UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA. CST331 Principles of Parallel & Distributed Programming [Prinsip Pengaturcaraan Selari & Teragih]

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1 UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA First Semester Examination 2015/2016 Academic Session December 2015/January 2016 CST331 Principles of Parallel & Distributed Programming [Prinsip Pengaturcaraan Selari & Teragih] Duration : 2 hours [Masa : 2 jam] INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATE: [ARAHAN KEPADA CALON:] Please ensure that this examination paper contains FOUR questions in EIGHT printed pages before you begin the examination. [Sila pastikan bahawa kertas peperiksaan ini mengandungi EMPAT soalan di dalam LAPAN muka surat yang bercetak sebelum anda memulakan peperiksaan ini.] Answer ALL questions. [Jawab SEMUA soalan.] You may answer the questions either in English or in Bahasa Malaysia. [Anda dibenarkan menjawab soalan sama ada dalam bahasa Inggeris atau bahasa Malaysia.] In the event of any discrepancies, the English version shall be used. [Sekiranya terdapat sebarang percanggahan pada soalan peperiksaan, versi bahasa Inggeris hendaklah diguna pakai.]...2/-

2 (a) What are the three (3) differences between parallel computing and distributed computing? (6/100) What is grain size? How does it affect the communication in parallel and distributed computing? What are the four (4) phases involved in designing parallel program? (d) Give any two (2) points of checklists for the first phase of designing a parallel program. (e) What is the important issue to be identified in the second phase of designing a parallel program? 2. (a) Suppose comm_sz=4 and suppose that x is a vector with 14 components where the values of x is as follows {A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N}. How would the components of x be distributed among the processes in a program that used: (iii) a block distribution. a cyclic distribution. a block-cyclic distribution with block size b=2. Suppose comm_sz=8 and n=16 with values of 1 to 16. Draw a diagram that shows how MPI_Scatter can be implemented using tree-structured communication with comm_sz processes when process 0 needs to distribute an array containing n elements. (5/100) Draw a diagram that shows how MPI_Gather can be implemented using tree-structured communication when an n-element array that has been distributed among comm_sz processes needs to be gathered onto process 0. (5/100)...3/-

3 - 3 - The following program ensures that each node in the MPI environment prints a message. #include <stdio.h> int main (void) { int my_rank, comm_sz; MPI_Init (NULL, NULL); MPI_Comm_size (MPI_COMM_WORLD, &my_rank); Printf ( Good Luck from %d of %d!\n, my_rank, comm_sz); } return 0; However, the implementation of this code in the environment lacks key directives of the MPI library which lead to the failure to compilation. Identify what are the lacking directives, describe what these directives do and justify why these directives needs to be in the code. Hint: 3 lacking directives. (8/100) Write the full version of the code with directives mentioned in 3. (iii) What is the output of the program if the comm_sz= 3? (1/100) 3. The following equation calculates the cumulative product of two squares. n i * xi yi where n is the number of data available for calculations. Given two value sets for x and y with the size of n, workout the problems listed in (a), and. x = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20} y = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19} (a) Write a pseudocode (or code) that will perform this calculation on a single machine (sequential)....4/-

4 - 4 - Write the parallel version of 3(a) using OpenMP. Explain briefly each pragma used and the scope of the variables involved. (Keywords tips: Parallel region, global and private, critical region and barrier). (7/100) State the library function to force OpenMP to run on specific number of processors. (d) There are three coordination issues needed to be considered by cores that are working together. Describe these three (3) coordination issues. (9/100) 4. (a) Given the following table on the timings (in seconds) for a data parallel application for summing two numbers implemented using OpenMP and MPI, calculate the speed up and efficiency for each column. Number of processors Programming Model OpenMP MPI (16/100) If the data parallel application was implemented on a quad-processor machine using OpenMP environment and it involves 16 data (n=16), what can you comment on the trend observed in the table presented in 4 (a) and why does it behave such a way. You may accompany your explanation with illustrations. (8/100) If the data parallel application was implemented on cluster of 8 working nodes using divide and conquer approach in MPI environment and it involves 16 data (n=16), what can you comment on the trend observed in 4 (a) and why does it behave such a way. You may accompany your explanation with illustration....5/-

