# VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE

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1 VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY & COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK II SEMESTER CS6201- DIGITAL PRINCIPLE AND SYSTEM DESIGN (Common to CSE and IT) Regulation 2013 Academic Year : Prepared by Mr.S.Narayanan, Assistant Professor/IT Ms.A.R.Revathi, Assistant Professor/IT Mr.R.Sankaranarayanan, Assistant Professor/GE.

2 VALLIAMMAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY QUESTION BANK SUBJECT : CS6201- DIGITAL PRINCIPLE AND SYSTEM DESIGN SEM / YEAR : II SEMESTER/ FIRST YEAR UNIT I - BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND LOGIC GATES Review of Number Systems Arithmetic Operations Binary Codes Boolean Algebra and Theorems Boolean Functions Simplification of Boolean Functions using Karnaugh Map and Tabulation Methods Logic Gates NAND and NOR Implementations. PART-A Q.no Question BTL Competence 1 Find the octal equivalent of hexadecimal numbers of AB.CD BTL1 Remembering (OR) DC.BA 2 State and prove the consensus theorem. BTL2 Understanding 3 State the principle of duality. BTL2 Understanding 4 Implement AND gate using only NOR gates. (OR) BTL6 Creating Realize XOR gate using only 4 NAND gates. 5 Convert (0.6875)10 to binary (OR) Convert (126)10 to Octal & BTL3 Applying Binary 6 Prove the following using DeMorgan s theorem. BTL5 Evaluating [(x + y)'+(x + y) '] '=x + y. 7 Write short notes on weighted binary codes. BTL2 Understanding 8 Discuss NOR Operation with truth table. BTL2 Understanding 9 What is meant by multilevel gates networks? BTL1 Remembering 10 Simplify Z = (AB +C) (B'D + C'E')+(AB+C)'. BTL3 Applying 11 Realize G = AB'C +DE+F'. BTL5 Evaluating 12 Convert ( )2 to base 16 &(231.07)8 to base 10 BTL3 Applying 13 Convert the binary number to into gray code. (OR) Convert (A3B)H into decimal number. BTL3 Applying 14 Find the complement of the function F= x'yz' + x'y'z. BTL1 Remembering

3 15 What is Excess-3 code? (OR) Define Self complementary Code? BTL1 Remembering 16 What are Universal Gates? Why are they named so? BTL1 Remembering 17 What bit must be complemented to change an ASCII letter from BTL1 Remembering capital to lower case and vice versa? 18 Express the following Boolean expression in to minimum number BTL5 Evaluating of literals. xyz + x'y + xyz'. 19 What are the limitations of K-map? BTL1 Remembering 20 Plot the following Boolean functions using three variable maps. BTL3 Applying F(X,Y,Z)= m(0,2,3,6,7). PART-B Q.no Question Marks BTL Competence 1 Minimize the expression using Quine Mc Cluskey method F= m(0,1,9,15,24,29,30) + d(8,11,31).(or) Simplify the following switching function using Quine Mc Cluskey method and realize expression using gates F(A,B,C,D) = m(0,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15). (OR) Reduce the expression using tabulation method. F(X1, X 2, X 3, X 4, X 5) = m(0,2,4,5,6,7,8,10,14,17,18,21,29,31) + d(11,20,22) 2 Express the following function in a simplified manner using K map technique (i) G=πM(0,1,3,7,9,11). (ii) F(W,X,Y,Z)= m(0,7,8,9,10,12)+ d(2,5,13). (OR) Simplify the following switching function using karnaugh map method and realize expression using gates F(A,B,C,D) = m(0,3,5,7,8,9,10,12,15) 3 Simplify the function F(W,X,Y,Z)= m(2,3,12,13,14,15) using Tabulation method. Implement the simplified function using gates. 4(a) Simplify the Boolean function in Sum of Products (SOP) and Product of Sum (POS) F(W,X,Y,Z)= m(0,1,2,5,8,9,10). 4(b) Design the Boolean function in Karnaugh map and simplify it F(W,X,Y,Z)= m(0,1,2,4,5,6,8,9,12,13,14). (OR) Minimize the following function using Karnaugh map F(A,B,C,D)= m(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,11,12,13) 5 Simplify the following Boolean expression in (a) Sum of Product (b) Product of Sum using Karnaugh map AC' + B'D + A'CD + ABCD. 16 BTL2 Understanding 16 BTL2 Understanding 16 BTL4 Analyzing 10 BTL4 Analyzing 06 BTL6 Creating BTL4 Analyzing

