# Chapter 2 - Control Structures

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1 Chapter 2 - Control Structures 1 Outline 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Algorithms 2.3 Pseudocode 2.4 Control Structures 2.5 if Selection Structure 2.6 if/else Selection Structure 2.7 while Repetition Structure 2.8 Formulating Algorithms: Case Study 1 (Counter-Controlled Repetition) 2.9 Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: Case Study 2 (Sentinel-Controlled Repetition) 2.10 Formulating Algorithms with Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: Case Study 3 (Nested Control Structures) 2.11 Assignment Operators 2.12 Increment and Decrement Operators 2.13 Essentials of Counter-Controlled Repetition 2.14 for Repetition Structure 2.15 Examples Using the for Structure

2 Chapter 2 - Control Structures 2 Outline 2.16 switch Multiple-Selection Structure 2.17 do/while Repetition Structure 2.18 break and continue Statements 2.19 Logical Operators 2.20 Confusing Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators 2.21 Structured-Programming Summary

3 3 2.1 Introduction Before writing a program Have a thorough understanding of problem Carefully plan your approach for solving it While writing a program Know what building blocks are available Use good programming principles

4 4 2.2 Algorithms Computing problems Solved by executing a series of actions in a specific order Algorithm a procedure determining Actions to be executed Order to be executed Example: recipe Program control Specifies the order in which statements are executed

5 5 2.3 Pseudocode Pseudocode Artificial, informal language used to develop algorithms Similar to everyday English Not executed on computers Used to think out program before coding Easy to convert into C++ program Only executable statements No need to declare variables

6 6 2.4 Control Structures Sequential execution Statements executed in order Transfer of control Next statement executed not next one in sequence 3 control structures (Bohm and Jacopini) Sequence structure Programs executed sequentially by default Selection structures if, if/else, switch Repetition structures while, do/while, for

7 7 2.4 Control Structures C++ keywords Cannot be used as identifiers or variable names C++ Keywords Keywords common to the C and C++ programming languages auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile while C++ only keywords asm bool catch class const_cast delete dynamic_cast explicit false friend inline mutable namespace new operator private protected public reinterpret_cast static_cast template this throw true try typeid typename using virtual wchar_t

8 8 2.4 Control Structures Flowchart Graphical representation of an algorithm Special-purpose symbols connected by arrows (flowlines) Rectangle symbol (action symbol) Any type of action Oval symbol Beginning or end of a program, or a section of code (circles) Single-entry/single-exit control structures Connect exit point of one to entry point of the next Control structure stacking

9 9 2.5 if Selection Structure Selection structure Choose among alternative courses of action Pseudocode example: If student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 Print Passed If the condition is true Print statement executed, program continues to next statement If the condition is false Print statement ignored, program continues Indenting makes programs easier to read C++ ignores whitespace characters (tabs, spaces, etc.)

10 if Selection Structure Translation into C++ If student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 Print Passed if ( grade >= 60 ) cout << "Passed"; Diamond symbol (decision symbol) Indicates decision is to be made Contains an expression that can be true or false Test condition, follow path if structure Single-entry/single-exit

11 2.5 if Selection Structure 11 Flowchart of pseudocode statement A decision can be made on any expression. grade >= 60 true print Passed zero - false nonzero - true Example: false 3-4 is true

12 2.6 if/else Selection Structure 12 if Performs action if condition true if/else Different actions if conditions true or false Pseudocode if student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 print Passed else print Failed C++ code if ( grade >= 60 ) cout << "Passed"; else cout << "Failed";

13 2.6 if/else Selection Structure 13 Ternary conditional operator (?:) Three arguments (condition, value if true, value if false) Code could be written: cout << ( grade >= 60? Passed : Failed ); Condition Value if true Value if false false grade >= 60 true print Failed print Passed

14 if/else Selection Structure Nested if/else structures One inside another, test for multiple cases Once condition met, other statements skipped if student s grade is greater than or equal to 90 Print A else if student s grade is greater than or equal to 80 Print B else if student s grade is greater than or equal to 70 Print C else if student s grade is greater than or equal to 60 Print D else Print F

