# DIGITAL TECHNICS. Dr. Bálint Pődör. Óbuda University, Microelectronics and Technology Institute 2. LECTURE: LOGIC NETWORK MINIMIZATION 2016/2017

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1 DIGITAL TECHNICS Dr. Bálint Pődör Óbuda University, Microelectronics and Technology Institute 2. LECTURE: LOGIC NETWORK MINIMIZATION 26/27 2. LECTURE: CONTENTS. Canonical forms of Boolean functions 2. Logic design and minimization of logic functions 3. Minimization using the Quine-McCluskey method 4. The Karnaugh map, general properties 5. Minimization in EXCLUSIVE-OR logic 2

2 CANONICAL FORMS OF LOGIC FUNCTIONS It is expedient to base the synthesis of combinational circuit on the algebraic form of the logic function to be realized. Because a logic function can have several equivalent algebraic forms, the basis of the synthesis is one of the canonical forms (extended SOP or extended POS forms). The disjunctive canonical form (extended sum-of-product, SOP) is given as a sum of conjunctive terms, i.e. minterms. The conjunctive canonical form (extended product-of-sum, POS) is given as a product of disjunctive terms, i.e. maxterms. 3 DISJUNCTIVE CANONICAL FORM EXTENDED SOP Disjunctive canonic form (or extended sum-of-product form): Algebraic form consisting of sum of logic product terms (AND-OR) having the distinctive property that in each product term all variables are contained either in asserted or in negated form. E. g. F(ABC) = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC F(ABC) = m m m m 6 3 F = 3 (2,3,4,6) 4 2

3 CONJUNCTIVE CANONICAL FORM EXTENDED POS Conjunctive canonic form (or extended product-of-sum form): Algebraic form consisting of product of logic sumt terms (OR-AND) having the distinctive property that in each sum term all variables are contained either in asserted or in negated form. F(ABC) = F(ABC) = (A + B + C) (A + B + C) (A + B + C) (A + B + C) F(ABC) = M 73 M 63 M 23 M 3 5 SIMPLIFICATION/MINIMIZATION OF LOGIC FUNCTION Aim: To find the most economic or cheapest implementation of the specified combinational network. Specification: text, truth table, Boolean expression, canonical form, etc. What is economical cheap? Depends on the environment (hardware base). Discrete ICs (LSI/MSI, several gates in one IC): minimize the number of ICs, or the number of gates, or number of inputs (pins). Programmable logic: minimization of the resources (logic cells) used. VLSI: minimize the chip area, time delays, etc. Simplest analysis: minimization of the number of inputs (pin count). 6 3

4 SIMPLIFICATION GOALS Goal -- minimize the cost of realizing a logic function. Cost measures and other considerations: Number of gates Number of levels Gate fan in and/or fan out Interconnection complexity Preventing hazards Two-level realizations: Minimize the number of gates (terms in logic function) Minimize the fan in (literals in logic function i.e. inputs/pins in gates) 7 SIMPLIFICATION/MINIMIZATION In the past the main aim was to minimize the number of gate circuits implementing a given combinational circuit in order to decrease the number of electronic components. Nowadays the main motivation for the minimization of logic network is to decrease the logic resources in a PLD of FPGA, to decrease the area in VLSIs, and to increase the operational speed and reliability of the circuits. The smallest number of failures are caused by those components which are NOT included in the network. (Dr. Tóth Mihály, professor emeritus, Székesfehérvár.) 8 4

5 LOGIC DESIGN: MINIMIZATION METHODS Intuition Quickly run out of steam Truth tables Algebra, Quine s method Minterm or maxterm De Morgan Graphical Boolean cubes Karnaugh maps Computer algorithms Quine-McCluskey (tabular) method 9 QUINE S METHOD Quine s method helps to perform the algebraic minimization in a systematic and (hopefully) error-free way. The method consists of factoring out the common factors from pairs of minterms in such a way that in the parentheses only the sum of one variable and its complement remained, which sum is trivially. The process is applied to all possible pairs, then it is repeated with the new sets of terms, etc. The method thus generates all prime implicants, therefore in the second phase the essential prime implicants should be selected to obtain the minimal cover. 5

6 QUINE S METHOD: DEMO F(A,B,C) = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC (minterms: ) Minterms I. II. III ABC _ ABC ABC _ ABC _ (2,3) AB _ (2,6) BC _ (4,6) AC No entries All prime implicants are contained in column II. QUINE S METHOD: DEMO Prime implicant table _ (2,3) AB* X X _ (2,6) BC X X _ (4,6) AC* X X Identification of essential prime implicants to obtain the minimal cover Minimal cover: F(A,B,C) = AB + AC 2 6

