# UEE1302 (1102) F10: Introduction to Computers and Programming

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1 Computational Intelligence on Automation NCTU Learning Objectives UEE1302 (1102) F10: Introduction to Computers and Programming Programming Lecture 00 Programming by Example Introduction to C++ Origins, Object-Oriented Programming, Terms Variables, Expressions and Assignment Statements Console Input & Output Style of C++ Programs Libraries and Namespaces PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 2 Introduction to C++ C++ origins Low-level languages Ex: Machine, assembly High-level languages Ex: C, C++, ADA, COBOL, FORTRAN Object-Oriented Programming in C++ C++ Terminology Programs and functions Basic Input & Output (I/O) with cin and cout Algorithms vs. Procedures Before writing a program, a programmer must clearly understand What data is to be used Desired result Procedure needed to produce this result The procedure is referred to as an algorithm Algorithm: Step-by-step sequence of instructions describing how to perform a computation PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 3 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 4

2 Example of Algorithms (1/2) Assume that a program must calculate sum of all whole numbers from 1 through 100 A computer can not respond to heuristic command: Add the numbers from A computer is algorithm-responding machine and not intuition-responding machine Several methods or algorithms can be used to find the required sum Example of Algorithms (2/2) sum = n(a + b)/2 where n = number of terms to be added (100) a = first number added (1) b = last number to be added (100) sum = 100( )/2 = 5050 Question: any other algorithm? PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 5 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 6 Flowchart Symbols (1/2) Flowchart Symbols (2/2) SYMBOL NAME DESCRIPTION SYMBOL NAME DESCRIPTION Terminal Indicates the beginning or end of an algorithm Decision Indicates a decision point in the algorithm Input/Output Indicates an input or output operation Loop Indicates the initial, final and increment values of a loop Process Indicates computation or data manipulation Predefined process Indicates a predefined process, as in calling a sorting process Flow lines Used to connect the flowchart symbols and indicate the logic flow PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 7 Connector Indicates an entry to, or exit from another part of the flowchart PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 8

3 Example of Flowchart Classes and Objects Question: How do you design a flowchart to calculate the average of three numbers? Exercise: Design a flowchart to sort five numbers and output the biggest one? Start Input three values Calculate the average Display the average End Data Object: Set of values packaged as single unit Class: Set of objects with similar attributes General concept of object-oriented programming is difference between an object and the larger set of which it is a member (class) A red, Ford Taurus sedan is an instance, or object, of general class of automobiles PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 9 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 10 Program Translation (1/2) Program Translation (2/2) C++ source program: Set of instructions written in C++ language Machine language: Internal computer language Consists of a series of 1s and 0s Source program cannot be executed until it is translated into machine language C++ language source program Translation program Machine language program Interpreted language translates one statement at a time Compiled language translates all statements together PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 11 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 12

4 Function vs. Class Names (1/3) Modular programs: Segments arranged in logical order to form an integrated unit Module: Segments of modular program Function: Name of a C++ procedure Composed of sequence of C++ instructions Function interface is its inputs and outputs Method of converting input to results is encapsulated and hidden within function Function vs. Class Names (2/3) Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5 Module 6 FIGURE 1.7 A Well-Designed Program is Built Using Modules PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 13 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 14 Function vs. Class Names (3/3) Function/Class Naming Conventions First number Second number A X B Result FIGURE 1.8 A Multiplying Function Identifiers: Names that convey an idea of the purpose of function or class Identifier composition rules: First character must be a letter or underscore Only letter, digit or underscore may follow Blank spaces allowed Identify component words with initial capitalization Cannot be C++ keyword Should be a mnemonic PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN(CHARLES) WEN 15 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 16

5 C++ Keywords C++ Identifiers (1/2) auto default goto public this break do if register template case double inline return typedef catch else int short union char enum long signed unsigned class extern new sizeof virtual const float overload static void continue for private struct volatile delete friend protected switch while Examples of valid identifiers: grosspay taxcalc addnums degtorad multbytwo salestax netpay bessel PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 17 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 18 C++ Identifiers (2/2) Examples of invalid identifiers: 4ab3 (begins with a number) e*6 (contains a special character) while (is a keyword) The main Function (1/3) Each C+ program must have one and only one function named main Called a driver function because it drives the other modules PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 19 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 20

