Digital Systems and Binary Numbers


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1 Digital Systems and Binary Numbers Mano & Ciletti Chapter 1 By Suleyman TOSUN Ankara University
2 Outline Digital Systems Binary Numbers NumberBase Conversions Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers Complements Signed Binary Numbers Binary Codes Binary Storage and Registers Binary Logic
3 Digital Systems Digital computer is the bestknown example of a digital system Others are telephone switching exchanges, digital voltmeters, digital calculators, etc. A digital system manipulates discrete elements of information Discrete elements: electric impulses, decimal digits, letters of an alphabet, any other set of meaningful symbols
4 Digital Systems In a digital system, discrete elements of information are represented by signals Electrical signals (voltages & currents) are the most common Present day systems have only two discrete values (binary) Alternative, manyvalued circuits are less reliable A lot of information is already discrete and continuous values can be quantized (sampled)
5 Digital Systems
6 Digital Systems A digital computer is an interconnection of digital modules To understand each module, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of digital systems
7 Binary Numbers 7392 represents a quantity that is equal to Decimal number system is of base (or radix) 10 In binary system, possible values are 0 and 1 and each digit is multiplied by E.g is
8 Binary Numbers Hexadecimal (base 16) numbers use digits 09 and letters A, B, C, D, E, F to represent values Operations work similarly in all bases
9 NumberBase Conversions Converting a number from base x to decimal is simple (as shown before) Decimal to base x is easier if number is separated into integer and fraction parts Convert 41 to binary Divide 41 by 2, quotient is 20 and remainder is 1. Continue dividing the quotient until it becomes 0. Remainders give us the binary number as follows:
10 NumberBase Conversions
11 NumberBase Conversions Conversion of a fraction is similar but the number is multiplied by to instead of dividing
12 Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers Conversions between binary, octal and hexadecimal numbers are easier Each octal digit corresponds to 3 binary digits and each hexadecimal digit corresponds to 4 binary digits
13 Complements Simplifies the subtraction operation Logical operations Two types exist The radix complement (r s complement) 10 s complement, 2 s complement The diminished radix complement ((r1) s complement) 9 s complement, 1 s complement
14 Diminished Radix (r1) complement Given a number N in base r having n digits: (r1) s complement of N is (r n 1)N When r=10, (r1) s complement is called 9 s complement. 10 n 1 is a number represented by n 9 s. 9 s complement of is (n=6) = s complement of is (n=6) =987601
15 1 s complement For binary numbers, r=2 and r1=1. 1 s complement of N is (2 n 1)N If n=4, 2 n = So, 2 n 1=1111. To determine the 1 s complement of a number, subtract each digit from 1. Or, bit flip!!! Replace 0 s with 1 s, 1 s with 0 s!!! Example: If N= , 1 s comp.= If N= , 1 s comp.=
16 Radix (r s) complement Given a number N in base r having n digits: r s complement of N is r n N When r=10, r s complement is called 10 s complement. 10 s complement of is (n=6) = s complement of is (n=6) =987602
17 2 s complement For binary numbers, r=2, 2 s complement of N is 2 n N To determine the 2 s complement of a number, determine 1 s complement and add 1 to it. Example: If N= , 1 s comp.= , 2 s comp.= If N= , 2 s comp.= Another way of finding 2 s comp.: Leave all least significant 0 s and the first 1 unchanged, bit flip the remaning digits.
18 Subtraction with Complements Minuend: Subtrahend: Difference: Add the minuend M to r s complement of the subtrahend N. M + (r n N) = M  N+r n 2. If M>=N, the sum will produce an end carry. Discard it and what is left is the result MN. 3. If M<N, the sum does not produce an end carry and is equal to r n (NM). To obtain the answer in a familiar form, take the r s complement of the sum and place a negative sign in front.
19 Example
20 Example
21 Example
22 Signed Binary Numbers Negative numbers is shown with a minus sign in math. In digital systems, the first bit decides the sign of the number. If the first bit 0, the number is positive. If the first bit 1, the number is negative. This is called signed magnitude convention.
23 Signed complement systems To represent negative number, 1 s complement and 2 s complements are also used.
24 Example Represent +9 and 9 in eight bit system +9 is same for all systems:
25 To determine negative number Signed magnitute: Take the positive number, change the most significant bit to 1 One s complement: Take the one s complement of the positive number. Two s complement: Take the two s complement of the positive number. (Or add 1 to one s complement)
26
27 Arithmetic Addition
28 Aritmetic subtraction Take the 2 s complement of subtrahend. Add it to the minuend. Discard cary if there is any. Examples: 105 (8 bits), 35, 18(9)
29 Binary Codes BCD Codes n bit can code upto 2 n combinations.
30 BCD Addition
31 Example
32 Other Decimal Codes
33 Gray Codes Only one bit changes when going from one number to the next. How to determine the gray code equivalent of a number: Add 0 to the left of number. XOR every two neigboring pair in order. The result is the gray code. Example: >
34
35
36 Error Detecting Codes Add an extra bit (parity bit) to make the total number of one s either even or odd.
37 Binary logic
38 Truth tables
39
40 Gate sysbols
41 Timing diagrams
42 More than two inputs
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