# There are four numeric types: 1. Integers, represented as a 32 bit (or longer) quantity. Digits sequences (possibly) signed are integer literals:

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1 Numeric Types There are four numeric types: 1. Integers, represented as a 32 bit (or longer) quantity. Digits sequences (possibly) signed are integer literals: Long integers, of unlimited precision. An integer literal followed by an l or L is a long integer literal: L 3. Floating point values, represented as a 64 bit floating point number. Literals are of fixed decimal or exponential form: e Complex numbers, represented as a pair of floating point numbers. In complex literals j or J is used to 566

2 denote the imaginary part of the complex value: j -22.1j 10e10J+20.0 There is no character type. A literal like 'a' or "c" denotes a string of length one. There is no boolean type. A zero numeric value (any form), or None (the equivalent of void) or an empty string, list, tuple or dictionary is treated as false; other values are treated as true. Hence "abc" and "def" is treated as true in an if, since both strings are non-empty. 567

3 Arithmetic Operators Op Description ** Exponentiation - Unary plus + Unary minus ~ Bit-wise complement (int or long only) * Multiplication / Division % Remainder - Binary plus + Binary minus << Bit-wise left shift (int or long only) >> Bit-wise right shift (int or long only) & Bit-wise and (int or long only) Bit-wise or (int or long only) ^ Bit-wise Xor (int or long only) < Less than > Greater than 568

4 >= Greater than or equal <= Less than or equal == Equal!= Not equal and Boolean and or Boolean or not Boolean not 569

5 Operator Precedence Levels Listed from lowest to highest: or Boolean OR and Boolean AND not Boolean NOT <, <=, >, >=, <>,!=, == Comparisons Bitwise OR ^ Bitwise XOR & Bitwise AND <<, >> Shifts +, - Addition and subtraction *, /, % Multiplication, division, remainder ** Exponentiation +, - Positive, negative (unary) ~ Bitwise not 570

6 Arithmetic Operator Use Arithmetic operators may be used with any arithmetic type, with conversions automatically applied. Bit-wise operations are restricted to integers and long integers. The result type is determined by the generality of the operands. (Long is more general than int, float is more general than both int and long, complex is the most general numeric type). Thus >>> >>> 1+111L 112L >>> >>> 1+2.0j (1+2j) 571

7 Unlike almost all other programming languages, relational operators may be chained (as in standard mathematics). Therefore a > b > c means (a > b) and (b > c) 572

8 Assignment Statements In Python assignment is a statement not an expression. Thus a+(b=2) is illegal. Chained assignments are allowed: a = b = 3 Since Python is dynamically typed, the type (and value) associated with an identifier can change because of an assignment: >>> a = 0 >>> print a 0 >>> a = a + 0L >>> print a 573

9 0L >>> a = a >>> print a 0.0 >>> a = a + 0.0J >>> print a 0j 574

10 If and While Statements Python contains if and while statements that are fairly similar to those found in C and Java. There are some significant differences though. A line that contains an if, else or while ends in a :. Thus we might write: if a > 0: b = 1 Moreover the indentation of the then part is significant! You don t need { and } in Python because all statements indented at the same level are assumed to be part of the same block. 575

11 In the following Python statements if a>0: b=1 c=2 d=3 the assignments to b and c constitute then part; the assignment to d follows the if statement, and is independent of it. In interactive mode a blank line is needed to allow the interpreter to determine where the if statement ends; this blank line is not needed in batch mode. 576

12 The if Statement The full form of the if statement is if expression: statement(s) elif expression: statement(s)... else: statement(s) Note those pesky : s at the end of the if, elif and else lines. The expressions following the if and optional elif lines are evaluated until one evaluates to true. Then the following statement(s), delimited by indentation, are executed. If no expression evaluates to true, the statements following the else are executed. 577

13 Use of else and elif are optional; a bare if may be used. If any of the lists of statements is to be null, use pass to indicate that nothing is to be done. For example if a>0: b=1 elif a < 0: pass else b=0 This if sets b to 1 if a is > 0; it sets b to 0 if a==0, and does nothing if a <

14 While Loops Python contains a fairly conventional while loop: while expression: body Note the : that ends the header line. Also, indentation delimits the body of the loop; no braces are needed. For example, >>> a=0; b=0 >>> while a < 5:... b = b+a**2... a= a+1... >>> print a,b

15 Break, Continue and Else in Loops Like C, C++ and Java, Python allows use of break within a loop to force loop termination. For example, >>> a=1 >>> while a < 10:... if a+a == a**2:... break... else:... a=a+1... >>> print a 2 580

16 A continue may be used to force the next loop iteration: >>> a=1 >>> while a < 100:... a=a+1... if a%2==0:... continue... a=3*a... >>> print a