4 6(a) 6(b) Express the following function in sum of min-terms and product of max-terms : F(X,Y,Z)=X+YZ. Convert the following logic system into NAND gates only. 08 BTL2 Understanding 08 BTL3 Applying 7(a) Add, subtract and multiply the following numbers in 06 BTL4 Analyzing binary and (b) State and prove De Morgan s theorems for 2-variables 06 BTL3 Applying 7(c) Find dual and complement of the following Boolean 04 BTL1 Remembering expression XYZ +X YZ+Z(XY+W) 8 Simplify the following function using five variable 16 BTL4 Analyzing map: F(A,B,C,D,E)= A B CE +B C D E +A B D +B C D +A CD+A BD 9 Minimize the expression using K-map and Quine 16 BTL2 Understanding Mccluskey method Y= A BC D+A BC D+ABC D +ABC D +AB C D+A B CD 10(a) Implement the following Boolean function with 10 BTL6 Creating NAND-NAND logic gate. F(A,B,C)= m(0,1,3,5) 10(b) Define prime implicate and essential prime implicate. 04 BTL1 Remembering 10(c) Convert (78.5) 10 into binary 02 BTL3 Applying 11 Summarize the rules for Binary Addition and Subtraction using 2 s complement arithmetic. Give examples. 12 Explain about common postulates used to formulate various algebraic structures. 13(a) Describe the procedure obtaining logic diagram with NAND gates from a Boolean function. 13(b) Describe with short notes on negative and positive logic. 14(a) Describe the procedure obtaining logic diagram with NOR gates from a Boolean function. 14(b) Simplify the given Boolean function in POS form using k-map and draw the logic diagram using NOR gates. F(A,B,C,D) =ΠM(0,1,4,7,8,10,12,15)+ d(2,6,11,14) 16 BTL2 Understanding 16 BTL1 Remembering 08 BTL1 Remembering 08 BTL1 Remembering 08 BTL2 Understanding 08 BTL4 Analyzing

5 UNIT II - COMBINATIONAL LOGIC Combinational Circuits Analysis and Design Procedures Circuits for Arithmetic Operations, Code Conversion Decoders and Encoders Multiplexers and Demultiplexers Introduction to HDL HDL Models of Combinational circuits PART-A Q.no Question BTL Competence 1 Implement the function G= m (0, 3) using a 2x4 decoder. BTL6 Creating 2 Draw the circuit diagram for 2 to 1 line multiplexer. BTL3 Applying 3 Implement (solve) the following Boolean function using 8:1 multiplexer F(A,B,C)= m(1,3,5,6). BTL6 Creating 4 What is priority encoder? BTL1 Remembering 5 Implement (solve) a full adder with 4x1 multiplexer. BTL6 Creating 6 Write the Data flow description of a 4 bit comparator. BTL2 Understanding 7 What is half adder?. Draw the truth table of half adder BTL1 Remembering 8 Write short notes on propagation delay BTL2 Understanding 9 Define combination circuits BTL1 Remembering 10 Design the combinational circuits with 3 inputs and 11 output. BTL6 Creating The output is 1 when the binary value of the inputs is less than 3. The output is 0 otherwise. 11 State the differentiate between decoder and demultiplexer. BTL2 Understanding 12 Obtain the truth table for BCD to Excess-3 code converter BTL3 Applying 13 Draw the truth table and circuit diagram of 4 to 2 encoder. BTL3 Applying 14 Write any two advantages of HDL. BTL2 Understanding 15 Write the HDL data flow description of 4 bit adder. BTL2 Understanding 16 Differentiate between encoder and decoder. (OR) Differentiate between Multiplexer and Demultiplexer. BTL4 Analyzing 17 List out the application of multiplexer. BTL1 Remembering 18 Give the HDL description for the following circuit BTL2 Understanding 19 Draw the Full adder circuit as a collection of two Half adders. BTL3 Applying

