontermination is a bad property for a parser to have Parser must make the right choice
13 Left Recursion Topdown parsers cannot handle leftrecursive grammars Formally, A grammar is left recursive if A NT such that a derivation A + Aα, for some string α (NT T )+ Our expression grammar is left recursive This can lead to nontermination in a topdown parser For a topdown parser, any recursion must be right recursion We would like to convert the left recursion to right recursion Nontermination is a bad property in any part of a compiler
14 Eliminating Left Recursion To remove left recursion, we can transform the grammar Consider a grammar fragment of the form Fee Fee α β where neither α nor β start with Fee We can rewrite this as Fee β Fie Fie α Fie ε where Fie is a new nonterminal This accepts the same language, but uses only right recursion
15 Eliminating Left Recursion The expression grammar contains two cases of left recursion Applying the transformation yields These fragments use only right recursion They retain the original left associativity
16 Eliminating Left Recursion Substituting them back into the grammar yields This grammar is correct, if somewhat nonintuitive. It is left associative, as was the original A topdown parser will terminate using it. A topdown parser may need to backtrack with it.
17 Eliminating Left Recursion The transformation eliminates immediate left recursion What about more general, indirect left recursion? The general algorithm: arrange the NTs into some order A 1, A2,, An Must start with 1 to ensure that A1 for i 1 to n A1 β is transformed for s 1 to i 1 replace each production Ai Asγ with Ai δ1γ δ2γ δkγ, where As δ1 δ2 δk are all the current productions for As eliminate any immediate left recursion on A i using the direct transformation This assumes that the initial grammar has no cycles (Ai + Ai ), and no epsilon productions
18 Lookahead in predictive parsing The Lookahead token (next token in the input) is used to determine which rule should be used next Consider the following example: term num term' term term' + num term  num term' ε num num term
19 Lookahead in predictive parsing The Lookahead token (next token in the input) is used to determine which rule should be used next Consider the following example: term num term' term term' + num term  num term' ε num num 7 term + num term
20 Lookahead in predictive parsing The Lookahead token (next token in the input) is used to determine which rule should be used next Consider the following example: term num term' term term' + num term  num term' ε num 7 term + num num term
21 Lookahead in predictive parsing The Lookahead token (next token in the input) is used to determine which rule should be used next Consider the following example: term num term' term term' + num term  num term' ε num 7 term + num term num num term
22 Lookahead in predictive parsing The Lookahead token (next token in the input) is used to determine which rule should be used next Consider the following example: term num term' term term' + num term  num term' ε num 7 term + num term num num 2 term
23 Lookahead in predictive parsing The Lookahead token (next token in the input) is used to determine which rule should be used next Consider the following example: 7+32_ term num term' term term' + num term  num term' ε num 7 term + num term num num term 2 ε
24 Predictive Parsing Basic idea Given A α β, the parser should be able to choose between α & β FIRST sets For some rhs α G, define FIRST(α) as the set of tokens that appear as the first symbol in some string that derives from α That is, x FIRST(α) iff α * x γ, for some γ The LL(1) Property If A α and A β both appear in the grammar, we would like FIRST(α) FIRST(β) = This would allow the parser to make a correct choice with a lookahead of exactly one symbol! This is almost correct See the next slide
25 Predictive Parsing What about εproductions? They complicate the definition of LL(1) If A α and A β and ε FIRST(α), then we need to ensure that FIRST(β) is disjoint from FOLLOW(α), too Define FIRST+(α) as FIRST(α) FOLLOW(α), if ε FIRST(α) FIRST(α), otherwise Then, a grammar is LL(1) iff A α and A β implies FIRST+(α) FIRST+(β) = FOLLOW(α) is the set of all words in the grammar that can legally appear immediately after an α
26 Determining First Sets If α is a terminal symbol, α T FIRST(α) = {α} If A is a nonterminal symbol, A NT For each production A β, where β is β1 β2 βk FIRST(A) = FIRST(A) = FIRST(A) (FIRST{β1}  ε) i=1 While ε FIRST(βi) and i k1 FIRST(A) = FIRST(A) (FIRST{βi+1}  ε) If i == k and ε FIRST(βk) FIRST (A) = FIRST(A) ε