17 Python also allows you to add an else clause to a while (or for) loop. The syntax is while expression: body else: statement(s) The else statements are executed when the termination condition becomes false, but not when the loop is terminated with a break. As a result, you can readily program search loops that need to handle the special case of search failure: 582

18 >>> a=1 >>> while a < 1000:... if a**2 == 3*a-1:... print "winner: ",a... break... a=a+1... else:... print "No match"... No match 583

19 Sequence Types Python includes three sequence types: strings, tuples and lists. All sequence types may be indexed, using a very general indexing system. Strings are sequences of characters; tuples and lists may contain any type or combination of types (like Scheme lists). Strings and tuples are immutable (their components may not be changed). Lists are mutable, and be updated, much like arrays. Strings may be delimited by either a single quote (') or a double quote (") or even a triple quote (''' or """). A given string must start and stop with the same delimiter. Triply quoted strings may span multiple lines. There 584

20 is no character type or value; characters are simply strings of length 1. Legal strings include 'abc' "xyz" '''It's OK!''' Lists are delimited by [ and ]. Empty (or null lists) are allowed. Valid list literals include [1,2,3] ["one",1] [['a'],['b'],['c']] [] Tuples are a sequence of values separated by commas. A tuple may be enclosed within parentheses, but this isn t required. A empty tuple is (). A singleton tuple ends with a comma (to distinguish it from a simple scalar value). Thus (1,) or just 1, is a valid tuple of length one. 585

21 Indexing Sequence Types Python provides a very general and powerful indexing mechanism. An index is enclosed in brackets, just like a subscript in C or Java. Indexing starts at 0. Thus we may have >>> 'abcde'[2] 'c' >>> [1,2,3,4,5][1] 2 >>> (1.1,2.2,3.3)[0] 1.1 Using an index that s too big raises an IndexError exception: >>> 'abc'[3] IndexError: string index out of range 586

22 Unlike most languages, you can use negative index values; these simply index from the right: >>> 'abc'[-1] 'c' >>> [5,4,3,2,1][-2] 2 >>> (1,2,3,4)[-4] 1 You may also access a slice of a sequence value by supplying a range of index values. The notation is data[i:j] which selects the values in data that are >=i and < j. Thus >>> 'abcde'[1:2] 'b' >>> 'abcde'[0:3] 'abc' 587

23 >>> 'abcde'[2:2] '' You may omit a lower or upper bound on a range. A missing lower bound defaults to 0 and a missing upper bound defaults to the maximum legal index. For example, >>> [1,2,3,4,5][2:] [3, 4, 5] >>> [1,2,3,4,5][:3] [1, 2, 3] An upper bound that s too large in a range is interpreted as the maximum legal index: >>> 'abcdef'[3:100] 'def' You may use negative values in ranges too they re interpreted as being relative to the right end of the sequence: 588

24 >>> 'abcde'[0:-2] 'abc' >>> 'abcdefg'[-5:-2] 'cde' >>> 'abcde'[-3:] 'cde' >>> 'abcde'[:-1] 'abcd' Since arrays may be assigned to, you may assign a slice to change several values at once: >>> a=[1,2,3,4] >>> a[0:2]=[-1,-2] >>> a [-1, -2, 3, 4] >>> a[2:]=[33,44] >>> a [-1, -2, 33, 44] 589

25 The length of the value assigned to a slice need not be the same size as the slice itself, so you can shrink or expand a list by assigning slices: >>> a=[1,2,3,4,5] >>> a[2:3]=[3.1,3.2] >>> a [1, 2, 3.1, 3.2, 4, 5] >>> a[4:]=[] >>> a [1, 2, 3.1, 3.2] >>> a[:0]=[-3,-2,-1] >>> a [-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3.1, 3.2] 590

26 Other Operations on Sequences Besides indexing and slicing, a number of other useful operations are provided for sequence types (strings, lists and tuples). These include: + (catenation): >>> [1,2,3]+[4,5,6] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] >>> (1,2,3)+(4,5) (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) >>> (1,2,3)+[4,5] TypeError: illegal argument type for built-in operation >>> "abc"+"def" 'abcdef' 591

27 * (Repetition): >>> 'abc'*2 'abcabc' >>> [3,4,5]*3 [3, 4, 5, 3, 4, 5, 3, 4, 5] Membership (in, not in) >>> 3 in [1,2,3,4] 1 >>> 'c' in 'abcde' 1 max and min: >>> max([3,8,-9,22,4]) 22 >>> min('aa','bb','abc') 'aa' 592

28 Operations on Lists As well as the operations available for all sequence types (including lists), there are many other useful operations available for lists. These include: count (Count occurrences of an item in a list): >>> [1,2,3,3,21].count(3) 2 index (Find first occurrence of an item in a list): >>> [1,2,3,3,21].index(3) 2 >>> [1,2,3,3,21].index(17) ValueError: list.index(x): x not in list 593