6 20 The input frequency of a 7497 binary rate multipliers is 64 khz. BTL5 Evaluating Measure its output be if the multiplier word is (OR) Point out the gate level need for carry to propagate from input to output in n bit adder. PART-B Q.no Question Marks BTL Competence 1 Describe the process involved in converting 8421 BCD 16 BTL2 Understanding code to Excess 3 code with neat sketch. (OR) Describe the process involved in converting Excess 3 code to 8421 BCD code with neat sketch. (OR) Design a code converter that converts a 8421 to BCD Code. 2(a) Implement the following Boolean function using 8 to 1 08 BTL6 Creating Multiplexer. F(A,B,C,D)=A BD + ACD + B'CD + A'C'D. 2(b) Implement the above function using 16 to 1 Multiplexer. 08 BTL6 Creating 3 Describe the procedure of converting 8421 to Gray code 16 BTL2 Understanding converter also realize the converter using only NAND gates. 4 Design 2-bit magnitude comparator and write a verilog 16 BTL6 Creating HDL code. 5(a) Implement the following Boolean functions with a multiplexer. F(w,x,y,z) = m(2,3,5,6,11,14,15) (OR) Implement the following function using 8 to 1 multiplexer f(a,b,c,d)= m(0,1,3,5,9,12,14,15) (OR) Implement the 08 BTL5 Evaluating following function using multiplexer f(a,b,c,d)= m(0,1,3,4,8,9,15). 5(b) Construct a 5 to 32 line decoder using 3 to 8 line decoders 08 BTL6 Creating and 2 to 4 line decoder. 6(a) Explain the Analysis procedure. Analyze the following logic diagram. 08 BTL2 Understanding

7 6(b) With neat diagram explain the 4 bit adder with Carry look 08 BTL2 Understanding ahead. 7 Design Full subtractor and derive expression for difference 16 BTL6 Creating and borrow. Realize using logic gates. 8 Design the full adder with inputs x,y,z and two outputs S 16 BTL6 Creating and C. The circuits perform x+y+z is the input carry, C is the output carry and S is the Sum & realize it s using only NOR gates. 9 Design a logic circuit that accepts a 4-bit grey code and converts it into 4-bit binary code (OR) Design a binary to gray code converter circuit (OR) BCD to 7- Segment code converter circuit. 16 BTL6 Creating 10(a) Design a 2 bit binary multiplier to multiply two binary 12 BTL6 Creating numbers and produce a 4-bit result. (OR) Design a 4 bit magnitude comparator with 3 outputs A>B,A=B,A<B. 10(b) Construct a 4-bit odd parity generator circuit using gates. 04 BTL6 Creating 11 Design a combinational circuit to perform BCD addition. 16 BTL6 Creating 12(a) Design 8 to 3 priority encoder. 10 BTL6 Creating 12(b) Realize decode using two 3x 8 decoder with enable input. 06 BTL4 Analyzing 13(a) Explain the design procedure for combinational circuits 10 BTL2 Understanding with suitable examples. 13(b) Construct 16x1 multiplexer with two 8x1 and 2x1 06 BTL6 Creating multiplexer. Use Block diagrams. 14(a) Write the HDL gate level description of the priority 08 BTL2 Understanding encoder circuit. 14(b) Design a 4 bit parallel binary adder / subtractor. 08 BTL6 Creating

8 UNIT III - SYNCHRONOUS SEQUENTIAL LOGIC Sequential Circuits Latches and Flip Flops Analysis and Design Procedures State Reduction and State Assignment Shift Registers Counters HDL for Sequential Logic Circuits. PART-A Q.no Question BTL Competence 1 Write the characteristic table and equation of JK flip flop. (OR) BTL2 Understanding State the excitation table of JK-flip flop. 2 Write any two application of shift register. BTL2 Understanding 3 With reference to a JK flip flop what is racing? BTL2 Understanding 4 How many states are there in a 3bit ring counter? BTL5 Evaluating 5 What is ring counter? BTL1 Remembering 6 How many states are there in a 3-bit ring counter? what are they? BTL5 Evaluating 7 Give block diagram of Master -Slave D Flip flop BTL2 Understanding 8 Draw the diagram of T- Flip flop and discuss its working. BTL3 Applying 9 What is shift register? (OR) Classify the shift registers. BTL1 Remembering 10 What is the minimum number of Flip flops needed to build a BTL5 Evaluating counter of modulus 8? (OR) Analyze how many Flip-flops are required to design a synchronous MOD 60 counter? 11 Write the HDL code to realize a D - Flip flop. BTL2 Understanding 12 State the rules for state assignment. BTL2 Understanding 13 Realize a JK Flip flop using D flip flop be and gates. BTL3 Applying 14 Write the HDL code for up-down counter using behavioural BTL2 Understanding model. 15 Write the characteristic table and equation of SR Flip flop. BTL2 Understanding 16 Explain the difference between the performance of asynchronous BTL5 Evaluating and synchronous counter. 17 Differentiate between Latch and Flip flop. BTL4 Analyzing 18 Define Ripple counter. BTL2 Understanding 19 Select and list any two mechanisms to achieve edge triggering of BTL2 Understanding flip flop. 20 Design a 4 bit binary synchronous counter with D Flip flops. (OR) Write down the steps involved in the design of synchronous sequential circuits. BTL6 Creating