27 First Sets (Example) S AC C c ε A B Q abcd BQ ε bb d q What is FIRST(C)? FIRST(C)= FIRST(c) FIRST(ε ) = {c, ε } What is FIRST(B)? FIRST(B) = FIRST(b) FIRST(d) = {b, d} What is FIRST(A)? FIRST(A) = FIRST(aBCd) FIRST(BQ) FIRST(ε ) FIRST(A) = {a, b, d, ε } What is FIRST(Q)? FIRST(Q) = {q} What is FIRST(S)? FIRST(S) = FIRST(AC) FIRST(S) =FIRST(A) ε FIRST(C) FIRST(S) = {a, b, c, d, ε }
28 Determining Follow Sets For each A NT FOLLOW(A) = FOLLOW(S) = {$} $ is eof Start Symbol While (Follow sets are still changing) For each production A αbβ, ε FIRST(β) FOLLOW(B) = FOLLOW(B) (FIRST(β) For each production A αbβ, ε FIRST(β) FOLLOW(B) = FOLLOW(B) (FIRST (β) ε) Follow(A)
29 Follow Sets (Example) S AC C c ε A B Q abcd BQ ε bb d q What is FOLLOW(S)? FOLLOW(S) = {$} What is FOLLOW(C)? FOLLOW(C) = {d} FOLLOW(S) = {d, $} What is FOLLOW(B)? FOLLOW(B) = FIRST(Cd) FIRST(Q) FOLLOW(B) FOLLOW(B) = {c, d, q} What is FOLLOW(A)? FOLLOW(A) = FIRST(C) FOLLOW(S) = {c, $} What is FOLLOW(Q)? FOLLOW(Q) = FOLLOW(A) = {c, $}
30 Predictive Parsing Given a grammar that has the LL(1) property Can write a simple routine to recognize each lhs Code is both simple & fast Grammars with the LL(1) Consider A β1 β2 β3, with property are called predictive FIRST+(β1) FIRST+ (β2) FIRST+ (β3) = /* find an A */ if (current_word FIRST(β1)) find a β1 and return true else if (current_word FIRST(β2)) find a β2 and return true else if (current_word FIRST(β3)) find a β3 and return true else report an error and return false grammars because the parser can predict the correct expansion at each point in the parse. Parsers that capitalize on the LL(1) property are called predictive parsers. One kind of predictive parser is the recursive descent parser. Of course, there is more detail to find a βi ( in EAC)
31 Recursive Descent Parsing Recall the expression grammar, after transformation This produces a parser with six mutually recursive routines: Goal Expr EPrime Term TPrime Factor Each recognizes one NT or T The term descent refers to the direction in which the parse tree is built.
32 Recursive Descent Parsing (Procedural) A couple of routines from the expression parser Goal( ) token next_token( ); if (Expr( ) = true & token = EOF) then next compilation step; else report syntax error; return false; Expr( ) if (Term( ) = false) then return false; else return Eprime( ); looking for EOF, found token Factor( ) if (token = Number) then token next_token( ); return true; else if (token = Identifier) then token next_token( ); return true; else report syntax error; return false; looking for Number or Identifier, found token instead
33 Left Factoring What if my grammar does not have the LL(1) property? Sometimes, we can transform the grammar The Algorithm A NT, find the longest prefix α that occurs in two or more righthand sides of A if α ε then replace all of the A productions, A αβ1 αβ2 αβn γ, with A αz γ Z β1 β2 βn where Z is a new element of NT Repeat until no common prefixes remain
34 Left Factoring A graphical explanation for the same idea αβ1 A αβ1 αβ2 αβ3 A becomes A αz Z β1 β2 βn αβ2 αβ3 β1 A αz β2 β3
35 Left Factoring (An example) Consider the following fragment of the expression grammar FIRST(rhs1) = { Identifier } FIRST(rhs2) = { Identifier } FIRST(rhs3) = { Identifier } After left factoring, it becomes FIRST(rhs1) = { Identifier } FIRST(rhs2) = { [ } FIRST(rhs3) = { ( } FIRST(rhs4) = FOLLOW(Factor) It has the LL(1) property This form has the same syntax, with the LL(1) property
36 Left Factoring Graphically Identifier Factor No basis for choice Identifier [ ExprList ] Identifier ( ExprList ) [ ExprList ] ( ExprList ) becomes Factor ε Identifier Word determines correct choice
37 Left Factoring (Generality) Question By eliminating left recursion and left factoring, can we transform an arbitrary CFG to a form where it meets the LL(1) condition? (and can be parsed predictively with a single token lookahead?) Answer Given a CFG that doesn t meet the LL(1) condition, it is undecidable whether or not an equivalent LL(1) grammar exists. Example {an 0 bn n 1} {an 1 b2n n 1} has no LL(1) grammar
38 Language that Cannot Be LL(1) Example {an 0 bn n 1} {an 1 b2n n 1} has no LL(1) grammar G aa b abbb A a Ab 0 B abbb 1 Problem: need an unbounded number of a characters before you can determine whether you are in the A group or the B group.
39 Recursive Descent (Summary) 1. Build FIRST (and FOLLOW) sets 2. Massage grammar to have LL(1) condition Remove left recursion b. Left factor it Define a procedure for each nonterminal a. Implement a case for each righthand side b. Call procedures as needed for nonterminals Add extra code, as needed a. Perform contextsensitive checking b. Build an IR to record the code a Can we automate this process?
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