7 THE QUINE-MCCLUSKEY METHOD The Quine-McCluskey algorithm provides a systematic approach for finding the prime implicants and selecting a minimal cover. It is functionally equivalent to the Karnaugh mapping, but the tabular form makes it more efficient for use in computer algorithms, and also gives a deterministic way to check that the minimal form of a Boolean function has been reached. It is sometimes referred to as the tabulation method. COMPLEXITY The tabular method is more practical than Karnaugh mapping when dealing with more than four variables, it has also a limited range of use since the runtime of the algorithm grows exponentially with the input size. For a function of n variables the upper bound on the number of prime implicants is 3 n /n (i.e. 2 for n = 4, 48 for n =5, 2 for n = 6, 32 for n = 7, etc.). If n = 32 there may be over 6.5x 5 prime implicants. Functions with a large number of variables have to be optimized with potentially non-optimal heuristic methods. 4 7

8 ADJACENCY OF MINTERMS The minimization is based on finding and grouping the adjacent minterms, then terms, till the further not reducible prime implicants are arrived at. The necessary and sufficient condition of the adjacency of two minterms can be formulated in three statements, which should be fulfilled simultaneously. It is important the these three statements (conditions) can be formulated based only on the lower indexes of the minterms. Note: see Arató s text for details. 5 ADJACENCY CONDITION FOR TWO MINTERMS NO. Two minterms are adjacent, if the difference between their decimal index is a power of two. 6 A B C D + A B C D A C D 2 4 = 2 2 This is a necessary but not sufficient condition. Counterexample: it is fulfilled e.g. for minterms with index 2 (i.e. ) and 4 (i.e. ), however they are not adjacent. 6 8

9 ADJACENCY CONDITION FOR TWO MINTERMS NO. 2 Two minterms are adjacent, if their binary weights (number of s) differ by. _ 6 (2) A B C D + A B C D A C D 2 () 4 () This is also necessary but not sufficient condition, because just this is the condition which is not fulfilled for minterms m2 and m4 figuring in the previous counterexample. 7 ADJACENCY CONDITION FOR TWO MINTERMS NO. 3 Two minterms are adjacent, if, the decimal index of the minterm with larger binary weight is also larger than the decimal index of the other minterm. _ 6 2 A B C D + A B C D A C D and 2 This is also a necessary but in itself not sufficient condition, because e.g. the minterms m7 and m9, for which the first two conditions are fulfilled, fail this 3rd condition. 8 9

10 QUINE-MCCLUSKEY ALGORITHM It can be shown that the simultaneous fulfillment of these three conditions is not only necessary but also sufficient for the establishment of the adjacency of two minterms. The Quine-McCluskey algorithm is based on this. The Quine-McCluskey method involves the following two steps:. Finding all prime implicants of the function. 2. Use those prime implicants in a prime implicant chart to find the essential prime implicants of the function, as well as other prime implicants that are necessary to cover the function. 9 QUINE-MCCLUSKEY DEMO F(A,B,C) = 3 (,2,3,6,7) m HW = () m, m2 m2 (2) m3, m6 m3 2 (3) m7 m6 2 m7 3 Group and arrange minterms in an implicant table according to their Hamming weight. Neighbours can differ only in one place. Minterms in group 2 can have neighbours only from group or 3.

11 IMPLICANT TABLE Size m m2 2 m3 m6 3 m7 Minterms m(i) One-cube m(i,j),3 (2) * 2,3 () 2,6 (4) 3,7 (4) 6,7 () Two-cube m(i,j,k,l) 2,3,6,7 (,4) * Merge terms from adjacent groups with decimal index differing by, 2, 4, 8, etc. Mark terms used. Terms can be used several times. All terms should be accounted for. Terms which cannot be merged further are the prime implicants (*). Prime implicants COVERING TABLE Minterms (2,3,6,7) * X X X X (,3)* X X Construct a prime implicant or covering table as shown. The minterm m2 occurs only in one column, therefore m(2,3,6,7) is an essential prime implicant. This takes care of m3, m6, and m7 too. Continue m(,3) is also necessary because of m. The result is: _ F(A,B,C) = m(2,3,6,7) + m(,3) = B + A C X X X