9 PART-B Q.no Question Marks BTL Competence 1 Implement T flip-flop using D flip-flop and JK using D flip flop. 16 BTL5 Evaluating 2 Design a synchronous counter which counts in the sequence 16 BTL6 Creating 000,001,010,011,100,101,110,111,000 using D Flip-flop. (OR) Design a synchronous counter with the following sequence: 0,1,3,7,6,4 and repeats. Use JK Flip flop. 3 Design a MOD-10 Synchronous counter using JK Flip-flop. Write 16 BTL6 Creating execution table and state table. (OR) Design MOD 6 counter circuit. 4(a) How a race condition can be avoided in a Flip-flop. 08 BTL4 Analyzing 4(b) Realize the sequential circuit for the state diagram shown below. 08 BTL4 Analyzing a/0 X=1 X=0,X=1 X=0 c/1 b/0 X=0,X=1 5(a) A sequential circuit with two D Flip-flops A and B, one input x, and one output z is specified by the following next state and output equations: A(t+1) = A'+B; B(t+1)=B'x ; z =A+B' (i)draw the logic diagram of the circuit. (04) (ii)derive the state table. (03) (iii)draw the state diagram of the circuit.(03) 5(b) Explain the difference between a state table, characteristic table and an excitation table. 6 Consider the design of a 4 bit BCD counter that counts in the following way: 0000, 0010, 0011,., 1001, and back to (i) Draw the state diagram.(04) (ii) List the next state table. (04) 10 BTL3 Applying 06 BTL5 Evaluating 16 BTL3 Applying

10 (iii) Draw the logic diagram of the circuit.(08) 7 Design sequence detector that detects a sequence of three or more consecutive 1 s in a string of bits coming through an input line and produces an output whenever this sequence is detected.(or) Design a sequence detector to detect the input sequence 101(overlapping ).Use JK Flip flops. 8 Design a three bit synchronous counter with T flip flop and draw the diagram. 9 Design the sequential circuit specified by the following state diagram using T flip flops. 16 BTL6 Creating 16 BTL6 Creating 16 BTL6 Creating 10(a) Design a 3-bit synchronous up counter using JK flip flop 06 BTL6 Creating 10(b) Design 3 bit parallel in serial out shift register and write the HDL 10 BTL6 Creating code to realize it. 11 Design a sequential circuit with two T Flip flop A and B, one input x and one output z is specified by the following next state and output equation is A(t+1)= BX +B X; B(t+1)=AB+BX+AX; Z=AX +A B X (i) Draw the logic diagram of the circuit. (ii) List the state table for 16 BTL6 Creating