15 2.6 if/else Selection Structure 15 Example if ( grade >= 90 ) // 90 and above cout << "A"; else if ( grade >= 80 ) // cout << "B"; else if ( grade >= 70 ) // cout << "C"; else if ( grade >= 60 ) // cout << "D"; else // less than 60 cout << "F";

16 if/else Selection Structure Compound statement Set of statements within a pair of braces if ( grade >= 60 ) cout << "Passed.\n"; else { cout << "Failed.\n"; cout << "You must take this course again.\n"; } Without braces, cout << "You must take this course again.\n"; always executed Block Set of statements within braces

17 while Repetition Structure Repetition structure Action repeated while some condition remains true Psuedocode while there are more items on my shopping list Purchase next item and cross it off my list while loop repeated until condition becomes false Example int product = 2; while ( product <= 1000 ) product = 2 * product;

18 2.7 The while Repetition Structure 18 Flowchart of while loop product <= 1000 true product = 2 * product false

19 2.8 Formulating Algorithms (Counter- Controlled Repetition) 19 Counter-controlled repetition Loop repeated until counter reaches certain value Definite repetition Number of repetitions known Example A class of ten students took a quiz. The grades (integers in the range 0 to 100) for this quiz are available to you. Determine the class average on the quiz.

20 2.8 Formulating Algorithms (Counter- Controlled Repetition) 20 Pseudocode for example: Set total to zero Set grade counter to one While grade counter is less than or equal to ten Input the next grade Add the grade into the total Add one to the grade counter Set the class average to the total divided by ten Print the class average Next: C++ code for this example

21 1 // Fig. 2.7: fig02_07.cpp 2 // Class average program with counter-controlled repetition. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::cin; 7 using std::endl; 8 9 // function main begins program execution 10 int main() 11 { 12 int total; // sum of grades input by user 13 int gradecounter; // number of grade to be entered next 14 int grade; // grade value 15 int average; // average of grades // initialization phase 18 total = 0; // initialize total 19 gradecounter = 1; // initialize loop counter 20 Outline fig02_07.cpp (1 of 2) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 2.9 Formulating Algorithms (Sentinel- Controlled Repetition) 23 Suppose problem becomes: Develop a class-averaging program that will process an arbitrary number of grades each time the program is run Unknown number of students How will program know when to end? Sentinel value Indicates end of data entry Loop ends when sentinel input Sentinel chosen so it cannot be confused with regular input -1 in this case

24 2.9 Formulating Algorithms (Sentinel- Controlled Repetition) 24 Top-down, stepwise refinement Begin with pseudocode representation of top Determine the class average for the quiz Divide top into smaller tasks, list in order Initialize variables Input, sum and count the quiz grades Calculate and print the class average

25 2.9 Formulating Algorithms (Sentinel- Controlled Repetition) 25 Many programs have three phases Initialization Initializes the program variables Processing Input data, adjusts program variables Termination Calculate and print the final results Helps break up programs for top-down refinement

26 2.9 Formulating Algorithms (Sentinel- Controlled Repetition) 26 Refine the initialization phase Processing Initialize variables goes to Initialize total to zero Initialize counter to zero Input, sum and count the quiz grades goes to Input the first grade (possibly the sentinel) While the user has not as yet entered the sentinel Add this grade into the running total Add one to the grade counter Input the next grade (possibly the sentinel)

27 2.9 Formulating Algorithms (Sentinel- Controlled Repetition) 27 Termination Calculate and print the class average goes to If the counter is not equal to zero Set the average to the total divided by the counter Print the average Else Print No grades were entered Next: C++ program