29 remove (Find and remove an item from a list): >>> a=[1,2,3,4,5] >>> a.remove(4) >>> a [1, 2, 3, 5] >>> a.remove(17) ValueError: list.remove(x): x not in list pop (Fetch and remove i-th element of a list): >>> a=[1,2,3,4,5] >>> a.pop(3) 4 >>> a [1, 2, 3, 5] >>> a.pop() 5 >>> a [1, 2, 3] 594

30 reverse a list: >>> a=[1,2,3,4,5] >>> a.reverse() >>> a [5, 4, 3, 2, 1] sort a list: >>> a=[5,1,4,2,3] >>> a.sort() >>> a [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] Create a range of values: >>> range(1,5) [1, 2, 3, 4] >>> range(1,10,2) [1, 3, 5, 7, 9] 595

31 Dictionaries Python also provides a dictionary type (sometimes called an associative array). In a dictionary you can use a number (including a float or complex), string or tuple as an index. In fact any immutable type can be an index (this excludes lists and dictionaries). An empty dictionary is denoted { }. A non-empty dictionary may be written as { key 1 :value 1, key 2 :value 2,... } For example, c={ 'bmw':545, 'lexus':'sc 430', 'mercedes':'e 500'} 596

32 You can use a dictionary much like an array, indexing it using keys, and updating it by assigning a new value to a key: >>> c['bmw'] 545 >>> c['bmw']='m5' >>> c['honda']='accord' You can delete a value using del: >>> del c['honda'] >>> c['honda'] KeyError: honda 597

33 You can also check to see if a given key is valid, and also list all keys, values, or key-value pairs in use: >>> c.has_key('edsel') 0 >>> c.keys() ['bmw', 'mercedes', 'lexus'] >>> c.values() ['m5', 'e 500', 'sc 430'] >>> c.items() [('bmw', 'm5'), ('mercedes', 'e 500'), ('lexus', 'sc 430')] 598

34 For Loops In Python s for loops, you don t explicitly control the steps of an iteration. Instead, you provide a sequence type (a string, list or sequence), and Python automatically steps through the values. Like a while loop, you must end the for loop header with a : and the body is delimited using indentation. For example, >>> for c in 'abc':... print c... a b c 599

35 The range function, which creates a list of values in a fixed range is useful in for loops: >>> a=[5,2,1,4] >>> for i in range(0,len(a)):... a[i]=2*a[i]... >>> print a [10, 4, 2, 8] 600

36 You can use an else with for loops too. Once the values in the specified sequence are exhausted, the else is executed unless the for is exited using a break. For example, for i in a: if i < 0: print 'Neg val:',i break else: print 'No neg vals' 601

37 Function Definitions Function definitions are of the form def name(args): body The symbol def tells Python that a function is to be defined. The function is called name and args is a tuple defining the names of the function s arguments. The body of the function is delimited using indentation. For example, def fact(n): if n<=1: return 1 else: return n*fact(n-1) >>> fact(5) 120 >>> fact(20l) 602

38 L >>> fact(2.5) 3.75 >>> fact(2+1j) (1+3j) Scalar parameters are passed by value; mutable objects are allocated in the heap and hence are passed (in effect) by reference: >>> def asg(ar):... a[1]=0... print ar... >>> a=[1,2,3,4.5] >>> asg(a) [1, 0, 3, 4.5] 603

39 Arguments may be given a default value, making them optional in a call. Optional parameters must follow required parameters in definitions. For example, >>> def expo(val,exp=2):... return val**exp... >>> expo(3,3) 27 >>> expo(3) 9 >>> expo() TypeError: not enough arguments; expected 1, got 0 604

40 A variable number of arguments is allowed; you prefix the last formal parameter with a *; this parameter is bound to a tuple containing all the actual parameters provided by the caller: >>> def sum(*args):... sum=0... for i in args:... sum=sum+i... return sum... >>> sum(1,2,3) 6 >>> sum(2) 2 >>> sum() 0 605

41 You may also use the name of formal parameters in a call, making the order of parameters less important: >>> def cat(left="[",body="", right="]"):... return left+body+right... >>> cat(body='xyz'); '[xyz]' >>> cat(body='hi there!',left='--[') '--[hi there!]' 606

42 Scoping Rules in Functions Each function body has its own local namespace during execution. An identifier is resolved (if possible) in the local namespace, then (if necessary) in the global namespace. Thus >>> def f():... a=11... return a+b... >>> b=2;f() 13 >>> a=22;f() 13 >>> b=33;f()

43 Assignments are to local variables, even if a global exists. To force an assignment to refer to a global identifier, you use the declaration global id which tells Python that in this function id should be considered global rather than local. For example, >>> a=1;b=2 >>> def f():... global a... a=111;b= >>> f();print a,b

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