11 the sequential circuit (iii) Draw the Corresponding state diagram. 12 Explain the operation of master slave flip flop and show how the 16 BTL5 Evaluating race around condition is eliminated in it. 13 Write the HDL description of T flip-flop, JK flip-flop,sr flip 16 BTL2 Understanding flop and D flip-flops. (OR) Design a serial adder using a full adder and a flip flop 14(a) Draw the block diagram of Johnson counter and explain it. 08 BTL2 Understanding 14(b) Discuss the different types of shift registers with neat diagram. 08 BTL1 Remembering UNIT IV- ASYNCHRONOUS SEQUENTIAL LOGIC Analysis and Design of Asynchronous Sequential Circuits Reduction of State and Flow Tables Race-free State Assignment Hazards. PART-A Q.no Question BT Level Competence 1 Define race conditions.(or)what is critical race condition? BTL1 Remembering Give example. 2 What are the types of hazards? BTL1 Remembering 3 Define hazards. BTL1 Remembering 4 Distinguish Moore and Mealy circuit. BTL4 Analyzing 5 Define Essential hazards. BTL1 Remembering 6 Compare asynchronous and synchronous sequential circuit. BTL3 Applying 7 What are cycles and races? BTL2 Understanding 8 Define the critical race and non critical race. BTL1 Remembering 9 What is lockout? How it is avoided? BTL2 Understanding 10 Draw the wave forms showing static 1 hazards (OR) Write short BTL3 Applying notes on Static -1 hazards. 11 Distinguish fundamental mode circuit and pulse mode circuit. BTL4 Analyzing 12 Define primitive flow table. BTL2 Understanding 13 Show the diagram for debounce circuit. BTL3 Applying 14 Compare basic of fundamental mode circuit and pulse mode circuit. BTL2 Understanding

12 15 Summarize the steps involved in the designing an asynchronous BTL2 Understanding sequential circuits. 16 How can we change the hazards into hazards free circuit? BTL5 Evaluating 17 How the flow table differ from transition table? BTL1 Remembering 18 Compare static and dynamic hazards. BTL4 Analyzing 19 Is it essential to have race free assignment? Justify. BTL5 Evaluating 20 Discuss about conventional flow table and primitive flow table. BTL6 Creating PART-B Q.no Question Marks BTL Competence 1 Explain the steps for the design of asynchronous 16 BTL2 Understanding sequential circuits with an example. 2 Implement the switching function 16 BTL6 Creating F= m(1,3,5,7,8,9,14,15) by a static hazard free two level AND-OR gate network. 3 An asynchronous sequential circuit is described by the 16 BTL3 Applying following excitation and output function. Y=X1X2+(X2+X3)Y and Z=Y 1. Draw the logic diagram of the circuit. (06) 2. Derive the transition table and output map.(06) 3. Describer the behaviour of the circuit.(04) 4 Analyze the following clocked sequential circuit and 16 BTL4 Analyzing obtain the state equation and state diagram. 5(a) Find a critical race free state assignment for the reduced flow table shown. 08 BTL4 Analyzing 5(b) Reduce the number of state in the following state 08 BTL5 Evaluating

13 diagram. Tabulate the reduced state and draw the reduced diagram. Present state Next state Output x=0 x=1 x=0 x=1 a a b 0 0 b c d 0 0 c a d 0 0 d e f 0 1 e a f 0 1 f g f 0 1 g a f Explain the hazards in combinational circuit and 16 BTL4 Analyzing sequential circuit and also demonstrate a hazards and its removal with example. 7 Design an asynchronous sequential circuit with 2 inputs 16 BTL6 Creating X and Y and with one output Z wherever Y is 1, input X is transferred to Z. When Y is 0; the output does not change for any change in X. Use SR latch for implementation of the circuit. 8 Discuss in detail the procedure for reducing the flow 16 BTL2 Understanding table with an example. 9(a) Explain the types of asynchronous sequential circuit. 08 BTL5 Evaluating 9(b) Derive a circuit specified by the following flow table. 08 BTL1 Remembering 10(a) 10(b) What is the objective of state assignment in asynchronous circuit? Explain race free state assignment with an example. Discuss about static, dynamic and essential hazards in asynchronous sequential circuits. 08 BTL1 Remembering 08 BTL2 Understanding

14 11 How to design an asynchronous sequential circuit with inputs X1 and X2 and one output Z. Initially and at any time if both the inputs are 0, output is equal to 0.When X1 or X2 becomes 1, Z becomes 1. When Second input also becomes 1, Z=0; The output stays at 0 until circuit goes back to initial state. 12 How to design an asynchronous sequential circuit with two input x and y and with one output z whenever y is 1, input x is transferred to z. When y is 0, the output does not change for any change in x. 13 Explain with a neat example for minimization of primitive flow table. 14 An asynchronous sequential circuit is described by the following excitation and output function. X = (Y1Z1'W2)X + (Y1'Z1W2') & S = X' (i) Draw the logic diagram of the circuit. (06) (ii) Derive the transition table and output map.(06) (iii) Describe the behavior of the circuit. (04) 16 BTL1 Remembering 16 BTL1 Remembering 16 BTL5 Evaluating 16 BTL3 Applying UNIT V - MEMORY AND PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC RAM and ROM Memory Decoding Error Detection and Correction Programmable Logic Array Programmable Array Logic Sequential Programmable Devices Application Specific Integrated Circuits. PART-A Q.no Question BTL Competence 1 What is memory decoding? BTL1 Remembering 2 Define ASIC. BTL2 Understanding 3 Justify whether PAL is same as PLA. BTL5 Evaluating 4 What is volatile memory? Give example. BTL1 Remembering 5 Differentiate between EEPROM and PROM. BTL4 Analyzing 6 How to detect double error and correct single error? BTL4 Analyzing 7 What is memory address register? BTL1 Remembering 8 Write short notes on PLA. BTL2 Understanding