6 The main Function (2/3) The main Function (3/3) main You go first I m done You go first I m done You go first I m done You go first I m done 1st module 2nd module 3rd module last module First line of function is called header line What type of data, if any, is returned from function The name of function What type of data, if any, is sent into function Data transmitted into function at run time are referred to as arguments of function PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 21 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 22 main Function Composition Program 1.0 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main( ) Function Body Type of returned value Function name An empty argument list The cout Object The cout object sends data to the standard output display device The display device is usually a video screen Name derived from Console OUTput and pronounced see out Data is passed to cout by the insertion symbol cout << Hello there, world! ; PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 23 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 24

7 C++ Sample Code using cout Newline Escape Sequence Program 1.1 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main( ) cout << Hello, world! ; Task: passing a message to cout return 0; What will be displayed on screen? Hello, world! PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 25 Instructs the display device to move to a new line A newline caused when the characters backslash \ and n are used together Backslash provides an escape from the normal interpretation of the character that follows Newline escape sequences can be placed anywhere within a message to cout PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 26 Preprocessor Command Performs an action before the compiler translates source code to machine code An example is: #include <iostream> Causes the iostream file to be inserted wherever the #include command appears iostream is part of the C++ standard library include two important classes: istream: declarations and methods for data input ostream: declarations and methods for data output Namespaces Files accessed by compiler when looking for prewritten classes or functions Sample namespace statement: using namespace std; iostream contained in a namespace called std Compiler uses iostream s cout object from std whenever cout is referenced PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 27 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 28

8 Program 1.2 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main( ) cout << Computer, computers everywhere ; cout << \n as far as I can see ; return 0; More C++ Sample Code (1/2) More C++ Sample Code (2/2) Program 1.3 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main( ) cout << Computers everywhere\n as far as\n\ni can see ; return 0; What will be displayed on screen? Computer, computers everywhere as far as I can see PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 29 What will be displayed on screen? Computer everywhere as far as I can see PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 30 Syntax The set of rules for formulating grammatically correct C++ language statements Compiler accepts statements with correct syntax without generating error message A program statement can syntactically correct and logically incorrect Compiler will accept statement Program will produce incorrect results Style of C++ Programs Every C++ program must contain one and only one main() function Statements included within braces C++ allows flexibility in format for the word main, the parentheses (), and braces More than one statement can be put on line One statement can be written across lines Use formatting for clarity and ease of program reading PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 31 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 32

9 Standard C++ Program Form (1/2) Function name starts in column 1 Name and parentheses on their own line Opening brace of function body on next line Aligned with first letter of function name Closing brace is last line of function Aligned with opening brace Standard form highlights the function as a unit Standard C++ Program Form (2/2) Within function, indent statements 4 spaces (=1 tab) Creates uniform look for similar statement groups Good programming practice Final program form should be consistent Proper format improves program readability and understandability PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 33 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 34 Bad Program Format Good Program Format int main ( ) first statement; second statement; third statement; fourth statement; return 0; int main () program statements in here; return 0; PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 35 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 36

10 Comments Explanatory remarks written within program Clarify purpose of the program Describe objective of a group of statements Explain function of a single line of code Computer ignores all comments Comments exist only for convenience of reader A well-constructed program should be readable and understandable Comments help explain unclear components Comment Structure Line comment: Begins with 2 slashes(//) and continues to the end of the line Can be written on line by itself or at the end of line that contains program code // this is a line comment Block comment: Multiple line comment begins with the symbols /* and ends with the symbols */ /* This is a block comment that span across two lines */ PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 37 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 38 Common Programming Errors (1/2) Omitting parentheses after main Omitting or incorrectly typing the opening brace Opening brace signifies start of function body Omitting or incorrectly typing the closing brace Closing brace signifies end of function Misspelling the name of an object or function Example: Typing cot instead of cout Common Programming Errors (2/2) Forgetting to close a string sent to cout with a double-quote symbol Omitting the semicolon at the end of each statement Forgetting \n to indicate a new line PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 39 PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN(CHARLES) WEN 40

11 Summary (1/2) Summary (2/2) A C++ program consists of one or more modules One module must be the function main() main() is starting point of C++ program The simplest C++ program has the form: #include <iostream> using namespaces std; int main( ) program statements; return 0; PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 41 C++ statements are terminated by a semicolon C/C++ standard library contains many functions and classes Standard Library provided with C++ compiler Include <iostream> for input and output cout object displays text or numeric results Stream of characters is sent to cout by: Enclosing characters in double quotes Using the insertion ( put to ) operator, << PRO_00 PROF. HUNG-PIN (CHARLES) WEN 42

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