Declaration. Fundamental Data Types. Modifying the Basic Types. Basic Data Types. All variables must be declared before being used.


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1 Declaration Fundamental Data Types All variables must be declared before being used. Tells compiler to set aside an appropriate amount of space in memory to hold a value. Enables the compiler to perform operations using the declared variables. 1 2 char int float double void Basic Data Types character integer floatingpoint double floatingpoint valueless 3 Modifying the Basic Types Type modifier: signed unsigned long short When a type modifier is used by itself, then int is assumed. Modifier Same As signed signed int unsigned unsigned int long long int short short int 4 Data Type char Have Seen:Chars are treated as small integers & conversely small ints are treated as chars. char c = a ; a printf ( %c, c + 1) printf ( %d, c + 2) 99 Each char variable stored in 1 Byte 8 Bits: b String of binary digits are called bit strings. A bit string is interpreted as a binary number. b n b n1 b 2 b 1 b a This bit string has the value: =
2 3 types: 1) char 2) unsigned char 3) signed char Each uses 1 Byte. Signed char 128 to 127 Unsigned char 0 to 255 Data Type int INTEGERS : Include the natural counting numbers and their negatives. INTEGRAL DATA TYPES: int short long unsigned 7 8 The magnitude of the number that an int variable can hold depends on? word size(bits) of the machine is machine dependent 2 Byte word ~ 32 K To +32K 2 15,, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3,, Integer overflow: Value too large for defined Storage Location. Typically program continues to run but incorrect results. 4 Byte word ~ 2 Billion To +2 Billion 2 31,. 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3,, The programmer must strive at all times to avoid integer overflow. 10 Types short, long, unsigned short  used where conserving storage is a concern (usually 2 Bytes). 32 Thousand To +32 Thousand 2 15, ,, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3,, long  needed for larger integers (usually 4 bytes). 2 Billion To +2 Billion Unsigned  no sign bit, same number bytes as int. The range, u, of values: 0 u 2 wordsize 1 2 Byte word ~ 0 To + 64 Thousand 0, 1, 2, 3,, Byte word ~ 0 To + 4 Billion 0, 1, 2, 3,, , ,, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3,,
3 Suffix: u  20u l 20l ul  20ul (case not significant) IF no suffix with constant  system will choose the first of : int  long  unsigned long That can hold the value. 13 The Floating Types float double long double Suffixes for constants f or F float 3.7 F l or L long double 3.7 L Any unsuffixed floating constant is of type double (working type). 14 Notation: exponential or decimal Must have Exponent or Dec pt or Both e e e0 correct 0.0.e0 wrong Precision: The number of significant decimal digits that floating value carries. Range: Limits of largest & smallest possible values that can be in a variable of that type. Float: 4 Bytes  about 6 decimal places of accuracy single precision. May not contain any blanks or special characters. Typical Storage: Float < Double 15 Double: 8 Bytes  about 15 decimal places of accuracy double precision. 16 FLOAT: Internal Representation SEEEEEEEE mmmmm m Float: Precision: 6 significant digits. Range: to d 1 d 2 d 3 d 4 d 5 d 6 10 n DOUBLE: SEEEEEEEEEEE mmmmmmm m Implied mantissa of 1 is not stored. Double: Precision: 15 significant digits ( ) Range: to Sign bit (1 for negotherwise pos)
4 Note: 1. Not all Real numbers are exactly representable in binary memory. 2. Floating Arithmetic ops, unlike integer arithmetic, may not be exact. CompileTime Operator sizeof Unary operator used to find the number of Bytes needed to store an object. sizeof(object) Object Data type int, float, Expression a + b 19 Array Structure Will cover later 20 sizeof(char) = 1 Assuming that integers are 4 bytes and doubles are 8 bytes. sizeof(short) sizeof(int) sizeof(long) sizeof(signed)=sizeof(unsigned)=sizeof(int) double f; printf("%d ",sizeof (f)); 8 printf(''%d", sizeof(int)); 4 sizeof(float) <= sizeof(double ) <= sizeof( long double) Conversions When constants and variables of different types are mixed in an, the compiler converts all operands to the type of the largest operand Called Type Promotion.  First, all char and short values are automatically elevated to int. Called integral promotion.  int + int = int  short + short = int char ch; int i; float f; double d,result; result= (ch / i) + (f * d) (f + i); int double float  Arithmetic Conversion (See pg. 217) double
5 Casts Casts  Explicit conversions. (type) (float) i/2 If i is int: (float) i will change value to float, i is not changed. 25 Apply to an Expression: (float) ( c + 3) Cannot apply to an Assignment: (int) f = 3: illegal As an unary operator, a cast has the same precedence as any other unary operator. (float) i + 3 ( (float) i ) /* print i and i/2 with fractions */ int main(void) { int i; for(i=l; i<=100; ++i) printf(''%d //2 is: %f \n", i, (float) i /2); return 0; } 27 General forms: (int) char  (char) int  (int) float  (float) int  (double) float exp ordinal value of char character with the ordinal value of int truncates the float converts int to float converts float to double 28 5
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