Data Types and Variables in C language

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1 Data Types and Variables in C language

2 Disclaimer The slides are prepared from various sources. The purpose of the slides is for academic use only

3 Operators in C C supports a rich set of operators. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data and variables. They usually form a part of the mathematical or logical expressions. C operators are classified into a number of categories. They include: 1. Arithmetic operators 2. Relational operators 3. Logical operators 4. Assignment operators 5. Increment and Decrement operators 6. Conditional operators 7. Bitwise operators 8. Special operators

4 Arithmatic Operators Eg: 1) a-b 2) a+b 3) a*b 4) p%q

5 Integer Arithmatic When both the operands in a single arithmetic expression are integers, the expression is called an integer expression, and the operation is called integer arithmetic. During modulo division the sign of the result is always the sign of the first operand.that is 14 % 3 = 2-14 % 3 = % -3 = % -3 = 2

6 Real Arithmetic An arithmetic operation involving only real operands is called real arithmetic. If x and y are floats then we will have: 1) x = 6.0 / 7.0 = ) y = 1.0 / 3.0 = The operator % cannot be used with real operands.

7 Mixed-mode Arithmetic When one of the operands is real and the other is integer, the expression is called a mixed-mode arithmetic expression and its result is always a real number. Eg: 1) 15 / 10.0 = 1.5

8 Relational Operators Comparisons can be done with the help of relational operators. The expression containing a relational operator is termed as a relational expression. T h e v a l u e o f a r e l a t i o n a l expression is either one or zero.

9 Logical Operators C has the following three logical operators. Eg: if(age>55 && sal<1000) if(number<0 number>100)

10 Assignment Operators The usual assignment operator is =. In addition, C has a set of shorthand assignment operators of the form, v op = exp; Eg: x += 1; This is same as the statement x = x + 1;

11 Shorthand Assignment Operator

12 Increment and Decrement Operators C has two very useful operators that are not generally found in other languages. These are the increment and decrement operator: ++ and -- The operator ++ adds 1 to the operands while subtracts 1. It takes the following form: ++m; or m++ --m; or m

13 Rules for ++ & -- operators These require variables as their operands When postfix either ++ or - - is used with the variable in a given expression, the expression is evaluated first and then it is incremented or decremented by one When prefix either ++ or - - is used with the variable in a given expression, it is incremented or decremented by one first and then the expression is evaluated with the new value

14 Conditional Operator A ternary operator pair?: is available in C to construct conditional expression of the form: exp1? exp2 : exp3; Here exp1 is evaluated first. If it is true then the expression exp2 is evaluated and becomes the value of the expression. If exp1 is false then exp3 is evaluated and its value becomes the value of the expression. Eg: if(a>b) x = a; else x = b; Equivalent statement: x = (a>b)? a : b;

15 Examples for ++ & -- operators Let the value of a =5 and b=++a then a = b =6 Let the value of a = 5 and b=a++ then a =6 but b=5 i.e.: 1. a prefix operator first adds 1 to the operand and then the result is assigned to the variable on the left 2. a postfix operator first assigns the value to the variable on left and then increments the operand.

16 Bitwise Operators

17 Special Operators C supports some special operators such as Comma operator Size of operator Pointer operators(& and *) and Member selection operators(. and ->)

18 The Comma Operator The comma operator can be used to link the related expressions together. A comma linked list of expressions are evaluated left to right and the value of right-most expression is the value of the combined expression. Eg: value = (x = 10, y = 5, x + y); This statement first assigns the value 10 to x, then assigns 5 to y, and finally assigns15(i.e, 10+5) to value. The Size of Operator The size of is a compile time operator and, when used with an operand, it returns the number of bytes the operand occupies. Eg: 1) m = sizeof(sum); 2) n = sizeof(long int) 3) k = sizeof(235l)

19 Precedence of operators BODMAS RULE- Brackets of Division Multiplication Addition Subtraction Brackets will have the highest precedence and have to be evaluated first, then comes of, then comes division, multiplication, addition and finally subtraction. C language uses some rules in evaluating the expressions and they are called as precedence rules or sometimes also referred to as hierarchy of operations, with some operators with highest precedence and some with least. The 2 distinct priority levels of arithmetic operators in c are- Highest priority : * / % Lowest priority : + -

20 EXPRESSIONS The combination of operators and operands is said to be an expression. An arithmetic expression is a combination of variables, constants, and operators arranged as per the syntax of the language. Eg 1) a = x + y;

21 Arithmetic Expressions An arithmetic expression is a combination of variables, constants, and operators arranged as per the syntax of the language. Eg 1) a = x + y;

22 EVALUATION OF EXPRESSIONS Expressions are evaluated using an assignment statement of the form variable = expression; Eg: 1) x = a * b c; 2) y = b / c * a; An arithmetic expression without parenthesis will be evaluated from left to right using the rule of precedence of operators. There are two distinct priority levels of arithmetic operators in C. High priority * / % Low priority + -

23 Operators in C

24 PRECEDENCE OF ARITHMETIC OPERATORS /*Evaluation of expressions*/ main() { float a, b, c, y, x, z; a = 9; b = 12; c = 3; x = a b / 3 + c * 2 1; y = a b / (3 + c) * (2 1); z = a (b / (3 + c) * 2) 1; printf( x = %f \n,x); printf( y = %f \n,y); printf( z = %f \n,z); } OUTPUT x = y = z =

25 Rules for evaluation of expression 1. First parenthesized sub expression from left to right are evaluated. 2. If parentheses are nested, the evaluation begins with the innermost sub expression 3. The precedence rule is applied in determining the order of application of operators in evaluating sub expressions 4. The associativity rule is applied when 2 or more operators of the same precedence level appear in a sub expression. 5. Arithmetic expressions are evaluated from left to right using the rules of precedence 6. When parentheses are used, the expressions within parentheses assume highest priority

26 TYPE CONVERSION IN EXPRESSIONS C permits the mixing of constants and variables of different types in an expression. If the operands are of different types, the lower type is automatically converted to higher type before the operation proceeds. The result is of the higher type. All short and char are converted to int If one of the operand is long double, the other is converted to long double and result will be long double Else If one of the operand is double, the other is converted to double and result will be double If one of the operand is float, the other is converted to float and result will be float If one of the operand is unsigned long int, the other is converted to unsigned long int and result will be unsigned long int If one of the operand is long int, the other is unsigned int, then If unsigned int can be converted to long int, the unsigned int operand will be converted and result will be long int Else both operands will be converted to unsigned long int and the result will be unsigned long int

27 TYPE CONVERSION IN EXPRESSIONS

28 Explicit Conversion C performs type conversion automatically. However, there are instances when we want to force a type conversion in a way that is different from the automatic conversion. Eg: ratio = female_number / male_number Since female_number and male_number are declared as integers the ratio would resent a wrong figure. Hence it should be converted to float. ratio = (float) female_number / male_number The general form of a cast is: (type-name)expression

29 MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS Mathematical functions such as sqrt, cos, log etc., are the most frequently used ones. To use the mathematical functions in a C program, we should include the line #include<math.h> in the beginning of the program

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