# THE FUNDAMENTAL DATA TYPES

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1 THE FUNDAMENTAL DATA TYPES

2 Declarations, Expressions, and Assignments Variables and constants are the objects that a prog. manipulates. All variables must be declared before they can be used. #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { int a, b, c; float x, y = 3.3, z = -7.7; /*declaration*/ /*declaration with initialization*/ } printf( Input two integers: ); /*function call*/ scanf( %d%d,&b, &c); /*function call*/ a = b + c; /*assignment*/ x = y + z; /*assignment*/

3 Declarations, Expressions, and Assignments Declarations associate a type with each variable declared This tells the compiler to set aside an appropriate amount of memory space to hold values associated with variables. This also enables the compiler to instruct the machine to perform specified operation correctly. b + c (integer addition) y + z (real number addition)

4 Declarations, Expressions, and Assignments Expressions Meaningful combinations of constants, variables, operators, and function calls. A constant, variable, or function call itself is also an expression a+b sqrt(7.333) 5.0 * x tan(9.0 / x) Most expressions have a value. i = 7 assignment expression <Examples of statements> i = 7; printf( The plot thickens!\n ); 3.777; a + b ; Perfectly legal, but they do not useful work

5 Declarations, Expressions, and Assignments Assignments variable = expr ; assignment statement <Mathematical equation> <Assignment expression> x + 2 =0 x + 2 = 0 /*wrong*/ x = x + 1 (meaningless) x = x + 1!! Although they look alike, the assignment operator in C and the equal sign in mathematics are NOT COMPARABLE

6 The Fundamental Data Types Fundamentl data types: long form char signed char unsigned char signed short int signed int signed long int unsigned short int unsigned int unsigned long int float double long double Fundamentl data types char signed char unsigned char short int long unsigned short unsigned unsigned long float double long double Fundamentl types grouped by functionality Integral types char signed char unsigned char short int long unsigned short unsigned unsigned long Floating types float double long double

7 Characters and the Data Type char type char A variable of type char can be used to hold small integer values. 1 byte (8 bits) in memory space 2 8, or 256, distinct values including lower- and uppercase letters, digits, punctuation, and special char.s such as % and + including white space blank, tab, and newline

8 Characters and the Data Type char Most machines use either ASCII or EBCDIC character codes to represent a character in bits. ASCII character code a character encoding-scheme A character constant has its corresponding integer value. a (97) b (98) c (99) A (65) B (66) C (67) 0 (48) 1 (49) 2 (50) & (38) * (42) + (43) No particular relationship btwn the value of the character constant representing a digit and the digit s intrinsic integer value. 2 ¹ 2

9 Characters and the Data Type char Nonprinting and hard-to-print characters require an escape sequence. \ (backslash character) an escape character is used to escape the usual meaning of the character that follows it. Special Characters Name of character Written in C Integer value alert \a 7 backslash \\ 92 double quote \" 34 newline \n 10 null character \0 0 single quote \' 39 printf( %c, \a ); or putchar( \a ); printf( \ abc\ ); /* abc is printed */ printf( %cabc%c, \, \ ); /* abc is printed */

10 Characters and the Data Type char Characters are treated as small integers char c = a ; printf( %c, c); /* a is printed */ printf( %d, c); /* 97 is printed */ printf( %c%c%c, c, c+1, c+2); /* abc is printed */ char c; int i; for ( i = a ; i<= z ; ++i ) printf ( %c, i); /* abc z is printed */ for ( c = 0 ; i<= 9 ; ++c ) printf ( %d, c); /* is printed */

11 Characters and the Data Type char char c = a ; c is stored in memory in 1 byte as (97) The type char holds 256 distinct values singed char : -128 ~ 127 unsigned char : 0 ~ 255

12 The Data Type int type int the principal working type of the C language integer values stored in either 2 bytes (=16 bits) or in 4 bytes (=32 bits) n 64-bit OS: 4 bytes or 8 bytes holds 2 32 distinct states (in case of 4 bytes) -2 31, ,, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,, (-2,147,483,648) (2,147,483,647) #define BIG /* 2 billion */ int main(void) { int a, b = BIG, c= BIG; a = b + c; /* out of range? */ integer overflow!!

13 The Integral Types short, long, and unsigned The type int is natural or usual type for working with integers The other integral types, such as char, short, and long, are intended for more specialized use. short (2 bytes) n when the storage is of concern long (4 bytes or 8 bytes) n when large integer values are needed short int long

14 The Integral Types short, long, and unsigned Type int and unsigned are stored in a machine WORD. 2 bytes, 4 bytes (, or 8 bytes) unsigned u; 0 u 2 wordsize -1 0 u ( , 4 billion) Suffixes can be appended to an integer constant to specify its type. Combining long and unsigned Suffix Type Example u or U unsigned 37U l or L long 37L ul or UL unsigned long 37UL

15 The Floating Types 3 floating types float, double, long double holds real values such as 0.001, 2.0, and A suffix appended to a floating constant to specify its type Combining long and unsigned Suffix Type Example f or F float 3.7F l or L long double 3.7L The working floating type in C is double. n the constants 1.0 and 2.0 : double n the constant 3 : int

16 The Floating Types Floating constant decimal notation: exponential notation e5 = = (decimal point shifted five places to the RIGHT) e-3 = = (decimal point shifted five places to the LEFT) Floating constant parts for e-22 Integer Fraction Exponent e-22

17 The Floating Types Floating constant may contain an integer part, a decimal point, a fractional part, and an exponential part. MUST contain either a decimal point or an exponential part or both. If a decimal point is present, either an integer part or fractional part or both MUST be present. <Examples> <NOT Examples> , e e0 (Û 0.0).e (floating constant expr.)

