# PRIMITIVE VARIABLES. CS302 Introduction to Programming University of Wisconsin Madison Lecture 3. By Matthew Bernstein

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1 PRIMITIVE VARIABLES CS302 Introduction to Programming University of Wisconsin Madison Lecture 3 By Matthew Bernstein

2 Variables A variable is a storage location in your computer Each variable has a type, name, value Example: x = 4 There are many different types of variables for storing different types of values. For example, a computer stores an integer differently than it stores any real number. Different types of variables reflect the underlying way the computer stores the value

3 Primitive Numeric Variables Two Basic Types Integer Whole numbers without a fractional part (-1,0,1,2 ) In the java programming language, an integer variable is called an int Floating-Point Numbers Numbers that include a fractional part (6.2434) Java has multiple variable types for holding floating-point numbers. The one we will use most commonly is called a double Floating point numbers are stored in the computer as an integer and a location for the decimal place

4 Java Primitive Data Types For more information on Java Primitive Data types, visit:

5 Declaring Variables You must declare a variable in a declaration statement before using it! Declaration requires specifying the type of the variable and the name of the variable: int x; // Declare an int called x double y; // Declare a double called y

6 Assigning Values to Variables Assignment is done using the assignment operator (=) Example : int x; // Initialize an int called x x = 4; // Assign x a value of 4 You can initialize a variable and assign it a value in the same statement. This is called initializing a variable: int x = 4;

7 Initialization and Assignment Rules You can only declare a variable once After declaring the variable, you can reassign it as often as you like Example: int x = 4; x = 5; // Declare once // Reassign x to another int x = 6; // And again A variable of a one type cannot be set to the value of a different type (for the most part)

8 Variable Naming Conventions Variable names should describe their function Names should be short, yet descriptive Bad practice to use single letters for variables CamelCase: Underscore: playerage numapples player_age num_apples Pick one naming convention and stay consistent!

9 Reserved Words There are certain words that have special meaning in the Java programming language. These are called reserved words You cannot name a variable with a reserved word. The compiler will see the reserved word and treat it accordingly rather than understand that you meant for that word to be a variable name. Reserved words are highlighted purple in Eclipse editor Example reserved words: class public static

10 Common Issues With Numeric Variables A computer has limited memory. Thus, it cannot possibly store every decimal of an irrational number. Floating point numbers only have a certain decimal precision. Thus, you may experience rounding errors when dealing with floating point numbers. Numeric variables have a limited range of the numbers they can store. For example, an int variable can only store numbers between -2,147,483,648 and 2,147,483,647 How do we get around these limitations? Use an object that allows us to deal with big numbers (i.e. java.math.biginteger)

11 Constant Variables When a variable is defined with the reserved word final, its value can never change. Variables defined this way are called constants Example: final double BOTTLE_VOLUME = 2.0; You will get a compile time error if you write any statement that assigns a new value to BOTTLE_VOLUME Constants should be named with all capital letters to distinguish them from non-constant variables

12 Arithmetic Four arithmetic operators: Addition (+) Subtraction (-) Multiplication (*) Division (/) The combination of variables, literals, operators, and methods is called an expression Follows standard order of operations. Exceptions are made explicit using parenthesis. Example: a + b / 2 (a + b) / 2 a + (b / 2)

13 Increment & Decrement Operators In programming you will commonly have to increment or decrement a numeric variable by 1 Increment and decrement operators provide an easy way to do this: Both of these statements do the same thing: Similarly: counter = counter + 1; counter++; counter = counter 1; counter--;

14 Dividing with Floating-point Numbers Division works as we would expect provided that at least one of the numbers is a floating-point number For example all of the following statements return the number 1.75: 7.0 / 4.0; 7 / 4.0; 7.0 / 4;

15 Dividing ints If both numbers are integers than the result of the division is always an integer, with the remainder discarded. This is often a common source of error. Always know what variables you are dealing with. The following example results in 1 (NOT 1.75): 7 / 4

16 Modulus Operator (%) Also called Modulo or Mod This operator returns the remainder when dividing two integers. The following example results in 3: 7 % 4 7 divided by 4 is 1 with a remainder of 3

17 Find Dollars and Cents Let s say we have a variable pennies. We want to know how many dollars and extra cents we have. How do we do this? public class Main { public static void main(string[] args) { int pennies = 2347; // Number of pennies } } // WRITE SOLUTION HERE

18 Solution public class Main { public static void main(string[] args) { // Initialize variables final int PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR = 100; int pennies = 2347; // Number of pennies int dollars; int cents; // Compute and output solution dollars = pennies / PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR; cents = pennies % PENNIES_PER_DOLLAR; } } System.out.println(dollars + dollars and + cents + cents );

19 Powers and Roots There are no operators for powers or roots. You have to use the operators available. Thankfully performing these operations has already been implemented for us. We just need to use the code in a library of code called java.lang.math How do we code this? " b 1+ r % \$ ' # 100 & n Solution: b * Math.pow(1 + r / 100, n);

20 Other Mathematical Methods Examples: Math.sqr(x) Math.pow(x,y) Math.sin(x) Consult: lang/math.html

21 Converting Integers to Floating-Point Numbers This is easy and allowed. Think about it a floating point number is simply an integer (the mantissa) and a decimal location Example: int x = 9; double y = x; Java just takes the integer and assigns the correct decimal location

22 Converting Floating-Point Numbers to Integers This is not allowed because it is dangerous. This is NOT allowed: Why? double x = 4.5; int y = x; The fractional component is lost The magnitude of the floating-point number might be too large to fit into an integer type variable

23 So how do we make this conversion? Answer: The cast operator Example: double x = 4.5; int y = (int) x; // First we cast x to an int type You are essentially overriding the compiler and demanding it to treat the x as an integer. If x is too large to store as an int, then y will be assigned to the largest possible int (2,147,483,647). BE CAREFUL WHEN CASTING

24 Using other code in your code The import statement An import statement allows you to import code from other locations and run it in your program The import statement goes at the top of your file before your class declaration Example: import java.util.scanner; Now we can use the code in Scanner

25 Using Scanner to get input from user We use the code in Scanner to prompt data input by the user. Example: import java.lang.scanner public class Main { public static void main(string[] args) { // Create a Scanner object Scanner in = new Scanner(System.in); // Prompt user for for an integer System.out.println( Please input an integer: ); int userinteger = in.nextint(); } } // Output the integer System.out.println( userinteger );

26 Using the Scanner in our Pennies To Dollar Example -- See Demo --

27 Programming Exercise For next class create a program that will ask the user to input a number corresponding to a temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. Convert this temperature to Celsius and output this value to the user. Example: Please input a temperature in degrees F: Output Input

28 Cool CS Link of the Day TIME Magazine article, 2045 The Year Man Becomes Immortal : 0,9171, ,00.html

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