FUNDAMENTALS OF DIGITAL CIRCUITS


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2 FUNDAMENTALS OF DIGITAL CIRCUITS THIRD EDITION A. Anand Kumar Principal K.L. University College of Engineering K.L. University Green Fields, Vaddeswaram Guntur District Andhra Pradesh Delhi
3 FUNDAMENTALS OF DIGITAL CIRCUITS, Third Edition A. Anand Kumar 2014 by PHI Learning Private Limited, Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher. Twentyfifth Printing (Third Edition) October, 2014 Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, Rimjhim House, 111, Patparganj Industrial Estate, Delhi and Printed by V.K. Batra at Pearl Offset Press Private Limited, New Delhi
4 To the memory of My parents Shri A. Nagabhushanam and Smt. A. Ushamani (Freedom Fighters)
5
6 CONTENTS Preface... xxiii Symbols, Notations... xxvii Abbreviations... xxix 1 INTRODUCTION DIGITAL AND ANALOG SYSTEMS LOGIC LEVELS AND PULSE WAVEFORMS ELEMENTS OF DIGITAL LOGIC FUNCTIONS OF DIGITAL LOGIC Arithmetic Operations Encoding Decoding Multiplexing Demultiplexing Comparison Code Conversion Storage Counting Frequency Division Data Transmission DIGITAL INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Levels of Integration MICROPROCESSORS v
7 vi CONTENTS 1.7 DIGITAL COMPUTERS Major Parts of a Computer TYPES OF COMPUTERS SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS REVIEW QUESTIONS FILL IN THE BLANKS OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS VHDL PROGRAMS NUMBER SYSTEMS THE DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM s and 10 s Complements s Complement Method of Subtraction s Complement Method of Subtraction THE BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM Counting in Binary Binary to Decimal Conversion Decimal to Binary Conversion Binary Addition Binary Subtraction Binary Multiplication Computer Method of Multiplication Binary Division Computer Method of Division REPRESENTATION OF SIGNED NUMBERS AND BINARY ARITHMETIC IN COMPUTERS Representation of Signed Numbers Using the 2 s (or 1 s) Complement Method s Complement Arithmetic s Complement Arithmetic Double Precision Numbers Floating Point Numbers THE OCTAL NUMBER SYSTEM Usefulness of the Octal System Octal to Binary Conversion Binary to Octal Conversion Octal to Decimal Conversion Decimal to Octal Conversion Octal Arithmetic THE HEXADECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM Hexadecimal Counting Sequence Binary to Hexadecimal Conversion Hexadecimal to Binary Conversion Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion... 58
8 CONTENTS vii Decimal to Hexadecimal Conversion Octal to Hexadecimal Conversion Hexadecimal to Octal Conversion Hexadecimal Arithmetic SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS REVIEW QUESTIONS FILL IN THE BLANKS OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS PROBLEMS VHDL PROGRAMS BINARY CODES CLASSIFICATION OF BINARY CODES Numeric and Alphanumeric Codes Weighted and Nonweighted Codes Positivelyweighted and Negativelyweighted Codes Error Detecting and Error Correcting Codes Sequential Codes Selfcomplementing Codes Cyclic Codes Reflective Codes Straight Binary Code THE 8421 BCD CODE (NATURAL BCD CODE) BCD Addition BCD Subtraction BCD Subtraction Using 9 s and 10 s Complement Methods THE EXCESS THREE (XS3) CODE XS3 Addition XS3 Subtraction XS3 Subtraction Using 9 s and 10 s Complement Methods THE GRAY CODE (REFLECTIVECODE) BinarytoGray Conversion GraytoBinary Conversion The XS3 Gray Code ERRORDETECTING CODES Parity Check Sums Block Parity Fivebit Codes The Biquinary Code The Ringcounter Code ERRORCORRECTING CODES The 7bit Hamming Code The 15bit Hamming Code The 12bit Hamming Code
9 viii CONTENTS 3.7 ALPHANUMERIC CODES The ASCII Code The EBCDIC Code SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS REVIEW QUESTIONS FILL IN THE BLANKS OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS PROBLEMS VHDL PROGRAMS LOGIC GATES INTRODUCTION THE AND GATE Realization of AND Gate (DL AND Gate and RTL AND Gate) THE OR GATE Realization of OR Gate (DL OR Gate and RTL OR Gate) THE NOT GATE (INVERTER) Realization of NOT Gate (RTL Logic) THE UNIVERSAL GATES The NAND Gate The NOR Gate THE EXCLUSIVEOR (XOR) GATE XOR Gate as an Inverter PROPERTIES OF EXCLUSIVEOR THE EXCLUSIVENOR (XNOR) GATE XNOR Gate as an Inverter INHIBIT CIRCUITS PULSED OPERATION OF LOGIC GATES SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS REVIEW QUESTIONS FILL IN THE BLANKS OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS PROBLEMS VHDL PROGRAMS BOOLEAN ALGEBRA INTRODUCTION LOGIC OPERATIONS AND Operation OR Operation NOT Operation
10 CONTENTS ix NAND Operation NOR Operation XOR and XNOR Operations AXIOMS AND LAWS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA Complementation Laws AND Laws OR Laws Commutative Laws Associative Laws Distributive Laws Redundant Literal Rule (RLR) Idempotence Laws Absorption Laws Consensus Theorem (Included Factor Theorem) Transposition Theorem De morgan s Theorem Shannon s Expansion Theorem Additional Theorems DUALITY Duals REDUCING BOOLEAN EXPRESSIONS FUNCTIONALLY COMPLETE SETS OF OPERATIONS BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS AND THEIR REPRESENTATION EXPANSION OF A BOOLEAN EXPRESSION IN SOP FORM TO THE STANDARD SOP FORM EXPANSION OF A BOOLEAN EXPRESSION IN POS FORM TO STANDARD POS FORM Conversion between Canonical Forms COMPUTATION OF TOTAL GATE INPUTS BOOLEAN EXPRESSIONS AND LOGIC DIAGRAMS Converting Boolean Expressions to Logic Converting Logic to Boolean Expressions DETERMINATION OF OUTPUT LEVEL FROM THE DIAGRAM CONVERTING AND/OR/INVERT LOGIC TO NAND/NOR LOGIC ActiveLow Notation MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS REVIEW QUESTIONS FILL IN THE BLANKS OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS PROBLEMS
11 Fundamentals Of Digital Circuits 30% OFF Publisher : PHI Learning ISBN : Author : KUMAR, A. ANAND Type the URL : Get this ebook
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