# Informatics Ingeniería en Electrónica y Automática Industrial

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1 Informatics Ingeniería en Electrónica y Automática Industrial Operators and expressions in C Operators and expressions in C Numerical expressions and operators Arithmetical operators Relational and logical operators Bitwise operators Assignment operators and expressions Other operators Conditional operator Comma operator Address and indirection operators sizeof operator Precedence and order of evaluation Type conversions 2 1

2 Numerical expressions and operators A numerical expression is formed by Operators Operands An operator is a symbol that indicates how the operands must be processed in the expressions An operand is the object that is processed: variables, constants, etc. 3 Arithmetical operators If the operands are of different types, the lower precision ones are transformed to the greater type OPERATOR OPERATION OPERANDS + Addition Integers or reals - Subtraction Integers or reals * Multiplication Integers or reals / Division Integers or reals % - Modulus: Remainder of integer division Unary minus (sign change) Integers Just one operand (integer or real) 4 2

3 Relational and logical operators (I) Operands can be of any type but the result is always an integer with just two possible values: 1 (true) or 0 (false) LOGICAL OPERATORS OPERATOR && OPERATION AND RESULT Logical AND. Result is 1 if both operands are non-zero (ie. if one or both are 0, result is 0). Logical OR. Result is 1 if any of the operands is non-zero (ie. result is 0 just when both operands are 0).! Logical NOT. Result is 1 if the operand is 0, and 0 otherwise. 5 Relational and logical operators (II) OPERATOR RELATIONAL OPERATORS OPERATION AND RESULT < Result is 1 if the left operand is lower than the right one; 0 otherwise. > Result is 1 if the left operand is greater than the right one; 0 otherwise <= Result is 1 if the left operand is lower than or equal to the right one; 0 otherwise. >= Result is 1 if the left operand is greater than or equal to the right one; 0 otherwise.!= Result is 1 if the operands are different; 0 otherwise. == Result is 1 if the operands are equal; 0 otherwise. 6 3

4 Bitwise operators They operate with the individual bits of the operands, which must be integer type (int or char) OP. & AND between bits of the operands OPERATION AND RESULT OR between bits of the operands ^ XOR (Exclusive OR) between bits of the operands ~ 1 Complement of the operand (at the right of the operator) << >> Left shift of the left operand by the number of positions given by the positive right operand (filling vacants with zeros). Right shift of the left operand by the number of position given by the positive right operand. If the operand is unsigned fills vacants with zeros, if signed, fill vacants with sign bit (arithmetic shift). 7 Assignment operators (I) They assign values to one variable Simple assignment operator = a = 2 Increment ++ and decrement -- operators Increment/decrement by 1 the value of a variable in a expression ++variable. First increment, later use. x = 1; y = ++x; // x is now 2, y is also 2 y = x++; // x is now 3, y is 2 variable++. First use, later increment x = 3; y = x--; // x is now 2, y is 3 y = --x; // x is now 1, y is also

5 Assignment operators (II) Operation and asignment variable (op)= expresion; Is equivalent to variable = variable (op) expresion; (op) is the assignment operator expresion is the expression that will be evaluated along with variable to obtain its new value i += 2 i = i + 2 are equivalent expressions 9 Assignment operators (III) OP. OPERACIÓN Y RESULTADO *= Multiplication and assignment. C *= A equiv. to C = C*A /= Division and assignment. C /= A equiv. to C = C/A %= Modulus and assignment. C %= A equiv. to C = C%A += Addition and assignment. C += A equiv. to C = C+A -= Subtraction and assignment. C -= A equiv. to C = C-A 10 5

6 Assignment operators (IV) OP. OPERATION (bit level) AND RESULT <<= Left shift AND assignment C <<= 2 equiv. to C = C<<2 >>= Right shift AND assignment C >>= 2 equiv. to C = C>>2 &= Bitwise AND and assignment C &= 2 equiv. to C = C&2 = Bitwise OR and assignment C = 2 equiv. to C = C 2 ^= Bitwise XOR and assignment. C ^= 2 equiv. to C = C^2 11 Other operators (I) Condicional Operator «?:» expr1? expr2 : expr3 If expr1 is true, then expr2, is evaluated If expr1 is false, then expr3 is evaluated Ex. (a >= b)? puts( a>=b ) : puts( b>a ); Comma Operator «,» Mostly used in the for statement. When used to concatenates expressions and variables or to separates elements in argument lists is NOT an operator (do not guarantee left to right evaluation) 12 6

7 Other operators (II) Address operator «&» &variable obtains the memory address of variable Indirection operator «*» *identifier refers to the content of memory address identifier Operator «sizeof» Returns the number of bytes that the operand occupies in memory 13 Precedence and order of evaluation (I) Order OPERATORS ASOCIATIVITY 1º () []. -> sizeof Left to Right 2º -! * (tipo) Right to Left 3º * / % Left to Right 4º + - Left to Right 5º << >> Left to Right 6º < <= > >= Left to Right 7º ==!= Left to Right 8º & Left to Right 9º ^ Left to Right 10º Left to Right 11º && Left to Right 12º Left to Right 13º?: Right to Left 14º = *= /= %= += -= <<= >>= &= = ^= Right. to Left 15º, Left to Right 14 7

8 Precedence and order of evaluation (II) Precedence and order of evaluation (table) Operators in the same line have the same priority Priority decreases from top to bottom Parenthesis are evaluated from inside to outside (as usual) Some ambiguities may exists dependin on the compiler USE PARENTHESIS!! when doubting 15 Type conversions (I) In expressions operands are type-converted automatically With reals involved, all are converted to the high precision one Real constants are double by default char and short are converted to int or to unsigned int With integers involved, all are converted to the longest one EXAMPLE long a char b; int c, f; float d; f = a + b*c/d ; b is converted c type (int) and b*c is int b*c is converted to float and divided by d a is converted to float and added to b*c/d. float a+b*c/d is converted to int (eliminating fractional part) and saved in integer f Better try not to mix types 16 8

9 Type conversions (III) Explicit conversion: «(cast)» operator (newtype)expresion; Example: 7/2 gives 3 as result (float)7/2 gives 3.5 as result 17 9

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