Introduction to Computing Lecture 01: Introduction to C

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1 Introduction to Computing Lecture 01: Introduction to C Assist.Prof.Dr. Nükhet ÖZBEK Ege University Department of Electrical&Electronics Engineering

2 Topics Introduction to C language Basic Components of C

3 From Algorithms to Programs Both are sets of instructions on how to do a task Algorithm: talking to humans, easy to understand in plain (English) language Program: talking to computer (compiler) can be regarded as a formal expression of an algorithm

4 What is a program? A program is a way of solving some problem-a set directives (or instructions) stating how to go about achieving to some desired results Thus program must provide a precise list of instructions stating what you want done, which someone or something could follow in order to achieve the task

5 Programming Language Terms A computer program is a precise list of instructions, or statements, to solve a particular problem, specified in a programming language Effectively, the computer obey or executes the statements in the program, creating and manipulating objects, following the algorithm expressed in the program It is useful to have some idea of what is going on behind the scenes in getting a program to execute

6 How does a program get executed? The programs you write are expressed in a programming language and stored in the computer as a sequence of printable characters in a file-called the source file In this source form, the program cannot be directly executed by the computer The language and instructions that the computer understands and obeys are very different: * expressed as sequences of binary digits/bits (0 s and 1 s) * very low-level and general purpose Source file has to be translated into a form that the computer can execute

7 Compilers and linkers translate a high level program into executable machine code. High-Level Language #include <stdio.h> int main() { printf( Hello ); } return 0; etc... Source code Executable code

8 Why C? Structured language Standard library exists, allowing portability Wide availability on a variety of computers Low level activities possible It can produce lean and efficient code Widely used Has great influence on many other popular languages

9 History of C CPL Combined Programming Language (Barron et al., 1963) BCPL Basic CPL (Richards, 1969) B (Thompson, 1970) C K&R C (Ritchie, 1972) (for use in UNIX operating system) ANSI C American National Standards Institute C (X3J11, 1989) C9X (JTC1/SC22/WG14, ISO/IEC 9899)

10 C++? Derived from C Object-oriented functionality with C-like syntax Nearly a superset of C -> C++ compilers can compile C code

11 Basic Structure of a C Program Example: it s too easy to learn C Algorithm: output it s too easy to learn C C Program: #include <stdio.h> int main() { printf( it s too easy to learn C ); } return 0;

12 Basic Structure of a C Program Example: it s too easy to learn C C Program: #include <stdio.h> Skeleton int main() { printf( it s too easy to learn C ); } return 0;

13 Basic Structure of a C Program Example: it s too easy to learn C Also: void main() { C Program: #include <stdio.h> int main() { printf( it s too easy to learn C ); } } return 0; Not recommended

14 Basic Structure of a C Program Example: it s too easy to learn C Also: C Program: #include <stdio.h> main() { int main() { printf( it s too easy to learn C ); } return 0; } return 0; Assumes int

15 Basic Structure of a C Program Example: it s too easy to learn C Also: main() { C Program: #include <stdio.h> int main() { printf( it s too easy to learn C ); } return 0; } return 0; Warning messages: Return value expected

16 Basic Structure of a C Program Example: it s too easy to learn C C Program: #include <stdio.h> Includes standard input / output library of functions. Read: Hash-include int main() { printf( it s too easy to learn C ); } return 0;

17 Basic Structure of a C Program Example: it s too easy to learn C C Program: #include <stdio.h> Brackets mark the beginning and end of a block of instructions. int main() { printf( it s too easy to learn C ); } return 0;

18 Basic Structure of a C Program Example: it s too easy to learn C C Program: Instruction (function call) to output it s too easy to learn C #include <stdio.h> int main() { printf( it s too easy to learn C ); } return 0;

19 Basic Structure of a C Program Example: it s too easy to learn C Statements (lines of instructions) end with a semi-colon (;) C Program: #include <stdio.h> int main() { printf( it s too easy to learn C ); } return 0;

20 C Language Elements in Miles-to-Kilometers Conversion Program

21 Preprocessor Directives Begin with # C language defines only a small number of operations C implementations contain collections of useful functions and symbols called libraries C can be expanded with additional libraries, programmers can add their own libraries

22 Preprocessor Directives #include directive gives a program access to a library (Read: hash-include) #include <stdio.h> #define directive instructs the preprocessor to replace each occurrence of statement used in #define with the supplied value Use #define statements for data that changes rarely

23 Syntax for #include directive #include <standard header file> #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h>

24 Syntax for #define directive #define NAME value #define MILES_PER_KM #define PI #define MAX_LENGTH 100

25 Comments Start with /* and end with */ Provide supplementary information making it easier to understand the program Comments are ignored by the compiler

26 Function main Every C program must have a main function Valid forms are int main(void) int main(void) int main()

27 Function main Code betwen { and } is called function body int main(void) { } function body

28 Reserved Words All appear in lowercase Have special meaning in C and cannot be used for other purposes

29 ANSI C Reserved Words auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile while

30 Standard Identifiers Identifiers from standard library like printf, scanf Can be redefined and used by the programmer BUT IT IS NOT RECOMMENDED! If you redefine a standard identifier, you cannot use it for its original purpose

31 User-Defined Identifiers Variable names, function names, etc MILES_PER_KM miles, kms

32 Rules for User-Defined Identifiers 1. Must consist only of letters, digits, and underscores letter_1 -> VALID inches -> VALID Hello -> VALID TWO*FOUR -> INVALID joe s -> INVALID

33 Rules for User-Defined Identifiers 2. Can not begin with a digit 1letter -> INVALID 3. A C reserved word cannot be used as an identifier double -> INVALID 4. An identifier defined in a C standard library should not be redefined RECOMMENDATION

34 Uppercase and Lowercase Letters Identifiers in C are case-sensitive Rate, rate and RATE are different identifiers Use your own style, but as a recommendation Use all uppercase letters in constant definitions (#define statements) Use all lowercase or first letters uppercase, other lower case for other identifiers Miles or miles

35 Choosing Identifier Names A program that looks good is easier to read and understand Most programs are examined by someone other than the original programmer and generally more time is spent on the maintenance of the programs than time spent is writing the original program A neatly stated and clear program is easier to understand

36 Choosing Identifier Names It is a good practice to choose meaningful names for user-defined identifiers Use salary instead of s or sal, etc. If an identifier consists two or more words use an underscore between words Use dollars_per_hour instead of dollarsperhour

37 Choosing Identifier Names Choose identifiers long enough to convey the meaning, but avoid excessively long names because of possible typing errors Avoid using similar names for different identifiers that may cause confusion For example, do not use LARGE and large, xcoord and x_coord together

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