28 1 // Fig. 2.9: fig02_09.cpp 2 // Class average program with sentinel-controlled repetition. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::cin; 7 using std::endl; 8 using std::fixed; 9 10 #include <iomanip> // parameterized stream manipulators using std::setprecision; // sets numeric output precision // function main begins program execution 15 int main() 16 { 17 int total; // sum of grades 18 int gradecounter; // number of grades entered 19 int grade; // grade value Data type double used to represent decimal numbers double average; // number with decimal point for average // initialization phase 24 total = 0; // initialize total 25 gradecounter = 0; // initialize loop counter Outline fig02_09.cpp (1 of 3) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 Nested Control Structures Problem statement A college has a list of test results (1 = pass, 2 = fail) for 10 students. Write a program that analyzes the results. If more than 8 students pass, print "Raise Tuition". Notice that Program processes 10 results Fixed number, use counter-controlled loop Two counters can be used One counts number that passed Another counts number that fail Each test result is 1 or 2 If not 1, assume 2

32 Nested Control Structures Top level outline Analyze exam results and decide if tuition should be raised First refinement Refine Initialize variables Input the ten quiz grades and count passes and failures Print a summary of the exam results and decide if tuition should be raised Initialize variables to Initialize passes to zero Initialize failures to zero Initialize student counter to one

33 Nested Control Structures Refine Input the ten quiz grades and count passes and failures to While student counter is less than or equal to ten Input the next exam result If the student passed Add one to passes Else Add one to failures Add one to student counter

34 Nested Control Structures Refine Print a summary of the exam results and decide if tuition should be raised to Print the number of passes Print the number of failures If more than eight students passed Print Raise tuition Program next

35 1 // Fig. 2.11: fig02_11.cpp 2 // Analysis of examination results. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::cin; 7 using std::endl; 8 9 // function main begins program execution 10 int main() 11 { 12 // initialize variables in declarations 13 int passes = 0; // number of passes 14 int failures = 0; // number of failures 15 int studentcounter = 1; // student counter 16 int result; // one exam result // process 10 students using counter-controlled loop 19 while ( studentcounter <= 10 ) { // prompt user for input and obtain value from user 22 cout << "Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): "; 23 cin >> result; 24 Outline fig02_11.cpp (1 of 2) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

36 25 // if result 1, increment passes; if/else nested in while 26 if ( result == 1 ) // if/else nested in while 27 passes = passes + 1; else // if result not 1, increment failures 30 failures = failures + 1; // increment studentcounter so loop eventually terminates 33 studentcounter = studentcounter + 1; } // end while // termination phase; display number of passes and failures 38 cout << "Passed " << passes << endl; 39 cout << "Failed " << failures << endl; // if more than eight students passed, print "raise tuition" 42 if ( passes > 8 ) 43 cout << "Raise tuition " << endl; return 0; // successful termination } // end function main Outline fig02_11.cpp (2 of 2) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

37 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 2 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 2 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 2 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 2 Passed 6 Failed 4 Outline fig02_11.cpp output (1 of 1) 37 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 2 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Enter result (1 = pass, 2 = fail): 1 Passed 9 Failed 1 Raise tuition 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

38 Assignment Operators Assignment expression abbreviations Addition assignment operator c = c + 3; abbreviated to c += 3; Statements of the form variable = variable operator expression; can be rewritten as variable operator= expression; Other assignment operators d -= 4 (d = d - 4) e *= 5 (e = e * 5) f /= 3 (f = f / 3) g %= 9 (g = g % 9)

39 Increment and Decrement Operators Increment operator (++) - can be used instead of c += 1 Decrement operator (--) - can be used instead of c - = 1 Preincrement When the operator is used before the variable (++c or c) Variable is changed, then the expression it is in is evaluated. Posincrement When the operator is used after the variable (c++ or c--) Expression the variable is in executes, then the variable is changed.

40 Increment and Decrement Operators Increment operator (++) Increment variable by one c++ Same as c += 1 Decrement operator (--) similar Decrement variable by one c--

41 Increment and Decrement Operators Preincrement Variable changed before used in expression Operator before variable (++c or --c) Postincrement Incremented changed after expression Operator after variable (c++, c--)

42 Increment and Decrement Operators If c = 5, then cout << ++c; c is changed to 6, then printed out cout << c++; Prints out 5 (cout is executed before the increment. c then becomes 6

43 Increment and Decrement Operators When variable not in expression Preincrementing and postincrementing have same effect ++c; cout << c; and c++; cout << c; are the same

