ECE 122 Engineering Problem Solving with Java

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1 ECE 122 Engineering Problem Solving with Java Lecture 3 Expression Evaluation and Program Interaction

2 Outline Problem: How do I input data and use it in complicated expressions Creating complicated expressions using basic Java types (int, float, char, etc) Representing data Obtaining various forms of data from the keyboard

3 Characters A char variable stores a single character A character set is an ordered list of characters, and each character corresponds to a unique number Character literals are delimited by single quotes: 'a' 'X' '7' '\$' ',' '\n' 7 is not equivalent to 7 is not equivalent to 7

4 Characters The ASCII character set is still quite popular Eight-bits per byte. (char is a primitive data type ; String is a class) Because String is a class, it has many methods (operations) that can be performed on String objects!) The ASCII characters include

5 Boolean A boolean value represents a true or false condition A boolean also can be used to represent any two states, such as a light bulb being on or off The reserved words true and false are the only valid values for a boolean type boolean done = false;

6 Arithmetic Expressions An expression is a combination of one or more operands and their operators Arithmetic expressions compute numeric results and make use of the arithmetic operators:

7 Division and Remainder If both operands to the division operator (/) are integers, the result is an integer (the fractional part is discarded) 14 / 3 8 / If both or either parts are floating point, results are floating point. 14/3.0 = 14.0/3 = 14.0/3.0 = 3.5 The remainder operator (%) returns the remainder after dividing the second operand into the first and takes the sign of the numerator; only integers also -14 % 3 8 % % 4.0 equals invalid operands 8

8 Operator Precedence Operators can be combined into complex expressions (variables or literals doesn t matter) result = total + count / max - offset; Operators have a well-defined precedence which determines the order in which they are evaluated Multiplication, division, and remainder are evaluated prior to addition, subtraction, and string concatenation Arithmetic operators with the same precedence are evaluated from left to right ( associate left to right ) Parentheses can be used to force the evaluation order Can be nested too..

9 Operator Precedence What is the order of evaluation in the following expressions? a + b + c + d + e a + b * c - d / e a / (b + c) - d % e a / (b * (c + (d - e)))

10 Expression Trees The evaluation of a particular expression can be shown using an expression tree The operators lower in the tree have higher precedence for that expression + a + (b c) / d a / - d b c

11 Assignment Revisited The assignment operator has a lower precedence than the arithmetic operators Always the last step answer = sum / 4 + MAX * lowest; What s this?

12 Assignment Revisited The right and left hand sides of an assignment statement can contain the same variable count = count + 1;

13 Increment and Decrement The increment and decrement operators use only one operand The increment operator (++) adds one to its operand The decrement operator (--) subtracts one from its operand The statement count++; is functionally equivalent to count = count + 1;

14 Increment and Decrement The increment and decrement operators can be applied in postfix form: or prefix form: count++ ++count When used as part of a larger expression, the two forms can have different effects Because of their subtleties, the increment and decrement operators should be used with care

15 Assignment Operators Often we perform an operation on a variable, and then store the result back into that variable Java provides assignment operators to simplify that process For example, the statement is equivalent to num += count; num = num + count;

16 Assignment Operators The right hand side of an assignment operator can be a complex expression The entire right-hand expression is evaluated first, then the result is combined with the original variable Therefore result /= (total-min) % num; is equivalent to result = result / ((total-min) % num);

17 Numeric Primitive Data Sizes and Ranges of storable values below. Use size as appropriate but if in doubt, be generous. byte short int long float double

18 Data Conversions Sometimes it is convenient to convert data types For example, we may want to treat an integer as a floating point value during a computation Be careful with conversions. Can lose information! (Why is one byte not enough to store 1000?) Widening conversions; safest; tend to go from a small data type to a larger one such as a short to an int) more space (magnitude) normally; can lose precision int or long to float; long to double Narrowing conversions can lose information; Tend to go from a large data type to a smaller one (such as an int to a short) (Can lose magnitude & precision!)

19 Data Conversion Conversions must be handled carefully to avoid losing information Widening conversions are safest because they tend to go from a small data type to a larger one (such as a short to an int) Narrowing conversions can lose information because they tend to go from a large data type to a smaller one (such as an int to a short) In Java, data conversions can occur in three ways: assignment conversion promotion casting

20 Assignment Conversion Assignment conversion occurs when a value of one type is assigned to a variable of another If money is a float variable and dollars is an int variable, the following assignment converts the value in dollars to a float money = dollars Only widening conversions can happen via assignment Note that the value or type of dollars did not change

21 Casting Casting is the most powerful, and dangerous, technique for conversion Both widening and narrowing conversions can be accomplished by explicitly casting a value To cast, the type is put in parentheses in front of the value being converted For example, if total and count are integers, but we want a floating point result when dividing them, we can cast total: result = (float) total / count;

22 Data Conversion Data conversion (promotion) happens automatically when operators in expressions convert their operands For example, if sum is a float and count is an int, the value of count is converted to a floating point value to perform the following calculation: result = sum / count;

23 Expression Examples Type conversion Examples: int x = 150; float y, z; y = x / 60; z = (float) x / 60; Results for y and z are different - y = 2; - z = 2.5; Could you do these on a test?

24 Expression Examples int a = 1; int b = 2; int c = 3; int d = 4; int e = a+b*c-d=? int f = (a+b)*(c-d)=?

25 Interactive Programs Programs generally need input on which to operate The Scanner class provides convenient methods for reading input values of various types A Scanner object can be set up to read input from various sources, including the user typing values on the keyboard Keyboard input is represented by the System.in object

26 Reading Input The following line creates a Scanner object that reads from the keyboard: Scanner scan = new Scanner (System.in); The new operator creates the Scanner object Once created, the Scanner object can be used to invoke various input methods, such as: answer = scan.nextline();

27 Reading Input The Scanner class is part of the java.util class library, and must be imported into a program to be used See Echo.java The nextline method reads all of the input until the end of the line is found The details of object creation and class libraries are discussed further in Chapter 3

28 Input Tokens Unless specified otherwise, white space is used to separate the elements (called tokens) of the input White space includes space characters, tabs, new line characters The next method of the Scanner class reads the next input token and returns it as a string Methods such as nextint and nextdouble read data of particular types See GasMileage.java

29 Summary Understanding the order of expressions is an important issues Note that assignment (=) always happens last Java provides the approaches to convert data Assignments Promotion Casting Program interaction is an important part of program usability

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