15 9 A seven bit hamming code is received as What is the BTL1 Applying correct code? 10 List the types of memories. BTL1 Remembering 11 Define combinational PLD. BTL1 Remembering 12 Draw the logic diagram of one bit static RAM cell. BTL3 Applying 13 Calculate the maximum range of a memory that can be accessed BTL5 Evaluating using 10 address lines. 14 Discuss the features of PROM and PLD. BTL6 Creating 15 How to apply the error detection and correction technique. BTL3 Applying 16 Identify the operations involved in RAM. BTL5 Evaluating 17 Design the logic diagram of a memory cell. BTL6 Creating 18 Write down the different types of PLDs. BTL2 Understanding 19 Classify the types of RAM. BTL2 Understanding 20 Differentiate between PLA and ROM. BTL4 Analyzing PART-B Q.no Question Marks BTL Competence 1 Implement the following function using PLA 16 BTL5 Evaluating A(X,Y,Z)= m(1,2,4,6); B(X,Y,Z)= m(0,1,6,7); C(X,Y,Z)= m(2,6) 2 The following message have been coded in the even parity hamming code and transmitted through a noisy channel. Decode the message assuming that at most a single error occurred in each codeword. 16 BTL3 Applying i) (04) ii) (04) iii) (04) iv) (04) 3 Design a BCD to Excess 3 code converter and implement 16 BTL6 Creating using suitable PLA. 4 Discuss the concept of working and application of 16 BTL1 Remembering semiconductor memories. 5(a) Write short notes on Address Multiplexing. 08 BTL2 Understanding 5(b) Briefly discuss the sequential programmable devices. 08 BTL1 Remembering 6(a) Implement the following Two Boolean function with a PLA 10 BTL5 Evaluating

16 F1=AB'+AC+A'BC' F2=(AC+BC) ' 6(b) Give the Internal block diagram of 4 x 4 RAM. 06 BTL2 Understanding 7 Implement the following using PAL, F1(A,B,C)= (1,2,4,6); 16 BTL5 Evaluating F2(A,B,C) = (0,1,6,7) ; F3(A,B,C)= (1,2,3,5,7) 8 Design a combinational circuit using ROM that accepts a three 16 BTL6 Creating bit binary number and outputs a binary number equal to the square of the input number. 9 Draw a neat sketch showing implementation of Z1= ab d e + 16 BTL3 Applying a b c e+bc+de; Z2= a c e; Z3=bc+de+c d e+db and Z4=a c e using 5*8*4 PLA. 10(a) Illustrate the two following Boolean functions using 8X2 06 BTL2 Understanding PROM. F1= m(3,5,6,7) and F2= m(1,2,3,4) 10(b) Illustrate the following two Boolean functions using PLA 10 BTL2 Understanding with 3 inputs, 4 Product terms, and 2 outputs. F1= m(3,5,6,7) and F2= m(1,2,3,4) 11 Examine the following using PAL 16 BTL4 Analyzing W(A,B,C,D) = (0,2,6,7,8,9,12,13); X(A,B,C,D) = (0,2,6,7,8,9,12,13,14) ; Y(A,B,C,D) = (2,3,8,9,10,12,13); Z(A,B,C,D)= (1,3,4,6,9,12,14); 12 Discuss the sequential programmable devices. 16 BTL1 Remembering 13(a) Compare PROM, PLA, PAL. 08 BTL4 Analyzing 13(b) Compare SRAM and DRAM. 08 BTL4 Analyzing 14 Discuss the various types of RAM and ROM with architecture. 16 BTL1 Remembering Course In charge

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