18 The Floating Types Possible values of a floating type Precision n the # of significant decimal places that a floating value carries. Range n The limits of the largest and smallest positive floating values that can be represented in a variable of that type type float stored in 4 bytes Precision of 6 significant figures & Range of to d 1 d 2 d 3 d 4 d 5 d 6 10 n, where each d i is a decimal digit, the first digit, d 1, is positive, and -38 n 38

19 The Floating Types type double stored in 8 bytes Precision of 15 significant figures & Range of to d 1 d 2 d n, where each d i is a decimal digit, the first digit, d 1, is positive, and -308 n 308 x = ; /* 20 significant digits */ (15 significant digits) (1) NOT all real numbers are representable (2) floating arithmetic operations need not be exact

20 The Use of typedef typedef allows the programmer to explicitly associate a type with an identifier typedef char typedef int typedef ungined long uppercase; INCHES, FEET; size_t; int main(void) { uppercase u; INCHES length, width; } (1) abbreviating long declarations (2) having type names that reflect the intended use

21 The sizeof Operator sizeof a unary operator to fine the # of bytes needed to store an object sizeof(object) : object can be a type such as int or float, or an expression such as a+b. /* Compute the size of some fundamental types. */ #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { printf( The size of some fundamental types is computed.\n\n ); printf( char:%3u byte \n, sizeof(char)); printf( short:%3u bytes\n, sizeof(short)); printf( int:%3u bytes\n, sizeof(int)); printf( float:%3u bytes\n, sizeof(float)); printf( double:%3u bytes\n, sizeof(double)); }

22 The sizeof Operator sizeof sizeof(char) = 1 sizeof(char) < sizeof(short) sizeof(int) sizeof(long) sizeof(signed) = sizeof(unsigned) = sizeof(int) sizeof(float) sizeof(double) sizeof(long double) sizeof( ) looks that it is a function, but it is not. An Operator. The type returned by the operator sizeof is typically unsigned.

23 The use of getchar() and putchar() getchar(), putchar() macros defined in stdio.h getchar() n reads a character from the keyboard putchar() n prints a character on the screen #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { int c; while ( (c = getchar())!= EOF) { putchar(c); putchar(c); } return 0; }

24 The use of getchar() and putchar() the identifier, EOF #define EOF (-1),in the header file, stdio.h end-of-file What is actually used to signal an end-of-file mark is system-dependent. The int value -1 is often used. int c; c is an int, it can hold all possible char. values as well as the special value EOF. (c = getchar())!= EOF; c = getchar(); The subexpression c = getchar() gets a value from the keyboard and and assigns it the variable c,,and the value of the subexpression takes on that value as well. c = getchar()!= EOF Û (c = getchar())!= EOF;

25 The use of getchar() and putchar() a Û 97 a +1 Û b z a Û Z A Û 25 A lowercase letter, c : c + A a has a value of the corresponding uppercase letter. #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { } int c; while ( (c = getchar())!= EOF) if ( c>= a && c<= z ) else return 0; putchar(c + A a ); putchar(c);

26 Conversions and Casts Integral Promotions If all the values of the original type in an expression can be represented by an int, then the value is converted to an int; short x, y; x + y (the type int, not short) char c = A ; printf( %c\n, c); /* the type of expr. C is int, not char */

27 Conversions and Casts Usual Arithmetic Conversions occurs when the operands of a binary operator are evaluated. int i = 3; float f = 3.0, g; i + f (the type float) long double Ü double Ü float Ü Integral Promotions [Integral promotions] unsigned long Ü long op unsigned Ü long Ü unsigned Ü int Ü. long or unsigned long ü Automatic conversion ü Implicit conversion ü Widening

28 Conversions and Casts d = i; Widening The value of i is converted to a double and then assigned to d i = d; Declarations char c; short s; int i; long l; unsigned u; unsigned long ul; float f; double d; long double ld; Expression Type Expression Type c - s / i int u * 7 - i unsigned u * i double f * 7 - i float c + 3 int 7 * s * ul unsigned long c double ld + c long double d + s double u - ul unsigned long 2 * i / l long u - l system-dependent Narrowing Loss of Information. The fraction part of d will be discarded.

29 Conversions and Casts Casts Explicit conversions (double) i casts, or converts, the value of i so that the expr. has type double The variable i itself remains unchanged. <Examples> l = (long) ( A + 1.0); f = (float) ((int)d + 1); d = (double) i / 3; <NOT Examples> (double) x = 77; /* equivalent to ((double) x) = 77, Error*/ The cast operator (type) is an unary operator. (float) i + 3 Û ((float) i) + 3

30 Hexadecimal and Octal Constants Hexadecimal Constants: 2A Û A 16 0 = = 42 5B3 Û B = = Octal Constants: Hexadecimal digits and their corresponding decimal values Hexadecimal digit: A B C D E F Decimal value: Û Decimal Binary Hexadecimal Octal F BC FE FF 377

31 Hexadecimal and Octal Constants #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { printf(%d %x %o\n, 19, 19, 19); /* */ printf(%d %x %o\n, 0x1c, 0x1c, 0x1c); /* 28 1c 34 */ printf(%d %x %o\n, 017, 017, 017); /* 15 f 17 */ printf(%d\n, x ); /* 37 */ printf(%x\n, ); /* 1fffff */ printf(%d\n, 0x1FfFFf); /* */ return 0; }

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