44 1 // Fig. 2.14: fig02_14.cpp 2 // Preincrementing and postincrementing. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 int c; // declare variable // demonstrate postincrement 14 c = 5; // assign 5 to c 15 cout << c << endl; // print 5 16 cout << c++ << endl; // print 5 then postincrement 17 cout << c << endl << endl; // print // demonstrate preincrement 20 c = 5; // assign 5 to c 21 cout << c << endl; // print 5 22 cout << ++c << endl; // preincrement then print 6 23 cout << c << endl; // print 6 Outline fig02_14.cpp (1 of 2) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

45 24 25 return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main Outline fig02_14.cpp (2 of 2) fig02_14.cpp output (1 of 1) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

46 2.13 Essentials of Counter-Controlled Repetition 46 Counter-controlled repetition requires Name of control variable/loop counter Initial value of control variable Condition to test for final value Increment/decrement to modify control variable when looping

47 1 // Fig. 2.16: fig02_16.cpp 2 // Counter-controlled repetition. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 int counter = 1; // initialization while ( counter <= 10 ) { // repetition condition 14 cout << counter << endl; // display counter 15 ++counter; // increment } // end while return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main Outline fig02_16.cpp (1 of 1) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

49 2.13 Essentials of Counter-Controlled Repetition 49 The declaration int counter = 1; Names counter Declares counter to be an integer Reserves space for counter in memory Sets counter to an initial value of 1

50 for Repetition Structure General format when using for loops for ( initialization; LoopContinuationTest; increment ) statement Example for( int counter = 1; counter <= 10; counter++ ) cout << counter << endl; Prints integers from one to ten No semicolon after last statement

51 1 // Fig. 2.17: fig02_17.cpp 2 // Counter-controlled repetition with the for structure. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 // Initialization, repetition condition and incrementing 12 // are all included in the for structure header for ( int counter = 1; counter <= 10; counter++ ) 15 cout << counter << endl; return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main Outline fig02_17.cpp (1 of 1) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

53 for Repetition Structure for loops can usually be rewritten as while loops initialization; while ( loopcontinuationtest){ } statement increment; Initialization and increment For multiple variables, use comma-separated lists for (int i = 0, j = 0; j + i <= 10; j++, i++) cout << j + i << endl;

54 1 // Fig. 2.20: fig02_20.cpp 2 // Summation with for. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 int sum = 0; // initialize sum // sum even integers from 2 through for ( int number = 2; number <= 100; number += 2 ) 15 sum += number; // add number to sum cout << "Sum is " << sum << endl; // output sum 18 return 0; // successful termination } // end function main Outline fig02_20.cpp (1 of 1) fig02_20.cpp output (1 of 1) 54 Sum is Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

55 2.15 Examples Using the for Structure 55 Program to calculate compound interest A person invests \$ in a savings account yielding 5 percent interest. Assuming that all interest is left on deposit in the account, calculate and print the amount of money in the account at the end of each year for 10 years. Use the following formula for determining these amounts: a = p(1+r) n p is the original amount invested (i.e., the principal), r is the annual interest rate, n is the number of years and a is the amount on deposit at the end of the nth year

56 1 // Fig. 2.21: fig02_21.cpp 2 // Calculating compound interest. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 using std::ios; 8 using std::fixed; 9 10 #include <iomanip> using std::setw; 13 using std::setprecision; #include <cmath> // enables program to use function pow // function main begins program execution 18 int main() 19 { <cmath> header needed for the pow function (program will not compile without it). 20 double amount; // amount on deposit 21 double principal = ; // starting principal 22 double rate =.05; // interest rate 23 Outline fig02_21.cpp (1 of 2) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

57 24 // output table column heads 25 cout << "Year" << setw( 21 ) << "Amount on deposit" << endl; // set floating-point number format 28 cout << fixed << setprecision( 2 ); // calculate amount on deposit for each of ten years 31 for ( int year = 1; year <= 10; year++ ) { // calculate new amount for specified year 34 amount = principal * pow( rate, year ); // output one table row 37 cout << setw( 4 ) << year 38 << setw( 21 ) << amount << endl; } // end for return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main Sets the field width to at least 21 characters. If output less than 21, it is right-justified. pow(x,y) = x raised to the yth power. Outline fig02_21.cpp (2 of 2) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

