# REGISTER TRANSFER LANGUAGE

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1 REGISTER TRANSFER LANGUAGE The operations executed on the data stored in the registers are called micro operations. Classifications of micro operations Register transfer micro operations Arithmetic micro operations Logic micro operations Shift micro operations This is an elementary operation performed on the information stored in registers. Ex: shift, count, clear and load. The internal hardware organisation of a digital computer is best defined by specifying 1) The set of registers it contains and their function. 2) The sequence of micro operation performed on the binary information stored in the register. 3) The control that initiates the sequence of micro operations. The term register transfer implies the availability of hardware logic circuits that can perform a stated micro operation and transfer the result to the same or the other register Register transfer micro operations: Capital letters are used to designate registers Ex: MAR- memory address register (holds an address for memory unit) PC Program Counter IR Instruction Register Individual flip-flops are used in n-bit registers The symbolic representation of the register transfer is R2 R1 The information is transferred from the register R1 (source) to register R2 (destination). Common ways of representing a register is shown in figure below: FIGURE: DESIGNATION OF REGISTERS

2 Control function: Often actions need to only occur if a certain condition is true. This is similar to an if statement in a programming language. In digital systems, this is often done via a control signal, called a control function If the signal is 1, the action takes place This is represented as: P: R2 R1 Which means if P = 1, then load the contents of register R1 into register R2, i.e., if (P = 1) then (R2 R1) Implementation of controlled transfer The same clock controls the circuits that generate the control function and the destination register Registers are assumed to use positive-edge-triggered flip-flops

3 BUS AND MEMORY TRANSFERS: Since transferring info from one register to another in separate lines becomes complex, a more efficient scheme called common bus system is used. A bus consists of a common set of lines, one for each bit of a register through which the binary info is transferred at a time. Control signals determine which register is selected by the bus during each particular register transfer. One way of constructing the common bus system is using multiplexers The bus consists of 4 registers and four 4 by 1 mux each having data inputs 0 through 3 and selection lines S 1 and S 0 Ex: o/p of register A is connected to input 0 of mux1 because this i/p is labelled A1. When S 1 S 0 =00, the four bits of one register are selected and transfer it to four line common bus. Ex: S 1 S 0 =00, the data i/p s of all mux are selected and applied to bus which causes the bus line to receive content of reg A Generally a bus system multiplexes k registers with n bits to produce an n line common bus using n multiplexers The size of the mux should be k by 1 since it multiplexes k data lines Ex: for a common bus of eight registers of 16 registers should have 16 mux with 8 by 1 size with 3 selection lines The transfer of information from a bus into one of many destination registers can be accomplished by connecting the bus lines to the i/p s of the destination register and activating the load control of the particular destination register selected The content of reg C is placed on bus and the content of bus is loaded to R1 by activating its load control i/p.

6 ARITHMETIC CIRCUIT: The basic component of an arithmetic circuit is the parallel adder. By controlling the data i/ps to the adder, it is possible to obtain different types of arithmetic operations. The 4 bit arithmetic circuit consists of four full adders and four multiplexers choosing different operations. The 4 i/ps of A directly go to the X i/ps of full adder The each of the four B i/ps as well as the complements of B are connected to the 0 and 1 data i/ps of the multiplexers. The other two data i/ps (i.e., 2 and 3) of the mux are connected to logic 0 and 1 respectively. So from the selection lines S1 and S0, the 4 muxs are controlled. The i/p carry Cin goes to the carry i/p of the FA in least significant position. The other carries connected from one stage to the next. The o/p of the binary adder is calculated from D=A + Y + Cin

7 The 8 possible arithmetic operations are as shown below: LOGIC MICRO OPERATIONS: Logic micro operations specify binary operations for strings of bits stored in registers. For example P: R1 R1 XOR R content of R content of R content of R1 after P=1

8 SOME APPLICATIONS: REGISTER TRANSFER LANGUAGE Logic microoperations can be used to change bit values, delete a group of bits, or insert new bit values into a register The selective-set operation sets to 1 the bits in A where there are corresponding 1 s in B 1010 A before 1100 B (logic operand) 1110 A after A A B The selective-complement operation complements bits in A where there are corresponding 1 s in B 1010 A before 1100 B (logic operand) 0110 A after A A B The selective-clear operation clears to 0 the bits in A only where there are corresponding 1 s in B 1010 A before 1100 B (logic operand) 0010 A after A A B

9 The mask operation is similar to the selective-clear operation, except that the bits of A are cleared only where there are corresponding 0 s in B 1010 A before 1100 B (logic operand) 1000 A after A A B The insert operation inserts a new value into a group of bits This is done by first masking the bits to be replaced and then Oring them with the bits to be inserted A before B (mask) A after masking A before B (insert) A after insertion The clear operation compares the bits in A and B and produces an all 0 s result if the two number are equal 1010 A 1010 B 0000 A A B Shift Microoperations Shift microoperations are used for serial transfer of data They are also used in conjunction with arithmetic, logic, and other dataprocessing operations There are three types of shifts: logical, circular, and arithmetic

10 A logical shift is one that transfers 0 through the serial input. The symbols shl and shr are for logical shift-left and shift-right by one position R1 shl R1 The circular shift (rotate) circulates the bits of the register around the two ends without loss of information. The symbols cil and cir are for circular shift left and right 14. The arithmetic shift shifts a signed binary number to the left or right. To the left is multiplying by 2, to the right is dividing by 2. Arithmetic shifts must leave the sign bit unchanged. A sign reversal occurs if the bit in Rn-1 changes in value after the shift. This happens if the multiplication causes an overflow. An overflow flip-flop Vs can be used to detect the overflow Vs = Rn-1 Rn-2 A bi-directional shift unit with parallel load could be used to implement this two clock pulses are necessary with this configuration: one to load the value and another to shift. In a processor unit with many registers it is more efficient to implement the shift operation with a combinational circuit. The content of a register to be shifted is first placed onto a common bus and the output is connected to the combinational shifter, the shifted number is then loaded back into the register. This can be constructed with multiplexers. Arithmetic Logic Shift Unit The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a common operational unit connected to a number of storage registers

11 To perform a micro operation, the contents of specified registers are placed in the inputs of the ALU The ALU performs an operation and the result is then transferred to a destination register The ALU is a combinational circuit so that the entire register transfer operation from the source registers through the ALU and into the destination register can be performed during one clock pulse period.

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