12 USING Q-M PROCEDURE WITH INCOMPLETELY SPECIFIED FUNCTIONS. Use minterms and don t cares when generating prime implicants 2. Use only minterms when finding a minimal cover THE PEOPLE Willard Van Orman Quine (98-2) Spent his entire career teaching philosophy and mathematics at Harvard University, his alma mater, where he held the Edgar Pierce Chair of Philosophy from 956 to 978. A computer program whose output is its source code is called a quine named after him. Edward McCluskey McCluskey worked on electronic switching systems at the Bell Telephone Laboratories from 955 to : Princeton. Professor of Electrical Engineering and Director of the University Computer Center. 966: joined Stanford University, Currently Emeritus Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 24 2

13 BOOLEAN CUBES An n-input Boolean function can be represented graphically as a cube in an n-dimensional Boolean space. 25 LOGIC MINIMIZATION USING BOOLEAN CUBES 26 3

14 BOOLEAN CUBE EXAMPLE: SOP F= 3 ((,4,5,6) + X(7)) SOP looping 27 BOOLEAN CUBE EXAMPLE: POS F= 3 ((,4,5,6) + X(7)) POS looping 28 4

15 The Karnaugh map: Construction, properties, and applications What everybody should know about the Karnaugh map. 29 THE KARNAUGH MAP (K-MAP) Karnaugh maps (K-maps) - convenient tool for representing switching functions of up to six variables. In fact it is a practical rearrangement of the truth table based on the concept of adjacency. K-maps form the basis of useful heuristics for finding minimal SOP and POS representations. An n-variable K-map has 2 n cells with each cell corresponding to a row of an n-variable truth table. K-map cells are labeled with the corresponding truth-table row. K-map cells are arranged such that adjacent cells correspond to truth rows that differ in only one bit position (logical adjacency). Switching functions are mapped (or plotted) by placing the function s value (,,d) in each cell of the map. 3 5

16 THE KARNAUGH MAP (K-MAP) The Karnaugh map, known also as Veitch diagram is a graphic tool to facilitate management of Boolean expressions. It was invented in 953 by Maurice Karnaugh, an engineer at Bell Labs, and is an improvement on the Veitch diagram (Edward W. Veitch in 952). The Map Method for Synthesis of Combinational Logic Circuits, Trans. AIEE, pt., 72 (9) , November 953 Normally, extensive calculations are required to obtain the minimal form of a Boolean function. Instead the Karnaugh maps make use of the human brain s excellent pattern matching capability to arrive at the simplest expression. In addition, K-maps permit the rapid identification and elimination of potential race hazards, something that Boolean equations alone cannot do. 3 THE PEOPLE Maurice Karnaugh (924- ), American physicist. Yale University, BSc in maths and physics (949), MSc. (95), PhD in physics (952) (The Theory of Magnetic resonance and Lambda-Type Doubling in Nitric-Oxide). Bell Labs ( ), IBM ( ). 32 6

17 THE KARNAUGH MAP (CONT D) Rectangular logic diagrams by Allan Marquand and Lewis Carol (of Alice in Wonderland fame) were the forerunners of a modern form known today as Karnaugh maps. Since 95 Karnaugh maps quickly became one of the mainstays of the digital logic and computer designer s toolchest. Basic references: Edward W. Veitch, A chart method for simplifying truth functions, May 952, Proc. Assoc. for Computing Machinery, Pittsburgh Maurice Karnaugh, The map method for synthesis of combinational logic circuits, Trans. AIEE, pt. I, 72(9), , 33 November 953. KARNAUGH MAP GENERALIZATION OF THE VENN DIAGRAM C A B B B A A D D C C C C A B A B D The opposite sides are toroidally connected! D D 34 7

18 FOUR VARIABLE K-MAP ON TOROID 35 ON VENN DIAGRAMS Venn diagrams are illustrations in the branch of mathematics known as set theory. They show the mathematical or logical relationships between different groups of things (sets). A Venn diagram shows all the possible logical relations between sets. John Venn ( ) was a British philosopher and mathematician who introduced the Venn diagram in 88. A stained glass window in Caius College, Cambridge, where he studied and spent most of his life, commemorates John Venn and represents a Venn diagram. Similar and related diagrams: Euler diagrams, Johnston diagrams, Karnaugh maps, Peirce diagrams, Edward s Venn diagrams. 36 8

19 A A AD EXAMPLES OF COVERING (LOOPING) ON 4-VARIABLE KARNAUGH MAP C B A BD D C D B AB BC BD A D CD C AD C B D B Note: race (static) hazard (top left), symmetric function (down left) A four-variable map has 6 cells. The four-variable map is continuous from the left edge to the right edge and is also continuous from the top edge to the bottom edge. B 37 KARNAUGH MAP: PRIME IMPLICANTS Essential prime implicants Non-essential prime implicants Classification is conditional 38 9