58 Year Amount on deposit Outline fig02_21.cpp output (1 of 1) 58 Numbers are right-justified due to setw statements (at positions 4 and 21) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

59 2.16 switch Multiple-Selection Structure 59 switch Test variable for multiple values Series of case labels and optional default case switch ( variable ) { case value1: statements break; // taken if variable == value1 // necessary to exit switch } case value2: case value3: statements break; default: statements break; // taken if variable == value2 or == value3 // taken if variable matches no other cases

60 2.16 switch Multiple-Selection Structure 60 true case a case a action(s) break false true case b case b action(s) break false... true case z case z action(s) break false default action(s)

61 switch Multiple-Selection Structure Example upcoming Program to read grades (A-F) Display number of each grade entered Details about characters Single characters typically stored in a char data type char a 1-byte integer, so chars can be stored as ints Can treat character as int or char 97 is the numerical representation of lowercase a (ASCII) Use single quotes to get numerical representation of character cout << "The character (" << 'a' << ") has the value " << static_cast< int > ( 'a' ) << endl; Prints The character (a) has the value 97

62 1 // Fig. 2.22: fig02_22.cpp 2 // Counting letter grades. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::cin; 7 using std::endl; 8 9 // function main begins program execution 10 int main() 11 { 12 int grade; // one grade 13 int acount = 0; // number of As 14 int bcount = 0; // number of Bs 15 int ccount = 0; // number of Cs 16 int dcount = 0; // number of Ds 17 int fcount = 0; // number of Fs cout << "Enter the letter grades." << endl 20 << "Enter the EOF character to end input." << endl; 21 Outline fig02_22.cpp (1 of 4) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

64 43 case 'D': // grade was uppercase D 44 case 'd': // or lowercase d 45 ++dcount; // increment dcount 46 break; // exit switch case 'F': // grade was uppercase F 49 case 'f': // or lowercase f 50 ++fcount; // increment fcount 51 break; // exit switch be removed. Likewise, we case '\n': // ignore newlines, want to ignore any 54 case '\t': // tabs, whitespace. 55 case ' ': // and spaces in input 56 break; // exit switch default: catches all other cases. // catch all other characters 59 cout << "Incorrect letter grade entered." 60 << " Enter a new grade." << endl; 61 break; // optional; will exit switch anyway } // end switch } // end while 66 This test is necessary because Enter is pressed after each letter grade is input. This adds a newline character that must Notice the default statement, which Outline fig02_22.cpp (3 of 4) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

65 67 // output summary of results 68 cout << "\n\ntotals for each letter grade are:" 69 << "\na: " << acount // display number of A grades 70 << "\nb: " << bcount // display number of B grades 71 << "\nc: " << ccount // display number of C grades 72 << "\nd: " << dcount // display number of D grades 73 << "\nf: " << fcount // display number of F grades 74 << endl; return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main Outline fig02_22.cpp (4 of 4) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

66 Enter the letter grades. Enter the EOF character to end input. a B c C A d f C E Incorrect letter grade entered. Enter a new grade. D A b ^Z Outline fig02_22.cpp output (1 of 1) 66 Totals for each letter grade are: A: 3 B: 2 C: 3 D: 2 F: Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

67 do/while Repetition Structure Similar to while structure Makes loop continuation test at end, not beginning Loop body executes at least once Format do { statement } while ( condition ); action(s) true condition false

68 1 // Fig. 2.24: fig02_24.cpp 2 // Using the do/while repetition structure. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 int counter = 1; // initialize counter do { 14 cout << counter << " "; // display counter 15 } while ( ++counter <= 10 ); // end do/while cout << endl; return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main Notice the preincrement in loop-continuation test. Outline fig02_24.cpp (1 of 1) fig02_24.cpp output (1 of 1) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