5 KERTAS SOALAN DALAM VERSI BAHASA MALAYSIA (a) Apakah tiga (3) perbezaan antara perkomputeran selari dengan perkomputeran teragih? (6/100) (d) (e) Apakah saiz butiran? Bagaimana ia mempengaruhi komunikasi dalam perkomputeran selari dan teragih. Apakah empat (4) fasa-fasa yang terlibat dalam mereka bentuk program selari? Berikan mana-mana dua (2) fakta dari senarai semak fasa pertama semasa mereka bentuk program selari. Apakah isu penting yang perlu dikenal pasti dalam fasa kedua semasa mereka bentuk program selari? 2. (a) Katakan comm_sz = 4 dan anggapkan bahawa x ialah vektor dengan 14 komponen di mana nilai-nilai x adalah seperti berikut {A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N}. Bagaimana komponen x akan diagihkan di antara pemprosespemproses dalam atur cara yang menggunakan: pengagihan blok. pengagihan kitaran. (iii) pengagihan blok-kitaran dengan saiz blok b=2....6/-

6 - 6 - Katakan comm_sz=8 dan n=16 dengan nilai 1 hingga 16. Lukiskan gambar rajah yang menunjukkan bagaimana MPI_Scatter boleh dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan komunikasi pohon berstruktur dengan proses comm_sz apabila proses 0 perlu mengedarkan tatasusunan yang mengandungi elemen n. (5/100) Lukiskan gambar rajah yang menunjukkan bagaimana MPI_Gather boleh dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan komunikasi pohon berstruktur apabila tatasusunan n-elemen yang telah diagihkan di kalangan comm_sz pemprosesan perlu dikumpul ke proses 0. (5/100) Atur cara berikut memastikan setiap nod dalam persekitaran MPI mencetak mesej. #include <stdio.h> int main (void) { int my_rank, comm_sz; MPI_Init (NULL, NULL); MPI_Comm_size (MPI_COMM_WORLD, &my_rank); Printf ( Good Luck from %d of %d!\n, my_rank, comm_sz); } return 0; Walau bagaimanapun, pelaksanaan kod ini dalam persekitaran MPI kekurangan arahan utama perpustakaan MPI yang membawa kepada kegagalan untuk kompilasi. Kenal pasti apakah arahan yang kurang, jelaskan apa yang dibuat oleh arahan ini dan berikan wajaran mengapa arahan ini perlu dalam kod. Petunjuk: 3 kekurangan arahan. (8/100) Tulis versi penuh kod dengan arahan yang disebut dalam 3. (iii) Apakah output atur cara jika comm_sz=3? (1/100)...7/-

7 Persamaan berikut mengira jumlah kumulatif hasildarab kuasa dua bagi dua nombor. n i * xi yi di mana n ialah bilangan data disediakan untuk perhitungan. Diberi dua set nilai bagi x dan y dengan saiz n, selesaikan masalah yang disenaraikan dalam (a), dan. x = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20} y = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19} (a) Tulis pseudokod (atau kod) yang akan melaksanakan pengiraan ini pada mesin tunggal (berurutan) Tulis versi selari 3(a) menggunakan OpenMP. Terangkan secara ringkas setiap pragma digunakan dan skop pembolehubah yang terlibat. (Tips Kata Utama: rantau selari, global dan setempat, rantau kritikal dan halangan). (7/100) Nyatakan fungsi pustaka yang boleh memaksa OpenMP untuk dijalankan menggunakan bilangan pemproses tertentu. (d) Terdapat tiga isu-isu penyelarasan diperlukan untuk dipertimbangkan oleh teras yang bekerja bersama-sama. Jelaskan ketiga-tiga (3) isu penyelarasan ini. (9/100) 4. (a) Jadual berikut menunjukkan kiraan masa (dalam saat) untuk satu aplikasi data selari untuk hasiltambah dua nombor yang dilaksanakan menggunakan OpenMP dan MPI. Berdasarkan jadual berikut, kirakan kelajuan dan kecekapan bagi setiap lajur. Bilangan pemproses Model Pemprogram OpenMP MPI (16/100)...8/-

8 - 8 - Jika aplikasi data selari dilaksanakan pada mesin pemproses quad menggunakan persekitaran OpenMP dan ia melibatkan 16 data (n = 16), apa yang anda boleh ulas mengenai trend yang diperhatikan dalam jadual yang dibentangkan di 4(a) dan mengapa ia berkelakuan cara yang sedemikian. Anda boleh iringi penerangan anda dengan ilustrasi. (8/100) Jika aplikasi data selari dilaksanakan pada kluster dengan 8 nod pekerja menggunakan pendekatan bahagi dan jajah dalam persekitaran MPI dan ia melibatkan 16 data (n = 16), apa yang anda boleh ulas mengenai trend yang diperhatikan dalam jadual yang dibentangkan di 4(a) dan mengapa ia berkelakuan cara yang sedemikian. Anda boleh iringi penerangan anda dengan ilustrasi. - ooooooo -

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