20 IN PLANE (REFLECTION) KARNAUGH MAP FOR 5 VARIABLES Adjacency: 9 3 Reflection symmetry For a 3-dimensional arrangement of the 5-variable K-map and looping on it cf. Zsom Vol., p ADJACENCY FOR 5-VARIABLES (REFLECTION MAP) There are several different formats of a 5-variable K map, the two most popular ones are the reflection map and overlay map. The above version of the five-variable Karnaugh map, is a Gray code map or reflection map. The top of the map is numbered in full Gray code. The Gray code reflects about the middle of the 4 code. 2

21 KARNAUGH MAPS: FIVE VARIABLES Minterm assignment in five-variable reflection Karnaugh map Minterm assignment in five-variable overlay Karnaugh Map 4 KARNAUGH MAP FOR 6 VARIABLES Adjacency: 42 2

22 ADJACENCY FOR 6-VARIABLES 43 KARNAUGH MAP VARIATIONS FOR 6-VARIABLES Three dimensional arrangement of 6 variable K map. (For an example of looping cf. Zsom Vol.. p. 29.) 44 22

23 EXAMPLE: MINIMIZATION ON THE SIX-VARIABLE KARNAUGH MAP Function to be minimized (9 minterms): F(A,B,C,D,E,F) = 6 (,2,6,9,4,8,2,23,25,27,32,34,4,49,53,55,57,6,62) 45 EXAMPLE: LOOPING FOR SIX VARIABLES 46 23

24 EXAMPLE: LOOPING FOR SIX VARIABLES Bmin Boolean minimizer 47 Quine-McCluskey minimization 48 24

25 PRIME IMPLICANT TABLE 49 Further applications of Karnaugh maps: Don t care terms, symmetric functions, analysis of combinational circuits, race hazards, K map softwares 5 25

26 DON T CARE TERMS Don t care terms in the truth table:. The given input combination cannot occur. 2. The given input combination can occur, but the logic network following the output does not consider it. Representative example: BCD-to-seven segment display decoder/driver. Optimal covers utilize don t care terms. Don t care terms exist when planning a combinational circuit, but NEVER when a realized CC is analyzed! 5 FIXING THE VALUE(S) OF THE DON T CARE TERMS C A - - B The yellow coded cell is assigned a value of when the sum of products (SOP) form is evaluated, and a value of when the product of sums (POS) form is evaluated! D 52 26

27 OPTIMIZED SOP AND POS FORMS F S = B + C D + A C D F P = (A+B)(B+C+D)(B+C+D) Accounting for the inverters necessary to produce the negated variables, the pin count for the SOP form is, and for the POS form is SYMMETRIC BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS If the variables of a function can be interchanged with each other (permuted) without changing the value of the function, the its called symmetric function. Examples of symmetric function: XOR, XNOR, sum function of the full adder, S i = A i B i C i-, etc. E.g. for n=3 (A,B,C) if A and B can be interchanged with each other, but neither of them with C, the function is partially symmetric with respect of the pair of variables, A and B. The symmetry therefore can be full or partial

28 EXCLUSIVE OR LOGIC The symmetric functions have special characteristics, like they form a chessboard pattern on the Karnaugh map (at least partially), and they can be simplified by using XOR functions as functional elements. Reduction of a function to XOR form is characterized by a Karnaugh map where the s are diagonally opposite to each other. In the general context of minimization of Boolean functions XOR gates can, for certain problems, provide a more economic implementation than by using other logic gates. Two examples are the -bit full adder, and the binary-to-gray code conversion. 55 UTILIZATION OF SYMMETRY: EXAMPLE XOR, XNOR Look for checkerboard squares Depends whether XOR/XNOR gates available AND-OR (NAND-NAND) implementation: 8 pins 3 gates Implementation using XOR: 4 pins 2 gates Symmetry: partial, with respect to A and B 56 28

29 UTILIZATION OF SYMMETRY: EXAMPLE = C (A B) AND-OR (NAND-NAND) implementation: 8 pins 3 gates Implementation using XOR: 4 pins 2 gates Symmetry: partial, with respect to A and B 57 EXAMPLE: S i (SUM) FUNCTION OF THE BIT FULL ADDER i (4) (2) () A i B i C i- DS i chessboard pattern symmetric function DS i A i C i- B i Sum function S i = A i B i C i

30 EXAMPLE: PARTIALLY SYMMETRIC FUNCTIONS Chessboard pattern (right half of the map) Pin counts: AND/OR implementation (2 level): AND/OR/XOR implementation (3 level): 8 59 THE END 6 3

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