# JAC444 - Lecture 1. Introduction to Java Programming Language Segment 4. Jordan Anastasiade Java Programming Language Course

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1 JAC444 - Lecture 1 Introduction to Java Programming Language Segment 4 1

2 Overview of the Java Language In this segment you will be learning about: Numeric Operators in Java Type Conversion If, For, While, Do-While Statements Labeled Break and Labeled Continue Arrays and Strings 2

3 Numeric operators in Java Prec Operator Description Example 1 ++ Increment by 1(or 1.0) k Decrement by 1(or 1.0) k Unary plus +value 1 - Unary minus -value 2 * Multiplication x * y 2 / Division x / y 2 % Modulo x % y 3 + Addition x + y 3 - Subtraction x - y 5 < Less than x < y 5 > Greater than x > y 5 <= Less than/equal x <= y 5 >= Greater than/equal x >= y 6 == Equals (identical values) x == y 6!= Is not equal to x!= y 13 op= op assignment(+ =, - =, *=, etc) x += y 3

4 Bitwise and logical operators Pre Operator Type Description Example 1 ~ Integral Unary bitwise complement ~x 1! Logical Unary logical complement!b 4 << Integral Left shift x << 2 4 >> Integral Right shift (keep sign) x >> 5 4 >>> Integral Right shift (zero fill) x >>> 3 5 instanceof Obj type Tests class membership o instanceof X 6 == Object Equals (same object) x == y 6!= Object Unequal (different object) x!= y 7 & Integral Bitwise AND x & y 7 & Logical Logical AND b1 & b2 8 ^ Integral Bitwise XOR x ^ y 8 ^ Logical Logical XOR b1 ^ b2 9 Integral Bitwise OR x y 9 Logical Logical OR b1 b2 4

5 Bitwise and logical operators Prec Operator Type Description Examp. 10 && Logical Logical AND (short-circuit) b1 && b2 11 Logical Logical OR (short-circuit) b1 b2 12?: Logical Conditional (ternary) b? x : y 13 = Variable,any Assignment x = 1 13 <<= Binary Left shift with assignment x <<= 2 13 >>= Binary Right shift with assignment x =>> 3 13 >>>= Binary Right shift, zero fill, assign x =>> 4 13 &= Binary Bitwise AND with assign x &= y 13 &= Logical Logical AND with assign b1 &=b2 13 = Binary Bitwise OR with assignment x = y 13 = Logical Logical OR with assignment b1 =b2 13 ^= Binary Bitwise XOR with assignment x ^= y 13 ^= Logical Logical XOR with assignment b1 ^=b2 5

6 Bitwise logic rules AND OR XOR & 0 = 0 0 & 1 = 0 1 & 0 = 0 1 & 1 = = = = = 1 0 ^ 0 = 0 0 ^ 1 = 1 1 ^ 0 = 1 1 ^ 1 = 0 6

7 Bitwise operations on short primitives (16 bit integers) Binary Operation Decimal Hex op1 84 0x op x op1 & op2 68 0x op1 op x op1 ^ op x ~op xFEB8 7

8 Results of some bit-shifting starting a = a = 0x after a << 3 (792) a = 0x after a >> 2 (24) a = 0x stating b = -99 F F F F F F 9 D b = 0xFFFFFF9D after b >> 4 = -7 F F F F F F F 9 b = 0xFFFFFFF after b >>> 12 = F F F F F b = 0x000FFFFF 8

9 Type Conversions Java is a strong typed language Implicit conversion for primitive value: any numeric value can be assigned to any numeric value whose type supports a larger range of values. byte short int long float double Explicit conversion casting. boolean type doesn t allow any casting at all. A char can be cast to any integer type and vice versa excepting to a short type. When chart is cast to int type upper bits are filled with zeros. Attention: interger types are converted by chopping off the upper bits. If the larger integer has a value outside the range off the smaller type, dropping the upper bits changes the value, including possibly changing sign. Ex: short x = -129; byte y = (byte)x; What is the value of y??? 9

10 if, if-else, if else if else 1. if (boolean-expression) { 2. if (boolean-expression) { else { 3. if (boolean-expression) { else if (boolean-expresion ) { else { 10

11 for Statement A for statement should have the following form: for (initialization; condition; update) { for (k = 0, flag; k < 10 && flag; k++ ) {... Enhanced for loop for (variable : Collection ) {... 11

12 while, do - while Statements while, do-while and for control looping are classified as iteration statements. while (condition) { do { while (condition); 12

13 break - Labeled break A break drops out of the bottom of the loop. The break statement with no label attempts to transfer control to the innermost enclosing switch, for, while or do-while of immediately enclosing statement. A labeled break drops out of the bottom of the end of the loop denoted by the label. Ex: out: for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) { for (int k = 0; k < 10; k++) { if (i == k) break out; System.out.println(i); 13

14 continue Labeled continue A plain continue goes to the top of the innermost loop and continues A labeled continue goes to the label and re-enters the loop right after that label Ex: Calculates the factorials of odd number outerloop: for (int i = 0; i < limit; i++ ) { for (int k = 2; k < i; k++) { if (i % 2) continue outerloop; factory *= i; 14

15 switch The switch is classified as a selection statement switch (integral-selector) { case integral-value1: break; default: Integral-selector is an expression that produces an integral value. The switch compares the result of integral-selector to each integral-value. If it finds a match, the corresponding statement (simple or compound) executes. If no match occurs, the default statement executes. 15

16 Array An array is simply a sequence of either objects or primitives, all the same type and accessed together under one identifier name. Arrays are implicit extensions of Object. Arrays are defined and used with square-brackets indexing operator [ ] int[] integerarray = new int[3]; A Java array is guaranteed to be initialized and cannot be accessed outside of its range. for (int k = 0; k < integerarray.length; k++) integerarray[k] = k; Creating an array of objects, one is really creating an array of references, and each of those references is automatically initialized to null. Student[] room = new Student[3]; 16

17 Strings Java strings are standard objects with built-in language support. The String class represents character strings. All string literals in Java programs, such as "abc", are implemented as instances of String class Strings are constant; their values cannot be changed after they are created. Stringbuffer class supports mutable strings. Because String objects are immutable they can be shared String str = "abc"; is equivalent to: char data[] = {'a', 'b', 'c'; String str = new String(data); 17

18 String Examples Here are some more examples of how strings can be used: System.out.println("abc"); String cde = "cde"; System.out.println("abc" + cde); String c = "abc".substring(2,3); String d = cde.substring(1, 2); int length(); returns the length of this string. char charat(int index); returns the character at the specified index. 18

19 Conclusions After completion of this lesson you should know: How to write a simple Java Program How to work with primitives: integers and floats To use Java tools like: compiler and interpreter 19

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