69 break and continue Statements break statement Immediate exit from while, for, do/while, switch Program continues with first statement after structure Common uses Escape early from a loop Skip the remainder of switch

70 1 // Fig. 2.26: fig02_26.cpp 2 // Using the break statement in a for structure. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { int x; // x declared here so it can be used after the loop // loop 10 times 15 for ( x = 1; x <= 10; x++ ) { // if x is 5, terminate loop 18 if ( x == 5 ) Exits for structure when break executed. 19 break; // break loop only if x is cout << x << " "; // display value of x } // end for cout << "\nbroke out of loop when x became " << x << endl; Outline fig02_26.cpp (1 of 2) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

71 26 27 return 0; // indicate successful termination } // end function main Broke out of loop when x became 5 Outline fig02_26.cpp (2 of 2) fig02_26.cpp output (1 of 1) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

72 break and continue Statements continue statement Used in while, for, do/while Skips remainder of loop body Proceeds with next iteration of loop while and do/while structure Loop-continuation test evaluated immediately after the continue statement for structure Increment expression executed Next, loop-continuation test evaluated

73 1 // Fig. 2.27: fig02_27.cpp 2 // Using the continue statement in a for structure. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 using std::cout; 6 using std::endl; 7 8 // function main begins program execution 9 int main() 10 { 11 // loop 10 times 12 for ( int x = 1; x <= 10; x++ ) { 13 Skips to next iteration of the 14 // if x is 5, continue with next loop. iteration of loop 15 if ( x == 5 ) 16 continue; // skip remaining code in loop body cout << x << " "; // display value of x } // end for structure cout << "\nused continue to skip printing the value 5" 23 << endl; return 0; // indicate successful termination Outline fig02_27.cpp (1 of 2) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

74 26 27 } // end function main Outline Used continue to skip printing the value 5 fig02_27.cpp (2 of 2) fig02_27.cpp output (1 of 1) 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

75 Logical Operators Used as conditions in loops, if statements && (logical AND) true if both conditions are true if ( gender == 1 && age >= 65 ) ++seniorfemales; (logical OR) true if either of condition is true if ( semesteraverage >= 90 finalexam >= 90 ) cout << "Student grade is A" << endl;

76 Logical Operators! (logical NOT, logical negation) Returns true when its condition is false, & vice versa if (!( grade == sentinelvalue ) ) cout << "The next grade is " << grade << endl; Alternative: if ( grade!= sentinelvalue ) cout << "The next grade is " << grade << endl;

77 2.20 Confusing Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators 77 Common error Does not typically cause syntax errors Aspects of problem Expressions that have a value can be used for decision Zero = false, nonzero = true Assignment statements produce a value (the value to be assigned)

78 2.20 Confusing Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators 78 Example if ( paycode == 4 ) cout << "You get a bonus!" << endl; If paycode is 4, bonus given If == was replaced with = if ( paycode = 4 ) cout << "You get a bonus!" << endl; Paycode set to 4 (no matter what it was before) Statement is true (since 4 is non-zero) Bonus given in every case

79 2.20 Confusing Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators 79 Lvalues Expressions that can appear on left side of equation Can be changed (I.e., variables) x = 4; Rvalues Only appear on right side of equation Constants, such as numbers (i.e. cannot write 4 = x;) Lvalues can be used as rvalues, but not vice versa

80 Structured-Programming Summary Structured programming Programs easier to understand, test, debug and modify Rules for structured programming Only use single-entry/single-exit control structures Rules 1) Begin with the simplest flowchart 2) Any rectangle (action) can be replaced by two rectangles (actions) in sequence 3) Any rectangle (action) can be replaced by any control structure (sequence, if, if/else, switch, while, do/while or for) 4) Rules 2 and 3 can be applied in any order and multiple times

81 2.21 Structured-Programming Summary 81 Representation of Rule 3 (replacing any rectangle with a control structure) Rule 3 Rule 3 Rule 3

82 Structured-Programming Summary All programs broken down into Sequence Selection if, if/else, or switch Any selection can be rewritten as an if statement Repetition while, do/while or for Any repetition structure can be rewritten as a while statement

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